VN(4FREEBSD) - Linux man page online | Special files

Memory disk.

October 30, 2007
MD(4) BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual MD(4)


md — memory disk


device md


The md driver provides support for four kinds of memory backed virtual disks: malloc Backing store is allocated using malloc(9). Only one malloc-bucket is used, which means that all md devices with malloc backing must share the malloc-per-bucket- quota. The exact size of this quota varies, in particular with the amount of RAM in the system. The exact value can be determined with vmstat(8). preload A file loaded by loader(8) with type ‘md_image’ is used for backing store. For backwards compatibility the type ‘mfs_root’ is also recognized. If the kernel is created with option MD_ROOT the first preloaded image found will become the root file system. vnode A regular file is used as backing store. This allows for mounting ISO images with‐ out the tedious detour over actual physical media. swap Backing store is allocated from buffer memory. Pages get pushed out to the swap when the system is under memory pressure, otherwise they stay in the operating mem‐ ory. Using swap backing is generally preferable over malloc backing. For more information, please see mdconfig(8).


To create a kernel with a ramdisk or MD file system, your kernel config needs the following options: options MD_ROOT # MD is a potential root device options MD_ROOT_SIZE=8192 # 8MB ram disk makeoptions MFS_IMAGE=/h/foo/ARM-MD options ROOTDEVNAME=\"ufs:md0\" The image in /h/foo/ARM-MD will be loaded as the initial image each boot. To create the image to use, please follow the steps to create a file-backed disk found in the mdconfig(8) man page. Other tools will also create these images, such as NanoBSD.


gpart(8), loader(8), mdconfig(8), mdmfs(8), newfs(8), vmstat(8)


The md driver first appeared in FreeBSD 4.0 as a cleaner replacement for the MFS functional‐ ity previously used in PicoBSD and in the FreeBSD installation process. The md driver did a hostile takeover of the vn(4) driver in FreeBSD 5.0.


The md driver was written by Poul-Henning Kamp <>.
BSD October 30, 2007 BSD
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