LN(1) - man page online | user commands

Make links between files.

February 2017
LN(1)                                     User Commands                                     LN(1)


ln - make links between files


ln [OPTION]... [-T] TARGET LINK_NAME (1st form) ln [OPTION]... TARGET (2nd form) ln [OPTION]... TARGET... DIRECTORY (3rd form) ln [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY TARGET... (4th form)


In the 1st form, create a link to TARGET with the name LINK_NAME. In the 2nd form, create a link to TARGET in the current directory. In the 3rd and 4th forms, create links to each TARGET in DIRECTORY. Create hard links by default, symbolic links with --symbolic. By default, each destination (name of new link) should not already exist. When creating hard links, each TARGET must exist. Symbolic links can hold arbitrary text; if later resolved, a relative link is interpreted in relation to its parent directory. Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too. --backup[=CONTROL] make a backup of each existing destination file -b like --backup but does not accept an argument -d, -F, --directory allow the superuser to attempt to hard link directories (note: will probably fail due to system restrictions, even for the superuser) -f, --force remove existing destination files -i, --interactive prompt whether to remove destinations -L, --logical dereference TARGETs that are symbolic links -n, --no-dereference treat LINK_NAME as a normal file if it is a symbolic link to a directory -P, --physical make hard links directly to symbolic links -r, --relative create symbolic links relative to link location -s, --symbolic make symbolic links instead of hard links -S, --suffix=SUFFIX override the usual backup suffix -t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY specify the DIRECTORY in which to create the links -T, --no-target-directory treat LINK_NAME as a normal file always -v, --verbose print name of each linked file --help display this help and exit --version output version information and exit The backup suffix is '~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values: none, off never make backups (even if --backup is given) numbered, t make numbered backups existing, nil numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise simple, never always make simple backups Using -s ignores -L and -P. Otherwise, the last option specified controls behavior when a TARGET is a symbolic link, defaulting to -P.


Written by Mike Parker and David MacKenzie.


GNU coreutils online help: <> Report ln translation bugs to <>
Copyright © 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <>. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


link(2), symlink(2) Full documentation at: <> or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ln invocation'
GNU coreutils 8.25 February 2017 LN(1)
This manual Reference Other manuals
ln(1) referred by aufs(5) | chase(1) | compress(1) | constants(3tcl) | dh_link(1) | dh_linktree(1) | gzip(1) | hier(7) | link(2) | lndir(1) | mk-configure(7) | mmv(1) | refile(1mh) | shtool(1) | shtool-mkln(1) | shtool-mkshadow(1) | sln(8) | symlink(2) | symlink(2freebsd) | symlink(7)
refer to link(2) | symlink(2)