SIMPLE SOLUTIONS

GM(1) - man page online | user commands

Chapter
2015/10/24
gm(1)                                General Commands Manual                                gm(1)

       NAME

              gm - command-line utility to create, edit, compare, convert, or display images

SYNOPSIS

gm animate [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ] gm batch [ options ... ] [ script ] gm benchmark [ options ... ] subcommand gm compare [ options ... ] reference-image [ options ... ] compare-image [ options ... ] gm composite [ options ... ] change-image base-image [ mask-image ] output-image gm conjure [ options ] script.msl [ [ options ] script.msl ] gm convert [ [ options ... ] [ input-file ... ] [ options ... ] ] output-file gm display [ options ... ] file ... [ [options ... ]file ... ] gm identify file [ file ... ] gm import [ options ... ] file gm mogrify [ options ... ] file ... gm montage [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ] output-file gm time subcommand gm version

DESCRIPTION

GraphicsMagick's gm provides a suite of utilities for creating, comparing, converting, editing, and displaying images. All of the utilities are provided as sub-commands of a single gm executable: animate displays an animation (e.g. a GIF file) on any workstation display running an X server. batch executes an arbitary number of the utility commands (e.g. convert) in the form of a simple linear batch script in order to improve execution efficiency, and/or to allow use as a subordinate co-process under the control of an arbitrary script or program. benchmark executes one of the other utility commands (e.g. convert) for a specified number of iterations, or execution time, and reports execution time and other profiling informa‐ tion such as CPU utilization. Benchmark provides various operating modes including execut‐ ing the command with a varying number of threads, and alternate reporting formats such as comma-separated value (CSV). compare compares two images and reports difference statistics according to specified met‐ rics and/or outputs an image with a visual representation of the differences. It may also be used to test if images are similar within a particular range and specified metric, returning a truth value to the executing environment. composite composites images (blends or merges images together) to create new images. conjure interprets and executes scripts in the Magick Scripting Language (MSL). convert converts an input file using one image format to an output file with the same or differing image format while applying an arbitrary number of image transformations. display is a machine architecture independent image processing and display facility. It can display an image on any workstation display running an X server. identify describes the format and characteristics of one or more image files. It will also report if an image is incomplete or corrupt. import reads an image from any visible window on an X server and outputs it as an image file. You can capture a single window, the entire screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen. mogrify transforms an image or a sequence of images. These transforms include image scal‐ ing, image rotation, color reduction, and others. The transmogrified image overwrites the original image. montage creates a composite by combining several separate images. The images are tiled on the composite image with the name of the image optionally appearing just below the indi‐ vidual tile. time executes a subcommand and reports the user, system, and total execution time con‐ sumed. version reports the GraphicsMagick release version, maximum sample-depth, copyright notice, supported features, and the options used while building the software. The GraphicsMagick utilities recognize the following image formats: Name Mode Description o 3FR r-- Hasselblad Photo RAW o 8BIM rw- Photoshop resource format o 8BIMTEXT rw- Photoshop resource text format o 8BIMWTEXT rw- Photoshop resource wide text format o APP1 rw- Raw application information o APP1JPEG rw- Raw JPEG binary data o ART r-- PF1: 1st Publisher o ARW r-- Sony Alpha DSLR RAW o AVS rw+ AVS X image o BIE rw- Joint Bi-level Image experts Group interchange format o BMP rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image o BMP2 -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v2 o BMP3 -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v3 o CACHE --- Magick Persistent Cache image format o CALS rw- Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support Type 1 image o CAPTION r-- Caption (requires separate size info) o CIN rw- Kodak Cineon Format o CMYK rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black samples (8 or 16 bits, depending on the image depth) o CMYKA rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and matte samples (8 or 16 bits, depending on the image depth) o CR2 r-- Canon Photo RAW o CRW r-- Canon Photo RAW o CUR r-- Microsoft Cursor Icon o CUT r-- DR Halo o DCM r-- Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine image o DCR r-- Kodak Photo RAW o DCX rw+ ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush o DNG r-- Adobe Digital Negative o DPS r-- Display PostScript Interpreter o DPX rw- Digital Moving Picture Exchange o EPDF rw- Encapsulated Portable Document Format o EPI rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript Interchange format o EPS rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript o EPS2 -w- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript o EPS3 -w- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript o EPSF rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript o EPSI rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript Interchange format o EPT rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with MS-DOS TIFF preview o EPT2 rw- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript with MS-DOS TIFF preview o EPT3 rw- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript with MS-DOS TIFF preview o EXIF rw- Exif digital camera binary data o FAX rw+ Group 3 FAX (Not TIFF Group3 FAX!) o FITS rw- Flexible Image Transport System o FRACTAL r-- Plasma fractal image o FPX rw- FlashPix Format o GIF rw+ CompuServe graphics interchange format o GIF87 rw- CompuServe graphics interchange format (version 87a) o GRADIENT r-- Gradual passing from one shade to another o GRAY rw+ Raw gray samples (8/16/32 bits, depending on the image depth) o HISTOGRAM -w- Histogram of the image o HRZ r-- HRZ: Slow scan TV o HTML -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a client-side image map o ICB rw+ Truevision Targa image o ICC rw- ICC Color Profile o ICM rw- ICC Color Profile o ICO r-- Microsoft icon o ICON r-- Microsoft icon o IDENTITY r-- Hald CLUT identity image o IMAGE r-- GraphicsMagick Embedded Image o INFO -w+ Image descriptive information and statistics o IPTC rw- IPTC Newsphoto o IPTCTEXT rw- IPTC Newsphoto text format o IPTCWTEXT rw- IPTC Newsphoto wide text format o JBG rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group interchange format o JBIG rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group interchange format o JNG rw- JPEG Network Graphics o JP2 rw- JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format Syntax o JPC rw- JPEG-2000 Code Stream Syntax o JPEG rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group JFIF format o JPG rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group JFIF format o K25 r-- Kodak Photo RAW o KDC r-- Kodak Photo RAW o LABEL r-- Text image format o M2V rw+ MPEG-2 Video Stream o MAP rw- Colormap intensities and indices o MAT r-- MATLAB image format o MATTE -w+ MATTE format o MIFF rw+ Magick Image File Format o MNG rw+ Multiple-image Network Graphics o MONO rw- Bi-level bitmap in least-significant- -byte-first order o MPC rw+ Magick Persistent Cache image format o MPEG rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream o MPG rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream o MRW r-- Minolta Photo Raw o MSL r-- Magick Scripting Language o MTV rw+ MTV Raytracing image format o MVG rw- Magick Vector Graphics o NEF r-- Nikon Electronic Format o NULL r-- Constant image of uniform color o OTB rw- On-the-air bitmap o P7 rw+ Xv thumbnail format o PAL rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV o PALM rw- Palm Pixmap o PBM rw+ Portable bitmap format (black and white) o PCD rw- Photo CD o PCDS rw- Photo CD o PCL -w- Page Control Language o PCT rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT o PCX rw- ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush o PDB rw+ Palm Database ImageViewer Format o PDF rw+ Portable Document Format o PEF r-- Pentax Electronic File o PFA r-- TrueType font o PFB r-- TrueType font o PGM rw+ Portable graymap format (gray scale) o PGX r-- JPEG-2000 VM Format o PICON rw- Personal Icon o PICT rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT o PIX r-- Alias/Wavefront RLE image format o PLASMA r-- Plasma fractal image o PNG rw- Portable Network Graphics o PNG24 rw- Portable Network Graphics, 24 bit RGB opaque only o PNG32 rw- Portable Network Graphics, 32 bit RGBA semitransparency OK o PNG8 rw- Portable Network Graphics, 8-bit indexed, binary transparency only o PNM rw+ Portable anymap o PPM rw+ Portable pixmap format (color) o PREVIEW -w- Show a preview an image enhancement, effect, or f/x o PS rw+ Adobe PostScript o PS2 -w+ Adobe Level II PostScript o PS3 -w+ Adobe Level III PostScript o PSD rw- Adobe Photoshop bitmap o PTIF rw- Pyramid encoded TIFF o PWP r-- Seattle Film Works o RAF r-- Fuji Photo RAW o RAS rw+ SUN Rasterfile o RGB rw+ Raw red, green, and blue samples o RGBA rw+ Raw red, green, blue, and matte samples o RLA r-- Alias/Wavefront image o RLE r-- Utah Run length encoded image o SCT r-- Scitex HandShake o SFW r-- Seattle Film Works o SGI rw+ Irix RGB image o SHTML -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a client-side image map o STEGANO r-- Steganographic image o SUN rw+ SUN Rasterfile o SVG rw+ Scalable Vector Gaphics o TEXT rw+ Raw text o TGA rw+ Truevision Targa image o TIFF rw+ Tagged Image File Format o TILE r-- Tile image with a texture o TIM r-- PSX TIM o TOPOL r-- TOPOL X Image o TTF r-- TrueType font o TXT rw+ Raw text o UIL -w- X-Motif UIL table o UYVY rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV o VDA rw+ Truevision Targa image o VICAR rw- VICAR rasterfile format o VID rw+ Visual Image Directory o VIFF rw+ Khoros Visualization image o VST rw+ Truevision Targa image o WBMP rw- Wireless Bitmap (level 0) image o WMF r-- Windows Metafile o WPG r-- Word Perfect Graphics o X rw- X Image o X3F r-- Foveon X3 (Sigma/Polaroid) RAW o XBM rw- X Windows system bitmap (black and white) o XC r-- Constant image uniform color o XCF r-- GIMP image o XMP rw- Adobe XML metadata o XPM rw- X Windows system pixmap (color) o XV rw+ Khoros Visualization image o XWD rw- X Windows system window dump (color) o YUV rw- CCIR 601 4:1:1 or 4:2:2 (8-bit only) Modes: r Read w Write + Multi-image Support for some of these formats require additional programs or libraries. See README in the source package for where to find optional additional software. Note, a format delineated with + means that if more than one image is specified, frames are combined into a single multi-image file. Use +adjoin if you want a single image pro‐ duced for each frame. Your installation might not support all of the formats in the list. To get an accurate listing of the formats supported by your particular configuration, run "gm convert -list format". Raw images are expected to have one byte per pixel unless gm is compiled in 16-bit quantum mode or in 32-bit quantum mode. Here, the raw data is expected to be stored two or four bytes per pixel, respectively, in most-significant-byte-first order. For example, you can tell if gm was compiled in 16-bit mode by typing "gm version" without any options, and looking for "Q:16" in the first line of output.

FILES AND FORMATS

By default, the image format is determined by its magic number, i.e., the first few bytes of the file. To specify a particular image format, precede the filename with an image for‐ mat name and a colon (i.e.ps:image) or specify the image type as the filename suffix (i.e.image.ps). The magic number takes precedence over the filename suffix and the prefix takes precedence over the magic number and the suffix in input files. When a file is read, its magic number is stored in the "image->magick" string. In output files, the pre‐ fix takes precedence over the filename suffix, and the filename suffix takes precedence over the "image->magick" string. To read the "built-in" formats (GRANITE, H, LOGO, NETSCAPE, PLASMA, and ROSE) use a prefix (including the colon) without a filename or suffix. To read the XC format, follow the colon with a color specification. To read the CAPTION format, follow the colon with a text string or with a filename prefixed with the at symbol (@). When you specify X as your image type, the filename has special meaning. It specifies an X window by id, name, or root. If no filename is specified, the window is selected by click‐ ing the mouse in the desired window. Specify input_file as - for standard input, output_file as - for standard output. If input_file has the extension .Z or .gz, the file is uncompressed with uncompress or gunzip respectively. If output_file has the extension .Z or .gz, the file is compressed using with compress or gzip respectively. Finally, when running on platforms that allow it, precede the image file name with | to pipe to or from a system command (this feature is not available on VMS, Win32 and Macin‐ tosh platforms). Use a backslash or quotation marks to prevent your shell from interpret‐ ing the |. Use an optional index enclosed in brackets after an input file name to specify a desired subimage of a multi-resolution image format like Photo CD (e.g. "img0001.pcd[4]") or a range for MPEG images (e.g. "video.mpg[50-75]"). A subimage specification can be disjoint (e.g. "image.tiff[2,7,4]"). For raw images, specify a subimage with a geometry (e.g. -size 640x512 "image.rgb[320x256+50+50]"). Surround the image name with quotation marks to pre‐ vent your shell from interpreting the square brackets. Single images are written with the filename you specify. However, multi-part images (e.g., a multi-page PostScript document with +adjoin specified) may be written with the scene number included as part of the file‐ name. In order to include the scene number in the filename, it is necessary to include a printf-style %d format specification in the file name and use the +adjoin option. For example, image%02d.miff writes files image00.miff, image01.miff, etc. Only a single specification is allowed within an output filename. If more than one specification is present, it will be ignored. It is best to embed the scene number in the base part of the file name, not in the exten‐ sion, because the extension will not be a recognizeable image type. When running a commandline utility, you can prepend an at sign @ to a filename to read a list of image filenames from that file. This is convenient in the event you have too many image filenames to fit on the command line.

OPTIONS

Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows, until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop. Some options only affect the decoding of images and others only the encoding. The latter can appear after the final group of input images. This is a combined list of the command-line options used by the GraphicsMagick utilities (animate, compare, composite, convert, display, identify, import, mogrify and montage). In this document, angle brackets ("<>") enclose variables and curly brackets ("{}") enclose optional parameters. For example, "-fuzz <distance>{%}" means you can use the option "-fuzz 10" or "-fuzz 2%". -adjoin join images into a single multi-image file By default, all images of an image sequence are stored in the same file. However, some formats (e.g. JPEG) do not support storing more than one image per file and only the first frame in an image sequence will be saved unless the result is saved to separate files. Use +adjoin to force saving multiple frames to multiple numbered files. If +adjoin is used, then the output filename must include a printf style formatting specification for the numeric part of the filename. For example, image%02d.miff -affine <matrix> drawing transform matrix This option provides a transform matrix {sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty} for use by subsequent -draw or -transform options. -antialias remove pixel aliasing By default antialiasing algorithms are used when drawing objects (e.g. lines) or rendering vector formats (e.g. WMF and Postscript). Use +antialias to disable use of antialiasing algorithms. Reasons to disable antialiasing include avoiding increasing colors in the image, or improving rendering speed. -append append a set of images This option creates a single image where the images in the original set are stacked top-to-bottom. If they are not of the same width, any narrow images will be expanded to fit using the background color. Use +append to stack images left-to- right. The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the -append option appears after all of the input images, all images are appended. -asc-cdl <spec> apply ASC CDL color transform Applies ("bakes in") the ASC CDL, which is a format for the exchange of basic pri‐ mary color grading information between equipment and software from different manu‐ facturers. The format defines the math for three functions: slope, offset and power. Each function uses a number for the red, green, and blue color channels for a total of nine numbers comprising a single color decision. The tenth number (optional) is for chromiance (saturation) as specified by ASC CDL 1.2. The argument string is comma delimited and is in the following form (but without invervening spaces or line breaks) redslope,redoffset,redpower: greenslope,greenoffset,greenpower: blueslope,blueoffset,bluepower: saturation with the unity (no change) specification being: "1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0" -authenticate <string> decrypt image with this password Use this option to supply a password for decrypting an image or an image sequence, if it is being read from a format such as PDF that supports encryption. Encrypting images being written is not supported. -auto-orient orient (rotate) image so it is upright Adjusts the image orienation so that it is suitable for viewing. Uses the orienta‐ tion tag obtained from the image file or as supplied by the -orient option. -average average a set of images The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the -average option appears after all of the input images, all images are averaged. -backdrop display the image centered on a backdrop. This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is useful for hiding other X window activity while viewing the image. The color of the backdrop is specified as the foreground color (X11 default is black). Refer to "X Resources", below, for details. -background <color> the background color The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. -black-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity] pixels below the threshold become black Use -black-threshold to set pixels with values below the specified threshold to minimum value (black). If only one value is supplied, or the red, green, and blue values are identical, then intensity thresholding is used. If the color threshold values are not identical then channel-based thresholding is used, and color distor‐ tion will occur. Specify a negative value (e.g. -1) if you want a channel to be ignored but you do want to threshold a channel later in the list. If a percent (%) symbol is appended, then the values are treated as a percentage of maximum range. -blue-primary <x>,<y> blue chromaticity primary point -blur <radius>{x<sigma>} blur the image with a Gaussian operator Blur with the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). -border <width>x<height> surround the image with a border of color See -geometry for details about the geometry specification. -bordercolor <color> the border color The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. -borderwidth <geometry> the border width -box <color> set the color of the annotation bounding box The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. See -draw for further details. -channel <type> the type of channel Choose from: Red, Green, Blue, Opacity, Matte, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, or Gray. Use this option to extract a particular channel from the image. Opacity, for exam‐ ple, is useful for extracting the opacity values from an image. -charcoal <factor> simulate a charcoal drawing -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} remove pixels from the interior of an image Width and height give the number of columns and rows to remove, and x and y are offsets that give the location of the leftmost column and topmost row to remove. The x offset normally specifies the leftmost column to remove. If the -gravity option is present with NorthEast, East, or SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge of the image to the rightmost column to remove. Simi‐ larly, the y offset normally specifies the topmost row to remove, but if the -grav‐ ity option is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast gravity, it specifies the distance upward from the bottom edge of the image to the bottom row to remove. The -chop option removes entire rows and columns, and moves the remaining corner blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps. -clip apply the clipping path, if one is present If a clipping path is present, it will be applied to subsequent operations. For example, if you type the following command: gm convert -clip -negate cockatoo.tif negated.tif only the pixels within the clipping path are negated. The -clip feature requires the XML library. If the XML library is not present, the option is ignored. -coalesce merge a sequence of images Each image N in the sequence after Image 0 is replaced with the image created by flattening images 0 through N. The set of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the -coalesce option appears after all of the input images, all images are coalesced. -colorize <value> colorize the image with the pen color Specify the amount of colorization as a percentage. You can apply separate col‐ orization values to the red, green, and blue channels of the image with a coloriza‐ tion value list delimited with slashes (e.g. 0/0/50). The -colorize option may be used in conjunction with -modulate to produce a nice sepia toned image like: gm convert input.ppm -modulate 115,0,100 \ -colorize 7,21,50 output.ppm. -colormap <type> define the colormap type Choose between shared or private. This option only applies when the default X server visual is PseudoColor or GRAYScale. Refer to -visual for more details. By default, a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares colors with other X clients. Some image colors could be approximated, therefore your image may look very different than intended. Choose Private and the image colors appear exactly as they are defined. However, other clients may go technicolor when the image colormap is installed. -colors <value> preferred number of colors in the image The actual number of colors in the image may be less than your request, but never more. Note, this is a color reduction option. Images with less unique colors than specified with this option will have any duplicate or unused colors removed. The ordering of an existing color palette may be altered. When converting an image from color to grayscale, convert the image to the gray colorspace before reducing the number of colors since doing so is most efficient. Refer to <a href="quan‐ tize.html">quantize for more details. Note, options -dither, -colorspace, and -treedepth affect the color reduction algo‐ rithm. -colorspace <value> the type of colorspace Choices are: CineonLog, CMYK, GRAY, HSL, HWB, OHTA, RGB, Rec601Luma, Rec709Luma, Rec601YCbCr, Rec709YCbCr, Transparent, XYZ, YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, or YUV. Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color space. Empirical evidence suggests that distances in color spaces such as YUV or YIQ correspond to perceptual color differences more closely than do distances in RGB space. These color spaces may give better results when color reducing an image. Refer to quantize for more details. Two gray colorspaces are supported. The Rec601Luma space is based on the recommendations for legacy NTSC television (ITU-R BT.601-5). The Rec709Luma space is based on the recommendations for HDTV (Rec. ITU-R BT.709-5) and is suitable for use with computer graphics, and for contemporary CRT displays. The GRAY colorspace currently selects the Rec601Luma colorspace by default for backwards compatibly reasons. This default may be re-considered in the future. Two YCbCr colorspaces are supported. The Rec601YCbCr space is based on the recom‐ mendations for legacy NTSC television (ITU-R BT.601-5). The Rec709CbCr space is based on the recommendations for HDTV (Rec. ITU-R BT.709-5) and is suitable for suitable for use with computer graphics, and for contemporary CRT displays. The YCbCr colorspace specification is equivalent toRec601YCbCr. The Transparent color space behaves uniquely in that it preserves the matte channel of the image if it exists. The -colors or -monochrome option, or saving to a file format which requires color reduction, is required for this option to take effect. -comment <string> annotate an image with a comment Use this option to assign a specific comment to the image, when writing to an image format that supports comments. You can include the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special format characters listed under the -format option. The comment is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in the image datastream via a "Comment" tag or similar mechanism. If you want the comment to be visible on the image itself, use the -draw option. For example, -comment "%m:%f %wx%h" produces an image comment of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480. If the first character of string is @, the image comment is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. -compose <operator> the type of image composition The description of composition uses abstract terminology in order to allow the the description to be more clear, while avoiding constant values which are specific to a particular build configuration. Each image pixel is represented by red, green, and blue levels (which are equal for a gray pixel). MaxRGB is the maximum integral value which may be stored in the red, green, or blue channels of the image. Each image pixel may also optionally (if the image matte channel is enabled) have an associated level of opacity (ranging from opaque to transparent), which may be used to determine the influence of the pixel color when compositing the pixel with another image pixel. If the image matte channel is disabled, then all pixels in the image are treated as opaque. The color of an opaque pixel is fully visible while the color of a transparent pixel color is entirely absent (pixel color is ignored). By definition, raster images have a rectangular shape. All image rows are of equal length, and all image columns have the same number of rows. By treating the opacity channel as a visual "mask" the rectangular image may be given a "shape" by treating the opacity channel as a cookie-cutter for the image. Pixels within the shape are opaque, while pixels outside the shape are transparent. Pixels on the boundary of the shape may be between opaque and transparent in order to provide antialiasing (visually smooth edges). The description of the composition operators use this con‐ cept of image "shape" in order to make the description of the operators easier to understand. While it is convenient to describe the operators in terms of "shapes" they are by no means limited to mask-style operations since they are based on con‐ tinuous floating-point mathematics rather than simple boolean operations. By default, the Over composite operator is used. The following composite operators are available: Over In Out Atop Xor Plus Minus Add Subtract Difference Divide Multiply Bumpmap Copy CopyRed CopyGreen CopyBlue CopyOpacity CopyCyan CopyMagenta CopyYellow CopyBlack The behavior of each operator is described below. Over The result will be the union of the two image shapes, with opaque areas of change-image obscuring base-image in the region of overlap. In The result is simply change-image cut by the shape of base-image. None of the image data of base-image will be in the result. Out The resulting image is change-image with the shape of base-image cut out. Atop The result is the same shape as base-image, with change-image obscuring base- image where the image shapes overlap. Note this differs from over because the portion of change-image outside base-image's shape does not appear in the result. Xor The result is the image data from both change-image and base-image that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region will be blank. Plus The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are cropped to MaxRGB (no overflow). This operation is independent of the matte channels. Minus The result of change-image - base-image, with underflow cropped to zero. The matte channel is ignored (set to opaque, full coverage). Add The result of change-image + base-image, with overflow wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1). Subtract The result of change-image - base-image, with underflow wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1). The add and subtract operators can be used to perform reversible transformations. Difference The result of abs(change-image - base-image). This is useful for comparing two very similar images. Divide The result of change-image / base-image. This is useful for improving the readability of text on unevenly illuminated photos (by using a gaussian blurred copy of change-image as base-image). Multiply The result of change-image * base-image. This is useful for the creation of drop-shadows. Bumpmap The result base-image shaded by change-image. Copy The resulting image is base-image replaced with change-image. Here the matte information is ignored. CopyRed The resulting image is the red channel in base-image replaced with the red channel in change-image. The other channels are copied untouched. CopyGreen The resulting image is the green channel in base-image replaced with the green channel in change-image. The other channels are copied untouched. CopyBlue The resulting image is the blue channel in base-image replaced with the blue channel in change-image. The other channels are copied untouched. CopyOpacity The resulting image is the opacity channel in base-image replaced with the opacity channel in change-image. The other channels are copied untouched. CopyCyan The resulting image is the cyan channel in base-image replaced with the cyan channel in change-image. The other channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace. CopyMagenta The resulting image is the magenta channel in base-image replaced with the magenta channel in change-image. The other channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace. CopyYellow The resulting image is the yellow channel in base-image replaced with the yellow channel in change-image. The other channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace. CopyBlack The resulting image is the black channel in base-image replaced with the black channel in change-image. The other channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires that base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace. If change-image is not in CMYK space, then the change-image pixel intensities are used. -compress <type> the type of image compression Choices are: None, BZip, Fax, Group4, JPEG, Lossless, LZW, RLE, Zip, or LZMA. Specify +compress to store the binary image in an uncompressed format. The default is the compression type of the specified image file. "Lossless" refers to lossless JPEG, which is only available if the JPEG library has been patched to support it. Use of lossless JPEG is generally not recommended. Use the -quality option to set the compression level to be used by JPEG, PNG, MIFF, and MPEG encoders. Use the -sampling-factor option to set the sampling factor to be used by the DPX, JPEG, MPEG, and YUV encoders for downsampling the chroma channels. -contrast enhance or reduce the image contrast This option enhances the intensity differences between the lighter and darker ele‐ ments of the image. Use -contrast to enhance the image or +contrast to reduce the image contrast. For a more pronounced effect you can repeat the option: gm convert rose: -contrast -contrast rose_c2.png -convolve <kernel> convolve image with the specified convolution kernel The kernel is specified as a comma-separated list of floating point values, ordered left-to right, starting with the top row. The order of the kernel is determined by the square root of the number of entries. Presently only square kernels are sup‐ ported. -create-directories create output directory if required Use this option with -output-directory if the input paths contain subdirectories and it is desired to create similar subdirectories in the output directory. With‐ out this option, mogrify will fail if the required output directory does not exist. -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} preferred size and location of the cropped image See -geometry for details about the geometry specification. The width and height give the size of the image that remains after cropping, and x and y are offsets that give the location of the top left corner of the cropped image with respect to the original image. To specify the amount to be removed, use -shave instead. If the x and y offsets are present, a single image is generated, consisting of the pixels from the cropping region. The offsets specify the location of the upper left corner of the cropping region measured downward and rightward with respect to the upper left corner of the image. If the -gravity option is present with North‐ East, East, or SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge of the image to the right edge of the cropping region. Similarly, if the -gravity option is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast gravity, the dis‐ tance is measured upward between the bottom edges. If the x and y offsets are omitted, a set of tiles of the specified geometry, cov‐ ering the entire input image, is generated. The rightmost tiles and the bottom tiles are smaller if the specified geometry extends beyond the dimensions of the input image. -cycle <amount> displace image colormap by amount Amount defines the number of positions each colormap entry isshifted. -debug <events> enable debug printout The events parameter specifies which events are to be logged. It can be either None, All, or a comma-separated list consisting of one or more of the following domains: Annotate, Blob, Cache, Coder, Configure, Deprecate, Error, Exception, Locale, Render,Resource, TemporaryFile, Transform, Warning, X11, or User. For example, to log cache and blob events, use gm convert -debug "Cache,Blob" rose: rose.png The "User" domain is normally empty, but developers can log "User" events in their private copy of GraphicsMagick. Use the -log option to specify the format for debugging output. Use +debug to turn off all logging. An alternative to using -debug is to use the MAGICK_DEBUG environment variable. The allowed values for the MAGICK_DEBUG environment variable are the same as for the -debug option. -deconstruct break down an image sequence into constituent parts This option compares each image with the next in a sequence and returns the maximum bounding region of any pixel differences it discovers. This method can undo a coa‐ lesced sequence returned by the -coalesce option, and is useful for removing redun‐ dant information from a GIF or MNG animation. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the -deconstruct option appears after all of the input images, all images are decon‐ structed. -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options This option creates one or more definitions for coders and decoders to use while reading and writing image data. Definitions may be passed to coders and decoders to control options that are specific to certain image formats. If value is missing for a definition, an empty-valued definition of a flag will be created with that name. This is used to control on/off options. Use +define <key>,... to remove definitions previously created. Use +define "*" to remove all existing definitions. The following definitions may be created: cineon:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog} Use the cineon:colorspace option when reading a Cineon file to specify the colorspace the Cineon file uses. This overrides the colorspace type implied by the DPX header (if any). dpx:bits-per-sample=<value> If the dpx:bits-per-sample key is defined, GraphicsMagick will write DPX images with the specified bits per sample, overriding any existing depth value. If this option is not specified, then the value is based on the exist‐ ing image depth value from the original image file. The DPX standard supports bits per sample values of 1, 8, 10, 12, and 16. Many DPX readers demand a sample size of 10 bits with type A padding (see below). dpx:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog} Use the dpx:colorspace option when reading a DPX file to specify the col‐ orspace the DPX file uses. This overrides the colorspace type implied by the DPX header (if any). dpx:packing-method={packed|a|b|lsbpad|msbpad} DPX samples are output within 32-bit words. They may be tightly packed end- to-end within the words ("packed"), padded with null bits to the right of the sample ("a" or "lsbpad), or padded with null bits to the left of the sample ("b" or "msbpad"). This option only has an effect for sample sizes of 10 or 12 bits. If samples are not packed, the DPX standard recommends type A pad‐ ding. Many DPX readers demand a sample size of 10 bits with type A padding. dpx:pixel-endian={lsb|msb} Allows the user to specify the endian order of the pixels when reading or writing the DPX files. Sometimes this is useful if the file is (or must be) written incorrectly so that the file header and the pixels use different endianness. dpx:swap-samples={true|false} GraphicsMagick strives to adhere to the DPX standard but certain aspects of the standard can be quite confusing. As a result, some 10-bit DPX files have Red and Blue interchanged, or Cb and Cr interchanged due to an different interpretation of the standard, or getting the wires crossed. The swap-sam‐ ples option may be supplied when reading or writing in order to read or write using the necessary sample order. jp2:rate=<value> Specify the compression factor to use while writing JPEG-2000 files. The com‐ pression factor is the reciprocal of the compression ratio. The valid range is 0.0 to 1.0, with 1.0 indicating lossless compression. If defined, this value overrides the -quality setting. The default quality setting of 75 results in a rate value of 0.06641. jpeg:block-smoothing={true|false} Enables or disables block smoothing when reading a JPEG file (default enabled). jpeg:dct-method=<value> Selects the IJG JPEG library DCT implementation to use. The encoding imple‐ mentations vary in speed and encoding error. The available choices for value are islow, ifast, float, default and fastest. Note that fastest might not necessarily be fastest on your CPU, depending on the choices made when the JPEG library was built and how your CPU behaves. jpeg:fancy-upsampling={true|false} Enables or disables fancy upsampling when reading a JPEG file (default enabled). jpeg:optimize-coding={true|false} Selects if huffman encoding should be used. Huffman encoding is enabled by default, but may be disabled for very large images since it encoding requires that the entire image be buffered in memory. Huffman encoding produces smaller JPEG files at the expense of added compression time and memory con‐ sumption. jpeg:preserve-settings If the jpeg:preserve-settings flag is defined, the JPEG encoder will use the same "quality" and "sampling-factor" settings that were found in the input file, if the input was in JPEG format. These settings are also preserved if the input is a JPEG file and the output is a JNG file. If the colorspace of the output file differs from that of the input file, the quality setting is preserved but the sampling-factors are not. pcl:fit-to-page If the pcl:fit-to-page flag is defined, then the printer is requested to scale the image to fit the page size (width and/or height). pdf:use-cropbox={true|false} If the pdf:use-cropbox flag is set to true, then Ghostscript is requested to apply the PDF crop box. pdf:stop-on-error={true|false} If the pdf:stop-on-error flag is set to true, then Ghostscript is requested to stop processing the PDF when the first error is encountered. Otherwise it will attempt to process all requested pages. ps:imagemask If the ps:imagemask flag is defined, the PS3 and EPS3 coders will create Postscript files that render bilevel images with the Postscript imagemask operator instead of the image operator. tiff:alpha={unspecified|associated|unassociated} Specify the TIFF alpha channel type when reading or writing TIFF files, over‐ riding the normal value. The default alpha channel type for new files is unspecified alpha. Existing alpha settings are preserved when converting from one TIFF file to another. When a TIFF file uses associated alpha, the image pixels are pre-multiplied (i.e. altered) with the alpha channel. Files with "associated" alpha appear as if they were alpha composited on a black back‐ ground when the matte channel is disabled. If the unassociated alpha type is selected, then the alpha channel is saved without altering the pixels. Photo‐ shop recognizes associated alpha as transparency information, if the file is saved with unassociated alpha, the alpha information is loaded as an indepen‐ dent channel. Note that for many years, ImageMagick and GraphicsMagick marked TIFF files as using associated alpha, without properly pre-multiplying the pixels. tiff:fill-order={msb2lsb|lsb2msb} If the tiff:fill-order key is defined, GraphicsMagick will use it to deter‐ mine the bit fill order used while writing TIFF files. The normal default is "msb2lsb", which matches the native bit order of all modern CPUs. The only exception to this is when Group3 or Group4 FAX compression is requested since FAX machines send data in bit-reversed order and therefore RFC 2301 recom‐ mends using reverse order. tiff:group-three-options=<value> If the tiff:group-three-options key is defined, GraphicsMagick will use it to set the group3 options tag when writing group3-compressed TIFF. Please see the TIFF specification for the usage of this tag. The default value is 4. tiff:ignore-tags=<tags> If the tiff:ignore-tags key is defined, then it is used as a list of comma- delimited integer TIFF tag values to ignore while reading the TIFF file. This is useful in order to be able to read files which which otherwise fail to read due to problems with TIFF tags. Note that some TIFF tags are required in order to be able to read the image data at all. tiff:report-warnings={false|true} If the tiff:report-warnings key is defined and set to true, then TIFF warn‐ ings are reported as a warning exception rather than as a coder log message. Such warnings are reported after the image has been read or written. Most TIFF warnings are benign but sometimes they may help deduce problems with the TIFF file, or help detect that the TIFF file requires a special application to read successfully due to the use of proprietary or specialized extensions. tiff:sample-format={unsigned|ieeefp} If the tiff:sample-format key is defined, GraphicsMagick will use it to determine the sample format used while writing TIFF files. The default is "unsigned". Specify "ieeefp" in order to write floating-point TIFF files with float (32-bit) or double (64-bit) values. Use the tiff:bits-per-sample define to determine the type of floating-point value to use. tiff:max-sample-value=<value> If the tiff:max-sample-value key is defined, GraphicsMagick will use the assigned value as the maximum floating point value while reading or writing IEEE floating point TIFFs. Otherwise the maximum value is 1.0 or the value obtained from the file's SMaxSampleValue tag (if present). The floating point data is currently not scanned in advance to determine a best maximum sample value so if the range is not 1.0, or the SMaxSampleValue tag is not present, it may be necessary to (intelligently) use this parameter to properly read a file. tiff:min-sample-value=<value> If the tiff:min-sample-value key is defined, GraphicsMagick will use the assigned value as the minimum floating point value while reading or writing IEEE floating point TIFFs. Otherwise the minimum value is 0.0 or the value obtained from the file's SMinSampleValue tag (if present). tiff:bits-per-sample=<value> If the tiff:bits-per-sample key is defined, GraphicsMagick will write images with the specified bits per sample, overriding any existing depth value. Value may be any in the range of 1 to 32, or 64 when the default ´unsigned' format is written, or 16/32/24/64 if IEEEFP format is written. Please note that the baseline TIFF 6.0 specification only requires readers to handle cer‐ tain powers of two, and the values to be handled depend on the nature of the image (e.g. colormapped, grayscale, RGB, CMYK). tiff:samples-per-pixel=<value> If the tiff:samples-per-pixel key is defined to a value, the TIFF coder will write TIFF images with the defined samples per pixel, overriding any value stored in the image. This option should not normally be used. tiff:rows-per-strip=<value> Allows the user to specify the number of rows per TIFF strip. Rounded up to a multiple of 16 when using JPEG compression. Ignored when using tiles. tiff:strip-per-page=true Requests that the image is written in a single TIFF strip. This is normally the default when group3 or group4 compression is requested within reasonable limits. Requesting a single strip for large images may result in failure due to resource consumption in the writer or reader. tiff:tile Enable writing tiled TIFF (rather than stripped) using the default tile size. Tiled TIFF organizes the image as an array of smaller images (tiles) in order to enable random access. tiff:tile-geometry=<width>x<height> Specify the tile size to use while writing tiled TIFF. Width and height should be a multiple of 16. If the value is not a multiple of 16, then it will be rounded down. Enables tiled TIFF if it has not already been enabled. GraphicsMagick does not use tiled storage internally so tiles need to be con‐ verted back and forth from the internal scanline-oriented storage to tile- oriented storage. Testing with typical RGB images shows that useful square tile size values range from 128x128 to 1024x1024. Large images which require using a disk-based pixel cache benefit from large tile sizes while images which fit in memory work well with smaller tile sizes. tiff:tile-width=<width> Specify the tile width to use while writing tiled TIFF. The tile height is then defaulted to an appropriate size. Width should be a multiple of 16. If the value is not a multiple of 16, then it will be rounded down. Enables tiled TIFF if it has not already been enabled. tiff:tile-height=<height> Specify the tile height to use while writing tiled TIFF. The tile width is then defaulted to an appropriate size. Height should be a multiple of 16. If the value is not a multiple of 16, then it will be rounded down. Enables tiled TIFF if it has not already been enabled. webp:lossless={true|false} Enable lossless encoding. webp:method={0-6} Quality/speed trade-off. webp:image-hint={default,graph,photo,picture} Hint for image type. webp:target-size=<integer> Target size in bytes. webp:target-psnr=<float> Minimal distortion to try to achieve. webp:segments={1-4} Maximum number of segments to use. webp:sns-strength={0-100} Spatial Noise Shaping. webp:filter-strength={0-100} Filter strength. webp:filter-sharpness={0-7} Filter sharpness. webp:filter-type={0,1} Filtering type. 0 = simple, 1 = strong (only used if filter-strength > 0 or autofilter is enabled). webp:auto-filter={true|false} Auto adjust filter's strength. webp:alpha-compression=<integer> Algorithm for encoding the alpha plane (0 = none, 1 = compressed with WebP lossless). Default is 1. webp:alpha-filtering=<integer> Predictive filtering method for alpha plane. 0: none, 1: fast, 2: best. Default is 1. webp:alpha-quality={0-100} Between 0 (smallest size) and 100 (lossless). Default is 100. webp:pass=[1..10] Number of entropy-analysis passes. webp:show-compressed={true|false} Export the compressed picture back. In-loop filtering is not applied. webp:preprocessing=[0,1,2] 0=none, 1=segment-smooth, 2=pseudo-random dithering webp:partitions=[0-3] log2(number of token partitions) in [0..3]. Default is 0 for easier progres‐ sive decoding. webp:partition-limit={0-100} Quality degradation allowed to fit the 512k limit on prediction modes coding (0: no degradation, 100: maximum possible degradation). webp:emulate-jpeg-size={true|false} If true, compression parameters will be remapped to better match the expected output size from JPEG compression. Generally, the output size will be similar but the degradation will be lower. webp:thread-level=<integer> If non-zero, try and use multi-threaded encoding. webp:low-memory={true|false} If set, reduce memory usage (but increase CPU use) For example, to create a postscript file that will render only the black pixels of a bilevel image, use: gm convert bilevel.tif -define ps:imagemask eps3:stencil.ps -delay <1/100ths of a second> display the next image after pausing This option is useful for regulating the animation of image sequences Delay/100 seconds must expire before the display of the next image. The default is no delay between each showing of the image sequence. The maximum delay is 65535. You can specify a delay range (e.g. -delay 10-500) which sets the minimum and maxi‐ mum delay. -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image This option specifies the image resolution to store while encoding a raster image or the canvas resolution while rendering (reading) vector formats such as Postscript, PDF, WMF, and SVG into a raster image. Image resolution provides the unit of measure to apply when render‐ ing to an output device or raster image. The default unit of measure is in dots per inch (DPI). The -units option may be used to select dots per centimeter instead. The default resolution is 72 dots per inch, which is equivalent to one point per pixel (Macintosh and Postscript standard). Computer screens are normally 72 or 96 dots per inch while printers typically support 150, 300, 600, or 1200 dots per inch. To determine the resolution of your display, use a ruler to measure the width of your screen in inches, and divide by the number of horizontal pixels (1024 on a 1024x768 display). If the file format supports it, this option may be used to update the stored image resolution. Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image resolution from a proprietary embedded profile. If this profile is not stripped from the image, then Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its former resolution, ignoring the image resolution specified in the standard file header. The density option is an attribute and does not alter the underlying raster image. It may be used to adjust the rendered size for desktop publishing purposes by adjusting the scale applied to the pixels. To resize the image so that it is the same size at a different resolution, use the -resample option. -depth <value> depth of the image This is the number of bits of color to preserve in the image. Any value between 1 and QuantumDepth (build option) may be specified, although 8 or 16 are the most common values. Use this option to specify the depth of raw images whose depth is unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK, or to change the depth of any image after it has been read. The depth option is applied to the pixels immediately so it may be used as a form of simple compression by discarding the least significant bits. Reducing the depth in advance may speed up color quantization, and help create smaller file sizes when using a compression algorithm like LZW or ZIP. -descend obtain image by descending window hierarchy -despeckle reduce the speckles within an image -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale> shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map With this option, composite image is used as a displacement map. Black, within the displacement map, is a maximum positive displacement. White is a maximum negative displacement and middle gray is neutral. The displacement is scaled to determine the pixel shift. By default, the displacement applies in both the horizontal and vertical directions. However, if you specify mask, composite image is the horizon‐ tal X displacement and mask the vertical Y displacement. -display <host:display[.screen]> specifies the X server to contact This option is used with convert for obtaining image or font from this X server. See X(1). -dispose <method> GIF disposal method The Disposal Method indicates the way in which the graphic is to be treated after being displayed. Here are the valid methods: Undefined No disposal specified. None Do not dispose between frames. Background Overwrite the image area with the background color. Previous Overwrite the image area with what was there prior to rendering the image. -dissolve <percent> dissolve an image into another by the given percent The opacity of the composite image is multiplied by the given percent, then it is composited over the main image. -dither apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution for spatial reso‐ lution by averaging the intensities of several neighboring pixels. Images which suffer from severe contouring when reducing colors can be improved with this option. The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to take effect. Use +dither to turn off dithering and to render PostScript without text or graphic aliasing. Disabling dithering often (but not always) leads to decreased processing time. -draw <string> annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives Use this option to annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives. The primitives include shapes, text, transformations, and pixel operations. The shape primitives are point x,y line x0,y0 x1,y1 rectangle x0,y0 x1,y1 roundRectangle x0,y0 x1,y1 wc,hc arc x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1 ellipse x0,y0 rx,ry a0,a1 circle x0,y0 x1,y1 polyline x0,y0 ... xn,yn polygon x0,y0 ... xn,yn Bezier x0,y0 ... xn,yn path path specification image operator x0,y0 w,h filename The text primitive is text x0,y0 string The text gravity primitive is gravity NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center, East, SouthWest, South, or SouthEast The text gravity primitive only affects the placement of text and does not interact with the other primitives. It is equivalent to using the -gravity commandline option, except that it is limited in scope to the -draw option in which it appears. The transformation primitives are rotate degrees translate dx,dy scale sx,sy skewX degrees skewY degrees The pixel operation primitives are color x0,y0 method matte x0,y0 method The shape primitives are drawn in the color specified in the preceding -stroke option. Except for the line and point primitives, they are filled with the color specified in the preceding -fill option. For unfilled shapes, use -fill none. Point requires a single coordinate. Line requires a start and end coordinate. Rectangle expects an upper left and lower right coordinate. RoundRectangle has the upper left and lower right coordinates and the width and height of the corners. Circle has a center coordinate and a coordinate for the outer edge. Use Arc to inscribe an elliptical arc within a rectangle. Arcs require a start and end point as well as the degree of rotation (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90). Use Ellipse to draw a partial ellipse centered at the given point with the x-axis and y-axis radius and start and end of arc in degrees (e.g. 100,100 100,150 0,360). Finally, polyline and polygon require three or more coordinates to define its boundaries. Coordinates are integers separated by an optional comma. For example, to define a circle centered at 100,100 that extends to 150,150 use: -draw 'circle 100,100 150,150' Paths (See Paths) represent an outline of an object which is defined in terms of moveto (set a new current point), lineto (draw a straight line), curveto (draw a curve using a cubic Bezier), arc (elliptical or circular arc) and closepath (close the current shape by drawing a line to the last moveto) elements. Compound paths (i.e., a path with subpaths, each consisting of a single moveto followed by one or more line or curve operations) are possible to allow effects such as "donut holes" in objects. Use image to composite an image with another image. Follow the image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image size, and filename: -draw 'image Over 100,100 225,225 image.jpg' You can use 0,0 for the image size, which means to use the actual dimensions found in the image header. Otherwise, it will be scaled to the given dimensions. See -compose for a description of the composite operators. Use text to annotate an image with text. Follow the text coordinates with a string. If the string has embedded spaces, enclose it in single or double quotes. Option‐ ally you can include the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special format character. See -comment for details. For example, -draw 'text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"' annotates the image with MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480. If the first character of string is @, the text is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. Rotate rotates subsequent shape primitives and text primitives about the origin of the main image. If the -region option precedes the -draw option, the origin for transformations is the upper left corner of the region. Translate translates them. Scale scales them. SkewX and SkewY skew them with respect to the origin of the main image or the region. The transformations modify the current affine matrix, which is initialized from the initial affine matrix defined by the -affine option. Transformations are cumula‐ tive within the -draw option. The initial affine matrix is not affected; that matrix is only changed by the appearance of another -affine option. If another -draw option appears, the current affine matrix is reinitialized from the initial affine matrix. Use color to change the color of a pixel to the fill color (see -fill). Follow the pixel coordinate with a method: point replace floodfill filltoborder reset Consider the target pixel as that specified by your coordinate. The point method recolors the target pixel. The replace method recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel. Floodfill recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder recolors any neighbor pixel that is not the border color. Finally, reset recolors all pixels. Use matte to the change the pixel matte value to transparent. Follow the pixel coordinate with a method (see the color primitive for a description of methods). The point method changes the matte value of the target pixel. The replace method changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel. Floodfill changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder changes the matte value of any neigh‐ bor pixel that is not the border color (-bordercolor). Finally reset changes the matte value of all pixels. You can set the primitive color, font, and font bounding box color with -fill, -font, and -box respectively. Options are processed in command line order so be sure to use these options before the -draw option. -edge <radius> detect edges within an image -emboss <radius> emboss an image -encoding <type> specify the text encoding Choose from AdobeCustom, AdobeExpert, AdobeStandard, AppleRoman, BIG5, GB2312, Latin 2, None, SJIScode, Symbol, Unicode, Wansung. -endian <type> specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image MSB indicates big-endian (e.g. SPARC, Motorola 68K) while LSB indicates little- endian (e.g. Intel 'x86, VAX) byte ordering. Native indicates to use the normal ordering for the current CPU. This option currently only influences the CMYK, DPX, GRAY, RGB, and TIFF, formats. Use +endian to revert to unspecified endianness. -enhance apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image -equalize perform histogram equalization to the image -extent <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y> composite image on background color canvas image This option composites the image on a new background color (-background) canvas image of size <width>x<height>. The existing image content is composited at the position specified by geometry x and y offset and/or desired gravity (-gravity) using the current image compose (-compose) method. Image content which falls out‐ side the bounds of the new image dimensions is discarded. For example, this command creates a thumbnail of an image, and centers it on a red color backdrop image: gm convert infile.jpg -thumbnail 120x80 -background red -gravity center \ -extent 140x100 outfile.jpg This command reduces or expands a JPEG image to fit on an 800x600 display: gm convert -size 800x600 input.jpg \ -resize 800x600 -background black \ -compose Copy -gravity center \ -extent 800x600 \ -quality 92 output.jpg If the aspect ratio of the input image isn't exactly 4:3, then the image is cen‐ tered on an 800x600 black canvas. -file <filename> write annotated difference image to file If -file is specified, then an annotated difference image is generated and written to the specified file. Pixels which differ between the reference and compare images are modified from those in the compare image so that the changed pixels become more obvious. Some images may require use of an alternative highlight style (see -high‐ light-style) or highlight color (see -highlight-color) before the changes are obvi‐ ous. -fill <color> color to use when filling a graphic primitive Colors are represented in GraphicsMagick in the same form used by SVG. Use "gm con‐ vert -list color" to list named colors: name (named color) #RGB (hex numbers, 4 bits each) #RRGGBB (8 bits each) #RRRGGGBBB (12 bits each) #RRRRGGGGBBBB (16 bits each) #RGBA (4 bits each) #RRGGBBAA (8 bits each) #RRRGGGBBBAAA (12 bits each) #RRRRGGGGBBBBAAAA (16 bits each) rgb(r,g,b) (r,g,b are decimal numbers) rgba(r,g,b,a) (r,g,b,a are decimal numbers) Enclose the color specification in quotation marks to prevent the "#" or the paren‐ theses from being interpreted by your shell. For example, gm convert -fill blue ... gm convert -fill "#ddddff" ... gm convert -fill "rgb(65000,65000,65535)" ... The shorter forms are scaled up, if necessary by replication. For example, #3af, #33aaff, and #3333aaaaffff are all equivalent. See -draw for further details. -filter <type> use this type of filter when resizing an image Use this option to affect the resizing operation of an image (see -geometry). Choose from these filters (ordered by approximate increasing CPU time): Point Box Triangle Hermite Hanning Hamming Blackman Gaussian Quadratic Cubic Catrom Mitchell Lanczos Bessel Sinc The default filter is automatically selected to provide the best quality while con‐ suming a reasonable amount of time. The Mitchell filter is used if the image sup‐ ports a palette, supports a matte channel, or is being enlarged, otherwise the Lanczos filter is used. -flatten flatten a sequence of images In some file formats (e.g. Photoshop's PSD) complex images may be represented by "layers" (independent images) which must be composited in order to obtain the final rendition. The -flatten option accomplishes this composition. The sequence of images is replaced by a single image created by compositing each image in turn, while respecting composition operators and page offsets. While -flatten is immedi‐ ately useful for eliminating layers, it is also useful as a general-purpose compo‐ sition tool. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the -flatten option appears after all of the input images, all images are flattened. Also see -mosaic which is similar to -flatten except that it adds a suitably-sized canvas base image. For example, this composites an image on top of a 640x400 transparent black canvas image: gm convert -size 640x300 xc:transparent \ -compose over -page +0-100 \ frame.png -flatten output.png and this flattens a Photoshop PSD file: gm convert input.psd -flatten output.png -flip create a "mirror image" reflect the scanlines in the vertical direction. -flop create a "mirror image" reflect the scanlines in the horizontal direction. -font <name> use this font when annotating the image with text You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript, TrueType, or X11 font. For example, Arial.ttf is a TrueType font, ps:helvetica is PostScript, and x:fixed is X11. -foreground <color> define the foreground color The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. -format <type> the image format type When used with the mogrify utility, this option will convert any image to the image format you specify. See GraphicsMagick(1) for a list of image format types sup‐ ported by GraphicsMagick, or see the output of 'gm -list format'. By default the file is written to its original name. However, if the filename extension matches a supported format, the extension is replaced with the image for‐ mat type specified with -format. For example, if you specify tiff as the format type and the input image filename is image.gif, the output image filename becomes image.tiff. -format <string> output formatted image characteristics When used with the identify utility, or the convert utility with output written to the 'info:-' file specification, use this option to print information about the image in a format of your choosing. You can include the image filename, type, width, height, Exif data, or other image attributes by embedding special format characters: %b file size %c comment %d directory %e filename extension %f filename %g page dimensions and offsets %h height %i input filename %k number of unique colors %l label %m magick %n number of scenes %o output filename %p page number %q image bit depth %r image type description %s scene number %t top of filename %u unique temporary filename %w width %x horizontal resolution %y vertical resolution %A transparency supported %C compression type %D GIF disposal method %G Original width and height %H page height %M original filename specification %O page offset (x,y) %P page dimensions (width,height) %Q compression quality %T time delay (in centi-seconds) %U resolution units %W page width %X page horizontal offset (x) %Y page vertical offset (y) %@ trim bounding box %# signature \n newline \r carriage return %% % For example, -format "%m:%f %wx%h" displays MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480. If the first character of string is @, the format is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. The values of image type (%p) which may be returned include: Bilevel Grayscale GrayscaleMatte Palette PaletteMatte TrueColor TrueColorMatte ColorSeparation ColorSeparationMatte Optimize You can also use the following special formatting syntax to print Exif information contained in the file: %[EXIF:<tag>] Where "<tag>" may be one of the following: * (print all Exif tags, in keyword=data format) ! (print all Exif tags, in tag_number format) #hhhh (print data for Exif tag #hhhh) ImageWidth ImageLength BitsPerSample Compression PhotometricInterpretation FillOrder DocumentName ImageDescription Make Model StripOffsets Orientation SamplesPerPixel RowsPerStrip StripByteCounts XResolution YResolution PlanarConfiguration ResolutionUnit TransferFunction Software DateTime Artist WhitePoint PrimaryChromaticities TransferRange JPEGProc JPEGInterchangeFormat JPEGInterchangeFormatLength YCbCrCoefficients YCbCrSubSampling YCbCrPositioning ReferenceBlackWhite CFARepeatPatternDim CFAPattern BatteryLevel Copyright ExposureTime FNumber IPTC/NAA ExifOffset InterColorProfile ExposureProgram SpectralSensitivity GPSInfo ISOSpeedRatings OECF ExifVersion DateTimeOriginal DateTimeDigitized ComponentsConfiguration CompressedBitsPerPixel ShutterSpeedValue ApertureValue BrightnessValue ExposureBiasValue MaxApertureValue SubjectDistance MeteringMode LightSource Flash FocalLength MakerNote UserComment SubSecTime SubSecTimeOriginal SubSecTimeDigitized FlashPixVersion ColorSpace ExifImageWidth ExifImageLength InteroperabilityOffset FlashEnergy SpatialFrequencyResponse FocalPlaneXResolution FocalPlaneYResolution FocalPlaneResolutionUnit SubjectLocation ExposureIndex SensingMethod FileSource SceneType JPEG specific information (from reading a JPEG file) may be obtained like this: %[JPEG-<tag>] Where "<tag>" may be one of the following: * (all JPEG-related tags, in keyword=data format) Quality IJG JPEG "quality" estimate Colorspace JPEG colorspace numeric ID Colorspace-Name JPEG colorspace name Sampling-factors JPEG sampling factors Please note that JPEG has no notion of "quality" and that the quality metric used by, and estimated by the software is based on the quality metric established by IJG JPEG 6b. Other encoders (e.g. that used by Adobe Photoshop) use different encoding metrics. Surround the format specification with quotation marks to prevent your shell from misinterpreting any spaces and square brackets. -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width> surround the image with an ornamental border See -geometry for details about the geometry specification. The -frame option is not affected by the -gravity option. The color of the border is specified with the -mattecolor command line option. -frame include the X window frame in the imported image -fuzz <distance>{%} colors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the color must be exact. Use this option to match colors that are close (in Euclidean distance) to the target color in RGB 3D space. For example, if you want to automatically trim the edges of an image with -trim but the image was scanned and the target back‐ ground color may differ by a small amount. This option can account for these dif‐ ferences. The distance can be in absolute intensity units or, by appending "%", as a percent‐ age of the maximum possible intensity (255, 65535, or 4294967295). -gamma <value> level of gamma correction The same color image displayed on two different workstations may look different due to differences in the display monitor. Use gamma correction to adjust for this color difference. Reasonable values extend from 0.8 to 2.3. Gamma less than 1.0 darkens the image and gamma greater than 1.0 lightens it. Large adjustments to image gamma may result in the loss of some image information if the pixel quantum size is only eight bits (quantum range 0 to 255). You can apply separate gamma values to the red, green, and blue channels of the image with a gamma value list delimited with slashes (e.g., 1.7/2.3/1.2). Use +gamma value to set the image gamma level without actually adjusting the image pixels. This option is useful if the image is of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute (e.g. PNG images). -gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>} blur the image with a Gaussian operator Use the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>} Specify dimension, offset, and resize options. The -geometry option is used for a number of different purposes, depending on the utility it is used with. <pp For the X11 commands ('animate', 'display', and 'import'), it specifies the preferred size and location of the Image window. By default, the window size is the image size and the location is chosen by you (or your window manager) when it is mapped. For the 'import', 'convert', 'mogrify' utility commands it may be used to specify the desired size when resizing an image. In this case, symbols representing resize options may be appended to the geometry string to influence how the resize request is treated. See later notes corresponding to usage by particular commands. The following notes apply to when -geometry is used to express a resize request, taking into account the current properties of the image. By default, the width and height are maximum values. That is, the image is expanded or contracted to fit the width and height value while maintaining the aspect ratio of the image. Append a ^ to the geometry so that the image is resized while maintaining the aspect ratio of the image, but the resulting width or height are treated as minimum values rather than maximum values. Append an exclamation point to the geometry to force the image size to exactly the size you specify. For example, if you specify 640x480! the image width is set to 640 pixels and height to 480. If only the width is specified, without the trailing 'x', then height is set to width (e.g., -geometry 100 is the same as -geometry 100x100). If only the width is specified but with the trailing 'x', then width assumes the value and the height is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio of the image. Similarly, if only the height is specified prefixed by 'x' (e.g., -geometry x256), the width is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio. To specify a percentage width or height instead, append %. The image size is multi‐ plied by the width and height percentages to obtain the final image dimensions. To increase the size of an image, use a value greater than 100 (e.g. 125%). To decrease an image's size, use a percentage less than 100. Use @ to specify the maximum area in pixels of an image. Use > to change the dimensions of the image only if its width or height exceeds the geometry specification. < resizes the image only if both of its dimensions are less than the geometry specification. For example, if you specify '640x480>' and the image size is 256x256, the image size does not change. However, if the image is 512x512 or 1024x1024, it is resized to 480x480. Enclose the geometry specification in quotation marks to prevent the < or > from being interpreted by your shell as a file redirection. When used with animate and display, offsets are handled in the same manner as in X(1) and the -gravity option is not used. If the x is negative, the offset is mea‐ sured leftward from the right edge of the screen to the right edge of the image being displayed. Similarly, negative y is measured between the bottom edges. The offsets are not affected by "%"; they are always measured in pixels. When used as a composite option, -geometry gives the dimensions of the image and its location with respect to the composite image. If the -gravity option is present with NorthEast, East, or SouthEast gravity, the x represents the distance from the right edge of the image to the right edge of the composite image. Simi‐ larly, if the -gravity option is present with SouthWest, South, or SouthEast grav‐ ity, y is measured between the bottom edges. Accordingly, a positive offset will never point in the direction outside of the image. The offsets are not affected by "%"; they are always measured in pixels. To specify the dimensions of the compos‐ ite image, use the -resize option. When used as a convert, import or mogrify option, -geometry is synonymous with -resize and specifies the size of the output image. The offsets, if present, are ignored. When used as a montage option, -geometry specifies the image size and border size for each tile; default is 256x256+0+0. Negative offsets (border dimensions) are meaningless. The -gravity option affects the placement of the image within the tile; the default gravity for this purpose is Center. If the "%" sign appears in the geometry specification, the tile size is the specified percentage of the origi‐ nal dimensions of the first tile. To specify the dimensions of the montage, use the -resize option. -gravity <type> direction primitive gravitates to when annotating the image. Choices are: NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center, East, SouthWest, South, SouthEast. The direction you choose specifies where to position the text when annotating the image. For example Center gravity forces the text to be centered within the image. By default, the image gravity is NorthWest. See -draw for more details about graphic primitives. Only the text primitive is affected by the -gravity option. The -gravity option is also used in concert with the -geometry option and other options that take <geometry> as a parameter, such as the -crop option. See -geome‐ try for details of how the -gravity option interacts with the <x> and <y> parame‐ ters of a geometry specification. When used as an option to composite, -gravity gives the direction that the image gravitates within the composite. When used as an option to montage, -gravity gives the direction that an image grav‐ itates within a tile. The default gravity is Center for this purpose. -green-primary <x>,<y> green chromaticity primary point -hald-clut <clut> apply a Hald CLUT to the image A Hald CLUT ("Color Look-Up Table") is a special square color image which contains a look-up table for red, green, and blue. The size of the Hald CLUT image is determined by its order. The width (and height) of a Hald CLUT is the cube of the order. For example, a Hald CLUT of order 8 is 512x512 pixels (262,144 colors) and of order 16 is 4096x4096 (16,777,216 colors). A special CLUT is the identity CLUT which which causes no change to the input image. In order to use the Hald CLUT, one takes an identity CLUT and adjusts its colors in some way. The modified CLUT can then be used to transform any number of images in an identical way. GraphicsMagick contains a built-in identity CLUT generator via the IDENTITY coder. For example reading from the file name IDENTITY:8 returns an identity CLUT of order 8. Typical Hald CLUT identity images have an order of between 8 and 16. The default order for the IDENTITY CLUT generator is 8. Interpolation is used so it is not usually necessary for CLUT images to be very large. The PNG file format is ideal for storing Hald CLUT images because it compresses them very well. -help print usage instructions -highlight-color <color> pixel annotation color Specifies the color to use when annotating difference pixels. -highlight-style <style> pixel annotation style Specifies the pixel difference annotation style used to draw attention to changed pixels. May be one of Assign, Threshold, Tint, or XOR; where Assign replaces the pixel with the highlight color (see -highlight-color), Threshold replaces the pixel with black or white based on the difference in intensity, Tint alpha tints the pixel with the highlight color, and XOR does an XOR between the pixel and the high‐ light color. -iconGeometry <geometry> specify the icon geometry Offsets, if present in the geometry specification, are handled in the same manner as the -geometry option, using X11 style to handle negative offsets. -iconic iconic animation -immutable make image immutable -implode <factor> implode image pixels about the center -intent <type> use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color Use this option to affect the the color management operation of an image (see -pro‐ file). Choose from these intents: Absolute, Perceptual, Relative, Saturation. The default intent is undefined. -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme Choices are: None, Line, Plane, or Partition. The default is None. This option is used to specify the type of interlacing scheme for raw image formats such as RGB or YUV. None means do not interlace (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...), Line uses scanline interlacing (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...), and Plane uses plane interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...). Partition is like plane except the different planes are saved to individual files (e.g. image.R, image.G, and image.B). Use Line to create an interlaced PNG or GIF or progressive JPEG image. -label <name> assign a label to an image Use this option to assign a specific label to the image, when writing to an image format that supports labels, such as TIFF, PNG, MIFF, or PostScript. You can include the the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special format character. A label is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in the image datastream via a "Label" tag or similar mechanism. If you want the label to be visible on the image itself, use the -draw option. See -com‐ ment for details. For example, -label "%m:%f %wx%h" produces an image label of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480. If the first character of string is @, the image label is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. When converting to PostScript, use this option to specify a header string to print above the image. Specify the label font with -font. When creating a montage, by default the label associated with an image is displayed with the corresponding tile in the montage. Use the +label option to suppress this behavior. -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%} perform local adaptive thresholding Perform local adaptive thresholding using the specified width, height, and offset. The offset is a distance in sample space from the mean, as an absolute integer ranging from 0 to the maximum sample value or as a percentage. If the percent option is supplied, then the offset is computed as a percentage of the quantum range. It is strongly recommended to use the percent option so that results are not sensitive to pixel quantum depth. For example, -colorspace gray -lat "10x10-5%" will help clarify a scanned grayscale or color document, producing a bi-level equivalent. -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%} adjust the level of image contrast Give one, two or three values delimited with commas: black-point, gamma, white- point (e.g. 10,1.0,250 or 2%,0.5,98%). The black and white points range from 0 to MaxRGB or from 0 to 100%; if the white point is omitted it is set to MaxRGB- black_point. If a "%" sign is present anywhere in the string, the black and white points are percentages of MaxRGB. Gamma is an exponent that ranges from 0.1 to 10.; if it is omitted, the default of 1.0 (no gamma correction) is assumed. This inter‐ face works similar to Photoshop's "Image->Adjustments->Levels..." "Input Levels" interface. -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit By default, resource limits are estimated based on the available resources of the system. The resource limits are Disk, maximum total disk space consumed; File, max‐ imum number of file descriptors allowed to be open at once; Map, maximum total num‐ ber of file bytes which may be memory mapped; Memory, maximum total number of bytes of heap memory used for image storage; Pixels, maximum absolute image size (per image); Width, maximum image pixels width; Height, maximum image pixels height; and Threads, the maximum number of worker threads to use per OpenMP thread team. These resource limits are used to decide if (for a given image) the decoded image ("pixel cache") should be stored in heap memory (RAM), in a memory-mapped disk file, or in a disk file accessed via read/write I/O. The number of total pixels in one image, and/or the width/height, may also be limited in order to force the read‐ ing, or creation of images larger than the limit (in pixels) to intentionally fail. The disk limit establishes an overall limit since using the disk is the means of last resort. When the disk limit has been reached, no more images may be read. The value argument is an absolute value, but may have standard binary suffix char‐ acters applied ('K', 'M', 'G', 'T', 'P', 'E') to apply a scaling to the value (based on a multiplier of 1024). Any additional characters are ignored. For exam‐ ple, '-limit Pixels 10MP' limits the maximum image size to 10 megapixels and '-limit memory 32MB -limit map 64MB' limits memory and memory mapped files to 32 megabytes and 64 megabytes respectively. Resource limits may also be set using environment variables. The environment vari‐ ables MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK, MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES, MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP, MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY, MAGICK_LIMIT_PIXELS, MAGICK_LIMIT_WIDTH, MAGICK_LIMIT_HEIGHT,and OMP_NUM_THREADS may be used to set the limits for disk space, open files, memory mapped size, heap memory, per-image pixels, image width, image height, and threads respectively. Use the option -list resource list the current limits. -linewidth the line width for subsequent draw operations -list <type> the type of list Choices are: Color, Delegate, Format, Magic, Module, Resource, or Type. The Module option is only available if GraphicsMagick was built to support loadable modules. This option lists information about the GraphicsMagick configuration. -log <string> Specify format for debug log This option specifies the format for the log printed when the -debug option is active. You can display the following components by embedding special format characters: %d domain %e event %f function %l line %m module %p process ID %r real CPU time %t wall clock time %u user CPU time %% percent sign \n newline \r carriage return For example: gm convert -debug coders -log "%u %m:%l %e" in.gif out.png The default behavior is to print all of the components. -loop <iterations> add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation A value other than zero forces the animation to repeat itself up to iterations times. -magnify magnify the image The image size is doubled using linear interpolation. -magnify <factor> magnify the image The displayed image is magnified by factor. -map <filename> choose a particular set of colors from this image [convert or mogrify] By default, color reduction chooses an optimal set of colors that best represent the original image. Alternatively, you can choose a particular set of colors from an image file with this option. Use +map to reduce all images in the image sequence that follows to a single opti‐ mal set of colors that best represent all the images. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the +map option appears after all of the input images, all images are mapped. -map <type> display image using this type. [animate or display] Choose from these Standard Colormap types: best default gray red green blue The X server must support the Standard Colormap you choose, otherwise an error occurs. Use list as the type and display searches the list of colormap types in top-to-bottom order until one is located. See xstdcmap(1) for one way of creating Standard Colormaps. -mask <filename> Specify a clipping mask The image read from the file is used as a clipping mask. It must have the same dimensions as the image being masked. If the mask image contains an opacity channel, the opacity of each pixel is used to define the mask. Otherwise, the intensity (gray level) of each pixel is used. Unmasked (black) pixels are modified while masked pixels (not black) are protected from alteration. Use +mask to remove the clipping mask. It is not necessary to use -clip to activate the mask; -clip is implied by -mask. -matte store matte channel if the image has one If the image does not have a matte channel, create an opaque one. Use +matte to ignore the matte channel and to avoid writing a matte channel in the output file. -mattecolor <color> specify the color to be used with the -frame option The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. -maximum-error <limit> specifies the maximum amount of total image error Specifies the maximum amount of total image error (based on comparison using a specified metric) before an error ("image difference exceeds limit") is reported. The error is reported via a non-zero command execution return status. -median <radius> apply a median filter to the image -metric <metric> comparison metric (MAE, MSE, PAE, PSNR, RMSE) -minify <factor> minify the image The image size is halved using linear interpolation. -mode <value> mode of operation The available montage modes are frame to place the images in a rectangular grid while adding a decorative frame with dropshadow, unframe to place undecorated images in a rectangular grid, and concatenate to pack the images closely together without any well-defined grid or decoration. -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]] vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image Specify the percent change in brightness, color saturation, and hue separated by commas. Default argument values are 100 percent, resulting in no change. For exam‐ ple, to increase the color brightness by 20% and decrease the color saturation by 10% and leave the hue unchanged, use: -modulate 120,90. Hue is the percentage of absolute rotation from the current position. For example 50 results in a counter-clockwise rotation of 90 degrees, 150 results in a clock‐ wise rotation of 90 degrees, with 0 and 200 both resulting in a rotation of 180 degrees. -monitor show progress indication A simple command-line progress indication is shown while the command is running. The process indication shows the operation currently being performed and the per‐ cent completed. Commands using X11 may replace the command line progress indication with a graphical one once an image has been displayed. -monochrome transform the image to black and white -morph <frames> morphs an image sequence Both the image pixels and size are linearly interpolated to give the appearance of a meta-morphosis from one image to the next. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the -morph option appears after all of the input images, all images are morphed. -mosaic create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence The -mosaic option provides a flexible way to composite one or more images onto a solid-color canvas image. It works similar to -flatten except that a base canvas image is automatically created with a suitable size given the image size, page dimensions, and page offsets of images to be composited. The color of the base canvas image may be set via the -background option. The default canvas color is 'white', but 'black' or 'transparent' may be more suitable depending on the compo‐ sition algorithm requested. The -compose option may be used to specify the composition algorithm to use when compositing the subsequent image on the base canvas. The -page option can be used to establish the dimensions of the mosaic and to posi‐ tion the subsequent image within the mosaic. If the -page argument does not spec‐ ify width and height, then the canvas dimensions are evaluated based on the image sizes and offsets. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the -mosaic option appears after all of the input images, all images are included in the mosaic. The following is an example of composing an image based on red, green, and blue layers extracted from a sequence of images and pasted on the canvas image at speci‐ fied offsets: gm convert -background black \ -compose CopyRed -page +0-100 red.png \ -compose CopyGreen -page +0+40 green.png \ -compose CopyBlue -page +0+180 blue.png \ -mosaic output.png -motion-blur <radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle} Simulate motion blur Simulate motion blur by convolving the image with a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). For reasonable results, radius should be larger than sigma. If radius is zero, then a suitable radius is automatically selected based on sigma. The angle specifies the angle that the object is coming from (side which is blurred). -name name an image -negate replace every pixel with its complementary color The red, green, and blue intensities of an image are negated. White becomes black, yellow becomes blue, etc. Use +negate to only negate the grayscale pixels of the image. -noise <radius|type> add or reduce noise in an image The principal function of noise peak elimination filter is to smooth the objects within an image without losing edge information and without creating undesired structures. The central idea of the algorithm is to replace a pixel with its next neighbor in value within a pixel window, if this pixel has been found to be noise. A pixel is defined as noise if and only if this pixel is a maximum or minimum within the pixel window. Use radius to specify the width of the neighborhood. Use +noise followed by a noise type to add noise to an image. The noise added mod‐ ulates the existing image pixels. Choose from these noise types: Uniform Gaussian Multiplicative Impulse Laplacian Poisson Random (uniform distribution) -noop NOOP (no option) The -noop option can be used to terminate a group of images and reset all options to their default values, when no other option is desired. -normalize transform image to span the full range of color values This is a contrast enhancement technique based on the image histogram. When computing the contrast enhancement values, the histogram edges are truncated so that the majority of the image pixels are considered in the constrast enhance‐ ment, and outliers (e.g. random noise or minute details) are ignored. The default is that 0.1 percent of the histogram entries are ignored. The percentage of the histogram to ignore may be specified by using the -set option with the histogram- threshold parameter similar to -set histogram-threshold 0.01 to specify 0.01 per‐ cent. Use 0 percent to use the entire histogram, with possibly diminished contrast enhancement. -opaque <color> change this color to the pen color within the image The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. The color is replaced if it is identical to the target color, or close enough to the target color in a 3D space as defined by the Euclidean distance specified by -fuzz. See -fill and -fuzz for more details. -operator channel operator rvalue[%] apply a mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to an image channel Apply a low-level mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to a selected image channel or all image channels. Operations which result in negative results are reset to zero, and operations which overflow the available range are reset to the maximum possible value. Select a channel from: Red, Green, Blue, Opacity, Matte, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, All, or Gray. All only modifies the color channels and does not modify the Opacity channel. Except for the threshold operators, All operates on each channel independently so that operations are on a per-channel basis. Gray treats the color channels as a grayscale intensity and performs the requested operation on the equivalent pixel intensity so the result is a gray image. Select an operator from Add, And, Assign, Depth, Divide, Gamma, Negate, LShift, Log, Max, Min, Multiply, Or, Pow RShift, Subtract, Threshold, Threshold-White, Threshold- White-Negate, Threshold-Black, Threshold-Black-Negate, Xor, Noise-Gaussian, Noise- Impulse, Noise-Laplacian, Noise-Multiplicative, Noise-Poisson, Noise-Random, and Noise-Uniform. Rvalue may be any floating point or integer value. Normally rvalue will be in the range of 0 to MaxRGB, where MaxRGB is the largest quantum value supported by the GraphicsMagick build (255, 65535, or 4294967295) but values outside this range are useful for some arithmetic operations. Arguments to logical or bit-wise operations are rounded to a positive integral value prior to use. If a percent (%) symbol is appended to the argument, then the argument has a range of 0 to 100 percent. The following is a description of the operators: Add Result is rvalue added to channel value. And Result is the logical AND of rvalue with channel value. Assign Result is rvalue. Depth Result is channel value adjusted so that it may be (approximately) stored in the specified number of bits without additional loss. Divide Result is channel value divided by rvalue. Gamma Result is channel value gamma adjusted by rvalue. LShift Result is channel value bitwise left shifted by rvalue bits. Log Result is computed as log(value*rvalue+1)/log(rvalue+1). Max Result is assigned to rvalue if rvalue is greater than value. Min Result is assigned to rvalue if rvalue is less than value. Multiply Result is channel value multiplied by rvalue. Negate Result is inverse of channel value (like a film negative). An rvalue must be supplied but is currently not used. Inverting the image twice results in the original image. Or Result is the logical OR of rvalue with channel value. Pow Result is computed as pow(value,rvalue). Similar to Gamma except that rvalue is not inverted. RShift Result is channel value bitwise right shifted by rvalue bits. Subtract Result is channel value minus rvalue. Threshold Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than rvalue, or minimum (black) if it is less than or equal to rvalue. If all channels are specified, then thresholding is done based on computed pixel intensity. Threshold-white Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than rvalue and is unchanged if it is less than or equal to rvalue. This can be used to remove apparent noise from the bright parts of an image. If all channels are speci‐ fied, then thresholding is done based on computed pixel intensity. Threshold-White-Negate Result is set to black if channel value is greater than rvalue and is unchanged if it is less than or equal to rvalue. If all channels are speci‐ fied, then thresholding is done based on computed pixel intensity. Threshold-black Result is minimum (black) if channel value is less than than rvalue and is unchanged if it is greater than or equal to rvalue. This can be used to remove apparent noise from the dark parts of an image. If all channels are specified, then thresholding is done based on computed pixel intensity. Threshold-Black-Negate Result is set to white if channel value is less than than rvalue and is unchanged if it is greater than or equal to rvalue. If all channels are spec‐ ified, then thresholding is done based on computed pixel intensity. Xor Result is the logical XOR of rvalue with channel value. An interesting prop‐ erty of XOR is that performing the same operation twice results in the origi‐ nal value. Noise-Gaussian Result is the current channel value modulated with gaussian noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue. Noise-Impulse Result is the current channel value modulated with impulse noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue. Noise-Laplacian Result is the current channel value modulated with laplacian noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue. Noise-Multiplicative Result is the current channel value modulated with multiplicative gaussian noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue. Noise-Poisson Result is the current channel value modulated with poisson noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue. Noise-Random Result is the current channel value modulated with random (uniform distribu‐ tion) noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue. The initial noise intensity (rvalue=1.0) is the range of one pixel quantum span. Noise-Uniform Result is the channel value with uniform noise applied according to the intensity specified by rvalue. As an example, the Assign operator assigns a fixed value to a channel. For exam‐ ple, this command sets the red channel to the mid-range value: gm convert in.bmp -operator red assign "50%" out.bmp The following applies 50% thresholding to the image and returns a gray image: gm convert in.bmp -operator gray threshold "50%" out.bmp -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN> ordered dither the image The channel or channels specified in the channeltype argument are reduced to binary, using an ordered dither method. The choices for channeltype are All, Inten‐ sity, Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, and Opacity When channeltype is "All", the color samples are dithered into a gray level and then that gray level is stored in the three color channels. Separately, the opac‐ ity channel is dithered into a bilevel opacity value which is stored in the opacity channel. When channeltype is "Intensity", only the color samples are dithered. When channel‐ type is "opacity" or "matte", only the opacity channel is dithered. When a color channel is specified, only that channel is dithered. The choices for N are 2 through 7. The image is divided into NxN pixel tiles. In each tile, some or all pixels are turned to white depending on their intensity. For each N, (N**2)+1 levels of gray can be represented. For N == 2, 3, or 4, the pixels are turned to white in an order that maximizes dispersion (i.e., reduces granularity), while for N == 5, 6, and 7, they are turned to white in an order that creates a roughly circular black blob in the middle of each tile. An attractive "half-tone" looking image can be obtained by first rotating the image 45 degrees, performing a 5x5 ordered-dither operation, then rotating it back to the original orientation and cropping to the original image dimensions. If the original image is gamma-encoded, it is adviseable to convert it to linear intensity first, e.g., with the "-gamma 0.45455" option. -output-directory <directory> output files to directory Use -output-directory to specify a directory under which to write the output files. Normally mogrify overwrites the input files but with this option the output files may be written to a different directory so that the input files are preserved. The algorithm used preserves all of the input path specification in the output path so that the user-specified input path (including any directory part) is appended to the output path. The user is responsible for creating the output directory. -orient <orientation> Set the image orientation attribute Sets the image orientation attribute. The image orientation attribute is compati‐ ble with the TIFF orientation tag (and the EXIF orientation tag). Accepted values are undefined, TopLeft, TopRight, BottomRight, BottomLeft, LeftTop, RightTop, RightBottom, LeftBottom, and hyphenated versions thereof (e.g. left-bottom). Please note that GraphicsMagick does not include an EXIF editor so if an EXIF pro‐ file is written to the output image, the value in the EXIF profile might not match the image. It is possible for an image file to indicate its orientation in several different ways simultaneously. -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>} size and location of an image canvas Use this option to specify the dimensions of the PostScript page in dots per inch or a TEXT page in pixels. The choices for a PostScript page are: 11x17 792 1224 Ledger 1224 792 Legal 612 1008 Letter 612 792 LetterSmall 612 792 ArchE 2592 3456 ArchD 1728 2592 ArchC 1296 1728 ArchB 864 1296 ArchA 648 864 A0 2380 3368 A1 1684 2380 A2 1190 1684 A3 842 1190 A4 595 842 A4Small 595 842 A5 421 595 A6 297 421 A7 210 297 A8 148 210 A9 105 148 A10 74 105 B0 2836 4008 B1 2004 2836 B2 1418 2004 B3 1002 1418 B4 709 1002 B5 501 709 C0 2600 3677 C1 1837 2600 C2 1298 1837 C3 918 1298 C4 649 918 C5 459 649 C6 323 459 Flsa 612 936 Flse 612 936 HalfLetter 396 612 For convenience you can specify the page size by media (e.g. A4, Ledger, etc.). Otherwise, -page behaves much like -geometry (e.g. -page letter+43+43>). This option is also used to place subimages when writing to a multi-image format that supports offsets, such as GIF89 and MNG. When used for this purpose the off‐ sets are always measured from the top left corner of the canvas and are not affected by the -gravity option. To position a GIF or MNG image, use -page{+-}<x>{+-}<y> (e.g. -page +100+200). When writing to a MNG file, a -page option appearing ahead of the first image in the sequence with nonzero width and height defines the width and height values that are written in the MHDR chunk. Otherwise, the MNG width and height are computed from the bounding box that con‐ tains all images in the sequence. When writing a GIF89 file, only the bounding box method is used to determine its dimensions. For a PostScript page, the image is sized as in -geometry and positioned relative to the lower left hand corner of the page by {+-}<xoffset>{+-}<y offset>. Use -page 612x792>, for example, to center the image within the page. If the image size exceeds the PostScript page, it is reduced to fit the page. The default gravity for the -page option is NorthWest, i.e., positive x and y offset are measured rightward and downward from the top left corner of the page, unless the -gravity option is present with a value other than NorthWest. The default page dimensions for a TEXT image is 612x792. This option is used in concert with -density. Use +page to remove the page settings for an image. -paint <radius> simulate an oil painting Each pixel is replaced by the most frequent color in a circular neighborhood whose width is specified with radius. -pause <seconds> pause between animation loops [animate] Pause for the specified number of seconds before repeating the animation. -pause <seconds> pause between snapshots [import] Pause for the specified number of seconds before taking the next snapshot. -pen <color> (This option has been replaced by the -fill option) -ping efficiently determine image characteristics Use this option to disable reading the image pixels so that image characteristics such as the image dimensions may be obtained very quickly. For identify, use +ping to force reading the image pixels so that the pixel read rate may be included in the displayed information. -pointsize <value> pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font -preview <type> image preview type Use this option to affect the preview operation of an image (e.g. convert file.png -preview Gamma Preview:gamma.png). Choose from these previews: Rotate Shear Roll Hue Saturation Brightness Gamma Spiff Dull Grayscale Quantize Despeckle ReduceNoise AddNoise Sharpen Blur Threshold EdgeDetect Spread Shade Raise Segment Solarize Swirl Implode Wave OilPaint CharcoalDrawing JPEG The default preview is JPEG. -process <command> process a sequence of images using a process module The command argument has the form module=arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN where module is the name of the module to invoke (e.g. "analyze") and arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN are an arbitrary number of arguments to pass to the process module. The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option. If the -process option appears after all of the input images, all images are pro‐ cessed. -profile <filename> add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile to image -profile filename adds an ICM (ICC color management), IPTC (newswire information), or a generic (including Exif) profile to the image Use +profile icm, +profile iptc, or +profile profile_name to remove the respective profile. Multiple profiles may be listed, separated by commas. Profiles may be excluded from subsequent listed matches by preceding their name with an exclamation point. For example, +profile '!icm,*' strips all profiles except for the ICM pro‐ file. Use identify -verbose to find out what profiles are in the image file. Use +profile "*" to remove all profiles. Writing the image to a format that does not support profiles will of course also cause all profiles to be removed. The JPEG and PNG formats will store any profiles that have been read and not removed. In JPEG they are stored in APP1 markers, and in PNG they are stored as hex-coded binary in compressed zTXt chunks, except for the iCC chunk which is stored in the iCCP chunk. To extract a profile, the -profile option is not used. Instead, simply write the file to an image format such as APP1, 8BIM, ICM, or IPTC. For example, to extract the Exif data (which is stored in JPEG files in the APP1 profile), use gm convert cockatoo.jpg exifdata.app1 Note that GraphicsMagick does not attempt to update any profile to reflect changes made to the image, e.g., rotation from portrait to landscape orientation, so it is possible that the preserved profile may contain invalid data. +progress disable progress monitor and busy cursor By default, when an image is displayed, a progress monitor bar is shown in the top left corner of an existing image display window, and the current cursor is replaced with an hourglass cursor. Use +progress to disable the progress monitor and busy cursor during display operations. While the progress monitor is disabled for all operations, the busy cursor continues to be enabled for non-display operations such as image processing. This option is useful for non-interactive display operations, or when a "clean" look is desired. -quality <value> JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level For the JPEG and MPEG image formats, quality is 0 (lowest image quality and high‐ est compression) to 100 (best quality but least effective compression). The default quality is 75. Use the -sampling-factor option to specify the factors for chroma downsampling. To use the same quality value as that found by the JPEG decoder, use the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag. For the MIFF image format, and the TIFF format while using ZIP compression, qual‐ ity/10 is the zlib compression level, which is 0 (worst but fastest compression) to 9 (best but slowest). It has no effect on the image appearance, since the compres‐ sion is always lossless. For the JPEG-2000 image format, quality is mapped using a non-linear equation to the compression ratio required by the Jasper library. This non-linear equation is intended to loosely approximate the quality provided by the JPEG v1 format. The default quality value 75 results in a request for 16:1 compression. The quality value 100 results in a request for non-lossy compression. For the MNG and PNG image formats, the quality value sets the zlib compression level (quality / 10) and filter-type (quality % 10). Compression levels range from 0 (fastest compression) to 100 (best but slowest). For compression level 0, the Huffman-only strategy is used, which is fastest but not necessarily the worst com‐ pression. If filter-type is 4 or less, the specified filter-type is used for all scanlines: 0: none 1: sub 2: up 3: average 4: Paeth If filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is greater than 50 and the image does not have a color map, otherwise no filtering is used. If filter-type is 6, adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-absolute-values is used. Only if the output is MNG, if filter-type is 7, the LOCO color transformation and adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-absolute-values are used. The default is quality is 75, which means nearly the best compression with adaptive filtering. The quality setting has no effect on the appearance of PNG and MNG images, since the compression is always lossless. For further information, see the PNG specification. When writing a JNG image with transparency, two quality values are required, one for the main image and one for the grayscale image that conveys the opacity chan‐ nel. These are written as a single integer equal to the main image quality plus 1000 times the opacity quality. For example, if you want to use quality 75 for the main image and quality 90 to compress the opacity data, use -quality 90075. For the PNM family of formats (PNM, PGM, and PPM) specify a quality factor of zero in order to obtain the ASCII variant of the format. Note that -compress none used to be used to trigger ASCII output but provided the opposite result of what was expected as compared with other formats. -raise <width>x<height> lighten or darken image edges This will create a 3-D effect. See -geometry for details details about the geometry specification. Offsets are not used. Use -raise to create a raised effect, otherwise use +raise. -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH> random threshold the image The channel or channels specified in the <channeltype> argument are reduced to binary, using an random-threshold method. The choices for channeltype are All, Intensity, Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, and Opacity When channeltype is "All", the color samples are thresholded into a graylevel and then that gray level is stored in the three color channels. Separately, the opacity channel is thresholded into a bilevel opacity value which is stored in the opacity channel. For each pixel, a new random number is used to establish the threshold to be used. The threshold never exceeds the specified maximum (HIGH) and is never less than the specified minimum (LOW). When channeltype is "intensity", only the color samples are thresholded. When chan‐ neltype is "opacity" or "matte", only the opacity channel is thresholded. The other named channels only threshold the associated channel. -recolor <matrix> apply a color translation matrix to image channels A user supplied color translation matrix (expressed as a text string) is used to translate/blend the image channels based on weightings in a supplied matrix which may be of order 3 (color channels only), 4 (color channels plus opacity), or 5 (color channels plus opacity and offset). Values in the columns of the matrix (red, green, blue, opacity) are used as multipliers with the existing channel val‐ ues and added together according to the rows of the matrix. Matrix values are floating point and may be negative. The offset column (column 5) is purely addi‐ tive and is scaled such that 0.0 to 1.0 represents the maximum quantum range (but values are not limited to this range). The math for the color translation matrix is similar to that used by Adobe Flash except that the offset is scaled to 1.0 (divide Flash offset by 255 for use with GraphicsMagick) so that the results are indepen‐ dent of quantum depth. An identity matrix exists for each matrix order which results in no change to the image. The translation matrix should be based on an alteration of the identity matrix. Identity matrix of order 3 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 which may be formatted into a convenient matrix argument similar to (comma is treated as white space): -recolor "1 0 0, 0 1 0, 0 0 1" Identity matrix of order 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Identity matrix of order 5. The last row is required to exist for the purpose of parsing, but is otherwise not used. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 As an example, an image wrongly in BGR channel order may be converted to RGB using this matrix (blue->red, red->blue): 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 and an RGB image using standard Rec.709 primaries may be converted to grayscale using this matrix of standard weighting factors: 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722 and contrast may be reduced by scaling down by 80% and adding a 10% offset: 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 -red-primary <x>,<y> red chromaticity primary point -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y> apply options to a portion of the image The x and y offsets are treated in the same manner as in -crop. -remote perform a X11 remote operation The -remote command sends a command to a "gm display" or "gm animate" which is already running. The only command recognized at this time is the name of an image file to load. This capability is very useful to load new images without needing to restart GraphicsMagick (e.g. for a slide-show or to use GraphicsMagick as the dis‐ play engine for a different GUI). Also see the +progress option for a way to dis‐ able progress indication for a clean look while loading new images. -render render vector operations Use +render to turn off rendering vector operations. This is useful when saving the result to vector formats such as MVG or SVG. -repage <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!] Adjust image page offsets Adjust the current image page canvas and position based on a relative page specifi‐ cation. This option may be used to change the location of a subframe (e.g. part of an animation) prior to composition. If the geometry specification is absolute (includes a '!'), then the offset adjustment is absolute and there is no adjustment to page width and height, otherwise the page width and height values are also adjusted based on the current image dimensions. Use +repage to set the image page offsets to default. -resample <horizontal>x<vertical> Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution Resize the image so that its rendered size remains the same as the original at the specified target resolution. Either the current image resolution units or the pre‐ viously set with -units are used to interpret the argument. For example, if a 300 DPI image renders at 3 inches by 2 inches on a 300 DPI device, when the image has been resampled to 72 DPI, it will render at 3 inches by 2 inches on a 72 DPI device. Note that only a small number of image formats (e.g. JPEG, PNG, and TIFF) are capable of storing the image resolution. For formats which do not support an image resolution, the original resolution of the image must be specified via -den‐ sity on the command line prior to specifying the resample resolution. Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image resolution from a proprietary embedded profile. If this profile exists in the image, then Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its former resolution, ignoring the image resolution specified in the standard file header. Some image formats (e.g. PNG) require use of metric or english units so even if the original image used a particular unit system, if it is saved to a different format prior to resampling, then it may be necessary to specify the desired resolution units using -units since the original units may have been lost. In other words, do not assume that the resolution units are restored if the image has been saved to a file. -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image This is an alias for the -geometry option and it behaves in the same manner. If the -filter option precedes the -resize option, the specified filter is used. There are some exceptions: When used as a composite option, -resize conveys the preferred size of the output image, while -geometry conveys the size and placement of the composite image within the main image. When used as a montage option, -resize conveys the preferred size of the montage, while -geometry conveys information about the tiles. -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y> roll an image vertically or horizontally See -geometry for details the geometry specification. The x and y offsets are not affected by the -gravity option. A negative x offset rolls the image left-to-right. A negative y offset rolls the image top-to-bottom. -rotate <degrees>{<}{>} rotate the image Positive angles rotate the image in a clockwise direction while negative angles rotate counter-clockwise. Use > to rotate the image only if its width exceeds the height. < rotates the image only if its width is less than the height. For example, if you specify -rotate "-90>" and the image size is 480x640, the image is not rotated. However, if the image is 640x480, it is rotated by -90 degrees. If you use > or <, enclose it in quotation marks to prevent it from being misinterpreted as a file redirect‐ ion. Empty triangles left over from rotating the image are filled with the color defined as background (class backgroundColor). The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. -sample <geometry> scale image using pixel sampling See -geometry for details about the geometry specification. -sample ignores the -filter selection if the -filter option is present. Offsets, if present in the geometry string, are ignored, and the -gravity option has no effect. -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors This option specifies the sampling factors to be used by the DPX, JPEG, MPEG, or YUV encoders for chroma downsampling. The sampling factor must be specified while reading the raw YUV format since it is not preserved in the file header. Industry- standard video subsampling notation such as "4:2:2" may also be used to specify the sampling factors. "4:2:2" is equivalent to a specification of "2x1" The JPEG decoder obtains the original sampling factors (and quality settings) when a JPEG file is read. To re-use the original sampling factors (and quality setting) when JPEG is output, use the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag. -scale <geometry> scale the image. See -geometry for details about the geometry specification. -scale uses a simpler, faster algorithm, and it ignores the -filter selection if the -filter option is present. Offsets, if present in the geometry string, are ignored, and the -gravity option has no effect. -scene <value> set scene number This option sets the scene number of an image or the first image in an image sequence. -scenes <value-value> range of image scene numbers to read Each image in the range is read with the filename followed by a period (.) and the decimal scene number. You can change this behavior by embedding a %d, %0Nd, %o, %0No, %x, or %0Nx printf format specification in the file name. For example, gm montage -scenes 5-7 image.miff montage.miff makes a montage of files image.miff.5, image.miff.6, and image.miff.7, and gm animate -scenes 0-12 image%02d.miff animates files image00.miff, image01.miff, through image12.miff. -screen specify the screen to capture This option indicates that the GetImage request used to obtain the image should be done on the root window, rather than directly on the specified window. In this way, you can obtain pieces of other windows that overlap the specified window, and more importantly, you can capture menus or other popups that are independent win‐ dows but appear over the specified window. -set <attribute> <value> set an image attribute Set a named image attribute. The attribute is set on the current (previously spec‐ ified on command line) image. +set <attribute> unset an image attribute Unset a named image attribute. The attribute is removed from the current (previ‐ ously specified on command line) image. -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold> segment an image Segment an image by analyzing the histograms of the color components and identify‐ ing units that are homogeneous with the fuzzy c-means technique. Segmentation is a very useful fast and and approximate color quantization algorithm for scanned printed pages or scanned cartoons. It may also be used as a special effect. Specify cluster threshold as the minimum percentage of total pixels in a cluster before it is considered valid. For huge images containing small detail, this may need to be a tiny fraction of a percent (e.g. 0.015) so that important detail is not lost. Smoothing threshold eliminates noise in the second derivative of the histogram. As the value is increased, you can expect a smoother second de‐ rivative. The default is 1.5. Add the -verbose option to see a dump of cluster sta‐ tistics given the parameters used. The statistics may be used as a guide to help fine tune the options. -shade <azimuth>x<elevation> shade the image using a distant light source Specify azimuth and elevation as the position of the light source. Use +shade to return the shading results as a grayscale image. -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>} shadow the montage -shared-memory use shared memory This option specifies whether the utility should attempt to use shared memory for pixmaps. GraphicsMagick must be compiled with shared memory support, and the dis‐ play must support the MIT-SHM extension. Otherwise, this option is ignored. The default is True. -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>} sharpen the image Use a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). -shave <width>x<height>{%} shave pixels from the image edges Specify the width of the region to be removed from both sides of the image and the height of the regions to be removed from top and bottom. -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees> shear the image along the X or Y axis Use the specified positive or negative shear angle. Shearing slides one edge of an image along the X or Y axis, creating a parallelo‐ gram. An X direction shear slides an edge along the X axis, while a Y direction shear slides an edge along the Y axis. The amount of the shear is controlled by a shear angle. For X direction shears, x degrees is measured relative to the Y axis, and similarly, for Y direction shears y degrees is measured relative to the X axis. Empty triangles left over from shearing the image are filled with the color defined as background (class backgroundColor). The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. -silent operate silently -size <width>x<height>{+offset} width and height of the image Use this option to specify the width and height of raw images whose dimensions are unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK. In addition to width and height, use -size with an offset to skip any header information in the image or tell the number of colors in a MAP image file, (e.g. -size 640x512+256). For Photo CD images, choose from these sizes: 192x128 384x256 768x512 1536x1024 3072x2048 Finally, use this option to choose a particular resolution layer of a JBIG or JPEG image (e.g. -size 1024x768). -snaps <value> number of screen snapshots Use this option to grab more than one image from the X server screen, to create an animation sequence. -solarize <factor> negate all pixels above the threshold level Specify factor as the percent threshold of the intensity (0 - 99.9%). This option produces a solarization effect seen when exposing a photographic film to light during the development process. -spread <amount> displace image pixels by a random amount Amount defines the size of the neighborhood around each pixel to choose a candidate pixel to swap. -stegano <offset> hide watermark within an image Use an offset to start the image hiding some number of pixels from the beginning of the image. Note this offset and the image size. You will need this information to recover the steganographic image (e.g. display -size 320x256+35 stegano:image.png). -stereo composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph The left side of the stereo pair is saved as the red channel of the output image. The right side is saved as the green channel. Red-green stereo glasses are required to properly view the stereo image. -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image All embedded profiles and text attributes are stripped from the image. This is useful for images used for the web, or when output files need to be as small as possible -stroke <color> color to use when stroking a graphic primitive The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. See -draw for further details. -strokewidth <value> set the stroke width See -draw for further details. -swirl <degrees> swirl image pixels about the center Degrees defines the tightness of the swirl. -text-font <name> font for writing fixed-width text Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed (typewriter style) format‐ ted text. The default is 14 point Courier. You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript, TrueType, or X11 font. For example, Courier.ttf is a TrueType font and x:fixed is X11. -texture <filename> name of texture to tile onto the image background -threshold <value>{%} threshold the image Modify the image such that any pixel sample with an intensity value greater than the threshold is assigned the maximum intensity (white), or otherwise is assigned the minimum intensity (black). If a percent prefix is applied, then the threshold is a percentage of the available range. To efficiently create a black and white image from a color image, use gm convert -threshold 50% in.png out.png The optimum threshold value depends on the nature of the image. In order to threshold individual channels, use the -operator subcommand with it's Threshold, Threshold-White, or Threshold-Black options. -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image (quickly) The -thumbnail command resizes the image as quickly as possible, with more concern for speed than resulting image quality. Regardless, resulting image quality should be acceptable for many uses. It is primarily intended to be used to generate smaller versions of the image, but may also be used to enlarge the image. The -thumbnail geometry argument observes the same syntax and rules as it does for -resize. -tile <filename> tile image when filling a graphic primitive -tile <geometry> layout of images [montage] -title <string> assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage] Use this option to assign a specific title to the image. This is assigned to the image window and is typically displayed in the window title bar. Optionally you can include the image filename, type, width, height, Exif data, or other image attribute by embedding special format characters described under the -format option. For example, -title "%m:%f %wx%h" produces an image title of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480. -transform transform the image This option applies the transformation matrix from a previous -affine option. gm convert -affine 2,2,-2,2,0,0 -transform bird.ppm bird.jpg -transparent <color> make this color transparent within the image The color is specified using the format described under the -fill option. -treedepth <value> tree depth for the color reduction algorithm Normally, this integer value is zero or one. A value of zero or one causes the use of an optimal tree depth for the color reduction algorithm An optimal depth generally allows the best representation of the source image with the fastest computational speed and the least amount of memory. However, the default depth is inappropriate for some images. To assure the best representation, try values between 2 and 8 for this parameter. Refer to quantize for more details. The -colors or -monochrome option, or writing to an image format which requires color reduction, is required for this option to take effect. -trim trim an image This option removes any edges that are exactly the same color as the corner pixels. Use -fuzz to make -trim remove edges that are nearly the same color as the corner pixels. -type <type> the image type Choose from: Bilevel, Grayscale, Palette, PaletteMatte, TrueColor, TrueColorMatte, ColorSeparation, ColorSeparationMatte, or Optimize. Normally, when a format supports different subformats such as bilevel, grayscale, palette, truecolor, and truecolor+alpha, the encoder will try to choose a suitable subformat based on the nature of the image. The -type option may be used to tailor the output subformat. By default the output subformat is based on readily available image information and is usually similar to the input format. Specify -type Optimize in order to enable inspecting all pixels (if necessary) in order to find the most efficient subformat. Inspecting all of the pixels may be slow for very large images, particularly if they are stored in a disk cache. If an RGB image contains only gray pixels, then every pixel in the image must be inspected in order to decide that the image is actually grayscale! Sometimes a specific subformat is desired. For example, to force a JPEG image to be written in TrueColor RGB format even though only gray pixels are present, use gm convert bird.pgm -type TrueColor bird.jpg Similarly, using -type TrueColorMatte will force the encoder to write an alpha channel even though the image is opaque, if the output format supports trans‐ parency. Some pseudo-formats (e.g. the XC format) will respect the requested type if it occurs previously on the command line. For example, to obtain a DirectClass solid color canvas image rather than PsuedoClass, use gm convert -size 640x480 -type TrueColor xc:red red.miff Likewise, specify -type Bilevel, Grayscale, TrueColor, or TrueColorMatte prior to reading a Postscript (or PDF file) in order to influence the type of image that Ghostcript returns. Reading performance will be dramatically improved for black/white Postscript if Bilevel is specified, and will be considerably faster if Grayscale is specified. -update <seconds> detect when image file is modified and redisplay. Suppose that while you are displaying an image the file that is currently displayed is over-written. display will automatically detect that the input file has been changed and update the displayed image accordingly. -units <type> the units of image resolution Choose from: Undefined, PixelsPerInch, or PixelsPerCentimeter. This option is nor‐ mally used in conjunction with the -density option. -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>} sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator The -unsharp option sharpens an image. The image is convolved with a Gaussian oper‐ ator of the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). For reasonable results, radius should be larger than sigma. Use a radius of 0 to have the method select a suitable radius. The parameters are: radius The radius of the Gaussian, in pixels, not counting the center pixel (default 0). sigma The standard deviation of the Gaussian, in pixels (default 1.0). amount The percentage of the difference between the original and the blur image that is added back into the original (default 1.0). threshold The threshold, as a fraction of MaxRGB, needed to apply the difference amount (default 0.05). -use-pixmap use the pixmap -verbose print detailed information about the image This information is printed: image scene number; image name; image size; the image class (DirectClass or PseudoClass); the total number of unique colors; and the num‐ ber of seconds to read and transform the image. If the image is DirectClass, the total number of unique colors is not displayed unless -verbose is specified twice since it may take quite a long time to compute, particularly for deep images. If the image is PseudoClass then its pixels are defined by indexes into a colormap. If the image is DirectClass then each pixel includes a complete and independent color specification. If -colors is also specified, the total unique colors in the image and color reduc‐ tion error values are printed. Refer to quantize for a description of these values. -version print GraphicsMagick version string -view <string> FlashPix viewing parameters -virtual-pixel <method> specify contents of "virtual pixels" This option defines "virtual pixels" for use in operations that can access pixels outside the boundaries of an image. Choose from these methods: Constant Use the image background color. Edge Extend the edge pixel toward infinity (default). Mirror Mirror the image. Tile Tile the image. This option affects operations that use virtual pixels such as -blur, -sharpen, -wave, etc. -visual <type> animate images using this X visual type Choose from these visual classes: StaticGray GrayScale StaticColor PseudoColor TrueColor DirectColor default visual id The X server must support the visual you choose, otherwise an error occurs. If a visual is not specified, the visual class that can display the most simultaneous colors on the default screen is chosen. -watermark <brightness>x<saturation> percent brightness and saturation of a watermark -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength> alter an image along a sine wave Specify amplitude and wavelength of the wave. -white-point <x>,<y> chromaticity white point -white-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity] pixels above the threshold become white Use -white-threshold to set pixels with values above the specified threshold to maximum value (white). If only one value is supplied, or the red, green, and blue values are identical, then intensity thresholding is used. If the color threshold values are not identical then channel-based thresholding is used, and color distor‐ tion will occur. Specify a negative value (e.g. -1) if you want a channel to be ignored but you do want to threshold a channel later in the list. If a percent (%) symbol is appended, then the values are treated as a percentage of maximum range. -window <id> make image the background of a window id can be a window id or name. Specify root to select X's root window as the tar‐ get window. By default the image is tiled onto the background of the target window. If back‐ drop or -geometry are specified, the image is surrounded by the background color. Refer to X RESOURCES for details. The image will not display on the root window if the image has more unique colors than the target window colormap allows. Use -colors to reduce the number of col‐ ors. -window-group specify the window group -write <filename> write an intermediate image [convert, composite] The current image is written to the specified filename and then processing contin‐ ues using that image. The following is an example of how several sizes of an image may be generated in one command (repeat as often as needed): gm convert input.jpg -resize 50% -write input50.jpg \ -resize 25% input25.jpg -write <filename> write the image to a file [display] If filename already exists, you will be prompted as to whether it should be over‐ written. By default, the image is written in the format that it was read in as. To specify a particular image format, prefix filename with the image type and a colon (e.g., ps:image) or specify the image type as the filename suffix (e.g., image.ps). Spec‐ ify file as - for standard output. If file has the extension .Z or .gz, the file size is compressed using compress or gzip respectively. Precede the image file name with | to pipe to a system command. Use -compress to specify the type of image compression. The equivalent X resource for this option is writeFilename (class WriteFilename). See "X Resources", below, for details.

ENVIRONMENT

COLUMNS Output screen width. Used when formatting text for the screen. Many Unix systems keep this shell variable up to date, but it may need to be explicitly exported in order for GraphicsMagick to see it. DISPLAY X11 display ID (host, display number, and screen in the form hostname:dis‐ play.screen). HOME Location of user's home directory. GraphicsMagick searches for configuration files in $HOME/.magick if the directory exists. See MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH, MAGICK_CON‐ FIGURE_PATH, and MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH if more flexibility is needed. MAGICK_ACCESS_MONITOR When set to TRUE, command line monitor mode (enabled by -monitor) will also show files accessed (including temporary files) and any external commands which are exe‐ cuted. This is useful for debugging, but also illustrates arguments made available to an access handler registered by the MagickSetConfirmAccessHandler() C library function. MAGICK_CODER_STABILITY The minimum coder stability level before it will be used. The available levels are PRIMARY, STABLE, UNSTABLE, and BROKEN. The default minimum level is UNSTABLE, which means that all available working coders will be used. The purpose of this option is to reduce the security exposure (or apparent complexity) due to the huge number of formats supported. Coders at the PRIMARY level are commonly used formats with very well maintained implementations. Coders at the STABLE level are reason‐ ably well maintained but represent less used formats. Coders at the UNSTABLE level either have weak implementations, the file format itself is weak, or the probabil‐ ity the coder will be needed is vanishingly small. Coders at the BROKEN level are known to often not work properly or might not be useful in their current state at all. MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH Search path to use when searching for image format coder modules. This path allows the user to arbitrarily extend the image formats supported by GraphicsMagick by adding loadable modules to an arbitrary location rather than copying them into the GraphicsMagick installation directory. The formatting of the search path is similar to operating system search paths (i.e. colon delimited for Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft Windows). This user specified search path is used before trying the default search path. MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH Search path to use when searching for configuration (.mgk) files. The formatting of the search path is similar to operating system search paths (i.e. colon delim‐ ited for Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft Windows). This user specified search path is used before trying the default search path. MAGICK_DEBUG Debug options (see -debug for details). Setting debug options via an environment variable is currently necessary to see the complete initialization process. MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH Search path to use when searching for filter process modules (invoked via -process). This path allows the user to arbitrarily extend GraphicsMagick's image processing functionality by adding loadable modules to an arbitrary location rather than copying them into the GraphicsMagick installation directory. The formatting of the search path is similar to operating system search paths (i.e. colon delimited for Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft Windows). This user specified search path is used before trying the default search path. MAGICK_GHOSTSCRIPT_PATH For Microsoft Windows, specify the path to the Ghostscript installation rather than searching for it via the Windows registry. This helps in case Ghostscript is not installed via the Ghostscript Windows installer or the user wants more control over the Ghostscript used. MAGICK_HOME Path to top of GraphicsMagick installation directory. Only observed by "unin‐ stalled" builds of GraphicsMagick which do not have their location hard-coded or set by an installer. MAGICK_MMAP_READ If MAGICK_MMAP_READ is set to TRUE, GraphicsMagick will attempt to memory-map the input file for reading. This usually substantially improves repeated read perfor‐ mance since the file is already in memory after the first time it has been read. However, testing shows that performance may be reduced for files accessed for the first time since data is accessed via page-faults (upon first access) and many operating systems fail to do sequential read-ahead of memory mapped files, and par‐ ticularly if those files are accessed over a network. If many large input files are read, then enabling this option may harm performance by overloading the operat‐ ing system's VM system as it then needs to free unmapped pages and map new ones. MAGICK_IO_FSYNC If MAGICK_IO_FSYNC is set to TRUE, then GraphicsMagick will request that the output file is fully flushed and synchronized to disk when it is closed. This incurs a performance penalty, but has the benefit that if the power fails or the system crashes, the file should be valid on disk. If image files are referenced from a database, then this option helps assure that the files referenced by the database are valid. MAGICK_IOBUF_SIZE The amount of I/O buffering (in bytes) to use when reading and writing encoded files. The default is 16384, which is observed to work well for many cases. The best value for a local filesystem is usually the the native filesystem block size (e.g. 4096, 8192, or even 131,072 for ZFS) in order to minimize the number of phys‐ ical disk I/O operations. I/O performance to files accessed over a network may benefit significantly by tuning this option. Larger values are not necessarily bet‐ ter (they may be slower!), and there is rarely any benefit from using values larger than 32768. Use convert's -verbose option in order to evaluate read and write rates in pixels per second while keeping in mind that the operating system will try to cache files in RAM. MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK Maximum amount of disk space allowed for use by the pixel cache. MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES Maximum number of open files. MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP Maximum size of a memory mapped file allocation. A memory mapped file consumes memory when the file is accessed, although the system may reclaim such memory when needed. MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY Maximum amount of memory to allocate from the heap. MAGICK_LIMIT_PIXELS Maximum number of total pixels (image rows times image colums) to allow for any image which is requested to be created or read. This is useful to place a limit on how large an image may be. If the input image file has image dimensions larger than the pixel limit, then the image memory allocation is denied and an error is returned immediately. This is a per-image limit and does not limit the total num‐ ber of pixels due to multiple image frames/pages (e.g. multi-page document or an animation). MAGICK_LIMIT_WIDTH Maximum pixel width of an image read, or created. MAGICK_LIMIT_HEIGHT Maximum pixel height of an image read, or created. MAGICK_TMPDIR Path to directory where GraphicsMagick should write temporary files. The default is to use the system default, or the location set by TMPDIR. TMPDIR For POSIX-compatible systems (Unix-compatible), the path to the directory where all applications should write temporary files. Overridden by MAGICK_TMPDIR if it is set. TMP or TEMP For Microsoft Windows, the path to the directory where applications should write temporary files. Overridden by MAGICK_TMPDIR if it is set. OMP_NUM_THREADS As per the OpenMP standard, this specifies the number of threads to use in parallel regions. Some compilers default the number of threads to use to the number of pro‐ cessor cores available while others default to just one thread. See the OpenMP specification for other standard adjustments and your compiler's manual for vendor- specific settings.

CONFIGURATION FILES

GraphicsMagick uses a number of XML format configuration files: colors.mgk colors configuration file <?xml version="1.0"?> <colormap> <color name="AliceBlue" red="240" green="248" blue="255" compliance="SVG, X11, XPM" /> </colormap> delegates.mgk delegates configuration file log.mgk logging configuration file <?xml version="1.0"?> <magicklog> <log events="None" /> <log output="stdout" /> <log filename="Magick-%d.log" /> <log generations="3" /> <log limit="2000" /> <log format="%t %r %u %p %m/%f/%l/%d:\n %e" /> </magicklog> modules.mgk loadable modules configuration file <?xml version="1.0"?> <modulemap> <module magick="8BIM" name="META" /> </modulemap> type.mgk master type (fonts) configuration file <?xml version="1.0"?> <typemap> <include file="type-windows.mgk" /> <type name="AvantGarde-Book" fullname="AvantGarde Book" family="AvantGarde" foundry="URW" weight="400" style="normal" stretch="normal" format="type1" metrics="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.afm" glyphs="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.pfb" /> </typemap>

GM ANIMATE

Animate displays a sequence of images on any workstation display running an X server. ani‐ mate first determines the hardware capabilities of the workstation. If the number of unique colors in an image is less than or equal to the number the workstation can support, the image is displayed in an X window. Otherwise the number of colors in the image is first reduced to match the color resolution of the workstation before it is displayed. This means that a continuous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel image can display on a 8 bit pseudo- color device or monochrome device. In most instances the reduced color image closely resembles the original. Alternatively, a monochrome or pseudo-color image sequence can display on a continuous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel device. To help prevent color flashing on X server visuals that have colormaps, animate creates a single colormap from the image sequence. This can be rather time consuming. You can speed this operation up by reducing the colors in the image before you "animate" them. Use mogrify to color reduce the images to a single colormap. See mogrify(1) for details. Alternatively, you can use a Standard Colormap; or a static, direct, or true color visual. You can define a Standard Colormap with xstdcmap. See xstdcmap(1) for details. This method is recommended for colormapped X server because it eliminates the need to compute a global colormap.

EXAMPLES

To animate a set of images of a cockatoo, use: gm animate cockatoo.* To animate a cockatoo image sequence while using the Standard Colormap best, use: xstdcmap -best gm animate -map best cockatoo.* To animate an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a backdrop, use: gm animate +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.*

OPTIONS

For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -authenticate <string> decrypt image with this password -backdrop display the image centered on a backdrop. -background <color> the background color -bordercolor <color> the border color -borderwidth <geometry> the border width -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} remove pixels from the interior of an image -colormap <type> define the colormap type -colors <value> preferred number of colors in the image -colorspace <value> the type of colorspace -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} preferred size and location of the cropped image -debug <events> enable debug printout -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -delay <1/100ths of a second> display the next image after pausing -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image -depth <value> depth of the image -display <host:display[.screen]> specifies the X server to contact -dispose <method> GIF disposal method -dither apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image -font <name> use this font when annotating the image with text -foreground <color> define the foreground color -gamma <value> level of gamma correction -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>} Specify dimension, offset, and resize options. -help print usage instructions -iconGeometry <geometry> specify the icon geometry -iconic iconic animation -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit -log <string> Specify format for debug log -map <type> display image using this type. -matte store matte channel if the image has one -mattecolor <color> specify the color to be used with the -frame option -monitor show progress indication -monochrome transform the image to black and white -name name an image -noop NOOP (no option) -pause <seconds> pause between animation loops [animate] -remote perform a X11 remote operation -rotate <degrees>{<}{>} rotate the image -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors -scenes <value-value> range of image scene numbers to read -shared-memory use shared memory -size <width>x<height>{+offset} width and height of the image -text-font <name> font for writing fixed-width text -title <string> assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage] -treedepth <value> tree depth for the color reduction algorithm -trim trim an image -type <type> the image type -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string -visual <type> animate images using this X visual type -window <id> make image the background of a window For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for the group of images following it, until the group is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop. For example, to animate three images, the first with 32 colors, the sec‐ ond with an unlimited number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use: gm animate -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2 -colors 16 cockatoo.3 Animate options can appear on the command line or in your X resources file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X resources file. Image filenames may appear in any order on the command line if the image format is MIFF (refer to miff(5) and the scene keyword is specified in the image. Otherwise the images will display in the order they appear on the command line.

MOUSE BUTTONS

Press any button to map or unmap the Command widget. See the next section for more infor‐ mation about the Command widget.

COMMAND WIDGET

The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are Animate Open Play Step Repeat Auto Reverse Speed Faster Slower Direction Forward Reverse Image Info Help Quit Menu items with a indented triangle have a sub-menu. They are represented above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu item, move the pointer to the appropriate menu and press a button and drag. When you find the desired sub-menu item, release the button and the command is executed. Move the pointer away from the sub-menu if you decide not to execute a particular command.

KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS

Ctl+O Press to load an image from a file. space Press to display the next image in the sequence. < Press to speed-up the display of the images. Refer to -delay for more infor‐ mation. > Press to slow the display of the images. Refer to -delay for more informa‐ tion. ? Press to display information about the image. Press any key or button to erase the information. This information is printed: image name; image size; and the total number of unique colors in the image. F1 Press to display helpful information about animate(1). Ctl-q Press to discard all images and exit program.

X RESOURCES

Animate options can appear on the command line or in your X resource file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X resource file. See X(1) for more infor‐ mation on X resources. All animate options have a corresponding X resource. In addition, the animate program uses the following X resources: background (class Background) Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window background. The default is #ccc. borderColor (class BorderColor) Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window border. The default is #ccc. borderWidth (class BorderWidth) Specifies the width in pixels of the Image window border. The default is 2. font (class Font or FontList) Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in normal formatted text. The default is 14 point Helvetica. foreground (class Foreground) Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the Image window. The default is black. geometry (class geometry) Specifies the preferred size and position of the image window. It is not nec‐ essarily obeyed by all window managers. Offsets, if present, are handled in X(1) style. A negative x offset is measured from the right edge of the screen to the right edge of the icon, and a negative y offset is measured from the bottom edge of the screen to the bottom edge of the icon. iconGeometry (class IconGeometry) Specifies the preferred size and position of the application when iconified. It is not necessarily obeyed by all window managers. Offsets, if present, are handled in the same manner as in class Geometry. iconic (class Iconic) This resource indicates that you would prefer that the application's windows initially not be visible as if the windows had be immediately iconified by you. Window managers may choose not to honor the application's request. matteColor (class MatteColor) Specify the color of windows. It is used for the backgrounds of windows, menus, and notices. A 3D effect is achieved by using highlight and shadow colors derived from this color. Default value: #ddd. name (class Name) This resource specifies the name under which resources for the application should be found. This resource is useful in shell aliases to distinguish between invocations of an application, without resorting to creating links to alter the executable file name. The default is the application name. sharedMemory (class SharedMemory) This resource specifies whether animate should attempt use shared memory for pixmaps. ImageMagick must be compiled with shared memory support, and the display must support the MIT-SHM extension. Otherwise, this resource is ignored. The default is True. text_font (class textFont) Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed (typewriter style) formatted text. The default is 14 point Courier. title (class Title) This resource specifies the title to be used for the Image window. This information is sometimes used by a window manager to provide some sort of header identifying the window. The default is the image file name.

GM BATCH

DESCRIPTION

batch executes an arbitary number of the utility commands (e.g. convert) in the form of a simple linear batch script in order to improve execution efficiency, and/or to allow use as a subordinate co-process under the control of an arbitrary script or program.

EXAMPLES

To drive 'gm batch' using a shell script (or a program written in any language), have the script/program send commands to 'gm batch' via its standard input. Specify that standard input should be used by using '-' as the file name. The following example converts all files matching '*.jpg' to TIFF format while rotating each file by 90 degrees and stripping all embedded profiles. The shell script syntax is standard Unix shell: for file in *.jpg do outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff echo convert -verbose "'$file'" -rotate 90 \ +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'" done | gm batch -echo on -feedback on - We can accomplish the same as the previous example by putting all the commands in a text file and then specifying the name of the text file as the script to execute: for file in *.jpg do outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff echo convert -verbose "'$file'" -rotate 90 \ +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'" done > script.txt gm batch -echo on -feedback on script.txt

OPTIONS

Options are processed from left to right and must appear before any filename argument. -echo on|off command echo on or off Specify on to enable echoing commands to standard output as they are read or off to disable. The default is off. -escape unix|windows Parse using unix or windows syntax Commands must be parsed from the input stream and escaping needs to be used to pro‐ tect spaces or quoting characters in the input. Specify unix to use unix-style com‐ mand line parsing or windows for Microsoft Windows command shell style parsing. The default depends on if the software is compiled for Microsoft Windows or for a Unix- type system (including Cygwin on Microsoft Windows). It is recommended to use unix syntax because it is more powerful and more portable. -fail text text to print if a command fails When feedback is enabled, this specifies the text to print when the command fails. The default text is FAIL. -feedback on|off enable error feedback Print text (see -pass and -fail options) feedback after each command to indicate the result, the default is off. -help Prints batch command help. -pass text text to print if a command passes When feedback is enabled, this specifies the text to print when the command passes. The default text is PASS. -prompt text Prompt text to use for command line If no filename argument was specified, a simple command prompt appears where you may enter GraphicsMagick commands. The default prompt is GM>. Use this option to change the prompt to something else. -stop-on-error on|off Specify if command processing stops on error Normally command processing continues if a command encounters an error. Specify -stop-on-error on to cause processing to quit immediately on error.

GM BENCHMARK

DESCRIPTION

benchmark executes an arbitrary gm utility command (e.g. convert) for one or more loops, and/or a specified execution time, and reports many execution metrics. For builds using OpenMP, a mode is provided to execute the benchmark with an increasing number of threads and provide a report of speedup and multi-thread execution efficiency. If benchmark is used to execute a command without any additional benchmark options, then the command is run once.

EXAMPLES

To obtain benchmark information for a single execution of a command: gm benchmark convert input.ppm -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm To obtain benchmark information from 100 iterations of the command: gm benchmark -iterations 100 convert input.ppm \ -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm To obtain benchmark information by iterating the command until a specified amount of time (in seconds) has been consumed: gm benchmark -duration 30 convert input.ppm \ -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm To obtain a full performance report with an increasing number of threads (1-32 threads, stepping the number of threads by four each time): gm benchmark -duration 3 -stepthreads 4 convert \ input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm Here is the interpretation of the output: threads - number of threads used. iter - number of command iterations executed. user - total user time consumed. total - total elapsed time consumed. iter/s - number of command iterations per second. iter/cpu - amount of CPU time consumed per iteration. speedup - speedup compared with one thread. karp-flatt - Karp-Flatt measure of speedup efficiency. Please note that the reported "speedup" is based on the execution time of just one thread. A preliminary warm-up pass is used before timing the first loop in order to ensure that the CPU is brought out of power-saving modes and that system caches are warmed up. Most modern CPUs provide a "turbo" mode where the CPU clock speed is increased (e.g. by a fac‐ tor of two) when only one or two cores are active. If the CPU grows excessively hot (due to insufficient cooling), then it may dial back its clock rates as a form of thermal man‐ agement. These factors result in an under-reporting of speedup compared to if "turbo" mode was disabled and the CPU does not need to worry about thermal management. The power‐ top utility available under Linux and Solaris provides a way to observe CPU core clock rates while a benchmark is running.

OPTIONS

Options are processed from left to right and must appear before any argument. -duration duration duration to run benchmark Specify the number of seconds to run the benchmark. The command is executed repeatedly until the specified amount of time has elapsed. -help Prints benchmark command help. -iterations loops number of command iterations Specify the number of iterations to run the benchmark. The command is executed repeatedly until the specified number of iterations has been reached. -rawcsv Print results in CSV format Print results in a comma-separated value (CSV) format which is easy to parse for plotting or importing into a spreadsheet or database. The values reported are threads, iterations, user_time, and elapsed_time. -stepthreads step execute a per-thread benchmark ramp Execute a per-thread benchmark ramp, incrementing the number of threads at each step by the specified value. The maximum number of threads is taken from the stan‐ dard OMP_NUM_THREADS environment variable.

GM COMPARE

compare compares two similar images using a specified statistical method (see -metric) and/or by writing a difference image (-file), with the altered pixels annotated using a specified method (see -highlight-style) and color (see -highlight-color). Reference-image is the original image and compare-image is the (possibly) altered version, which should have the same dimensions as reference-image.

EXAMPLES

To compare two images using Mean Square Error (MSE) statistical analysis use: gm compare -metric mse original.miff compare.miff To create an annotated difference image use: gm compare -highlight-style assign -highlight-color purple \ -file diff.miff original.miff compare.miff

OPTIONS

Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect only for the image that follows. All options are reset to their default values after each image is read. For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -authenticate <string> decrypt image with this password -colorspace <value> the type of colorspace -debug <events> enable debug printout -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image -depth <value> depth of the image -display <host:display[.screen]> specifies the X server to contact -endian <type> specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image -file <filename> write annotated difference image to file -help print usage instructions -highlight-color <color> pixel annotation color -highlight-style <style> pixel annotation style -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit -log <string> Specify format for debug log -matte store matte channel if the image has one -maximum-error <limit> specifies the maximum amount of total image error -metric <metric> comparison metric (MAE, MSE, PAE, PSNR, RMSE) -monitor show progress indication -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors -size <width>x<height>{+offset} width and height of the image -type <type> the image type -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

GM COMPOSITE

composite composites (combines) images to create new images. base-image is the base image and change-image contains the changes. ouput-image is the result, and normally has the same dimensions as base-image. The optional mask-image can be used to provide opacity information for change-image when it has none or if you want a different mask. A mask image is typically grayscale and the same size as base-image. If mask-image is not grayscale, it is converted to grayscale and the resulting intensities are used as opacity information.

EXAMPLES

To composite an image of a cockatoo with a perch, use: gm composite cockatoo.miff perch.ras composite.miff To compute the difference between images in a series, use: gm composite -compose difference series.2 series.1 difference.miff To composite an image of a cockatoo with a perch starting at location (100,150), use: gm composite -geometry +100+150 cockatoo.miff perch.ras composite.miff To tile a logo across your image of a cockatoo, use gm convert +shade 30x60 cockatoo.miff mask.miff gm composite -compose bumpmap -tile logo.png cockatoo.miff mask.miff composite.miff To composite a red, green, and blue color plane into a single composite image, try gm composite -compose CopyGreen green.png red.png red-green.png gm composite -compose CopyBlue blue.png red-green.png gm composite.png

OPTIONS

Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect only for the image that follows. All options are reset to their default values after each image is read. For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -authenticate <string> decrypt image with this password -background <color> the background color -blue-primary <x>,<y> blue chromaticity primary point -colors <value> preferred number of colors in the image -colorspace <value> the type of colorspace -comment <string> annotate an image with a comment -compose <operator> the type of image composition -compress <type> the type of image compression -debug <events> enable debug printout -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image -depth <value> depth of the image -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale> shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map -display <host:display[.screen]> specifies the X server to contact -dispose <method> GIF disposal method -dissolve <percent> dissolve an image into another by the given percent -dither apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image -encoding <type> specify the text encoding -endian <type> specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image -filter <type> use this type of filter when resizing an image -font <name> use this font when annotating the image with text -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>} Specify dimension, offset, and resize options. -gravity <type> direction primitive gravitates to when annotating the image. -green-primary <x>,<y> green chromaticity primary point -help print usage instructions -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme -label <name> assign a label to an image -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit -log <string> Specify format for debug log -matte store matte channel if the image has one -monitor show progress indication -monochrome transform the image to black and white -negate replace every pixel with its complementary color -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>} size and location of an image canvas -profile <filename> add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile to image -quality <value> JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level -recolor <matrix> apply a color translation matrix to image channels -red-primary <x>,<y> red chromaticity primary point -render render vector operations -repage <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!] Adjust image page offsets -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image -rotate <degrees>{<}{>} rotate the image -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors -scene <value> set scene number -set <attribute> <value> set an image attribute +set <attribute> unset an image attribute -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>} sharpen the image -size <width>x<height>{+offset} width and height of the image -stegano <offset> hide watermark within an image -stereo composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image (quickly) -treedepth <value> tree depth for the color reduction algorithm -trim trim an image -type <type> the image type -units <type> the units of image resolution -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>} sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string -watermark <brightness>x<saturation> percent brightness and saturation of a watermark -white-point <x>,<y> chromaticity white point -write <filename> write an intermediate image [convert, composite] For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

GM CONJURE

The Magick scripting language (MSL) will primarily benefit those that want to accomplish custom image processing tasks but do not wish to program, or those that do not have access to a Perl interpreter or a compiler. The interpreter is called conjure and here is an example script: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <image size="400x400" > <read filename="image.gif" /> <get width="base-width" height="base-height" /> <resize geometry="%[dimensions]" /> <get width="width" height="height" /> <print output= "Image sized from %[base-width]x%[base-height] to %[width]x%[height].\n" /> <write filename="image.png" /> </image> invoked with gm conjure -dimensions 400x400 incantation.msl All operations will closely follow the key/value pairs defined in PerlMagick, unless oth‐ erwise noted.

OPTIONS

Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by specifying the option again with a different effect, or if it is changed by a statement in the scripting language. You can define your own keyword/value pairs on the command line. The script can then use this information when setting values by including %[keyword] in the string. For example, if you included "-dimensions 400x400" on the command line, as illustrated above, then any string containing "%[dimensions]" would have 400x400 substituted. The "%[string]" can be used either an entire string, such as geometry="%[dimensions]" or as a part of a string such as filename="%[basename].png". The keyword can be any string except for the following reserved strings (in any upper, lower, or mixed case variant): debug, help, and verbose, whose usage is described below. The value can be any string. If either the keyword or the value contains white space or any symbols that have special meanings to your shell such as "#", "|", or "%", enclose the string in quotation marks or use "\" to escape the white space and special symbols. Keywords and values are case dependent. "Key", "key", and "KEY" would be three different keywords. For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -debug <events> enable debug printout -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -help print usage instructions -log <string> Specify format for debug log -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string

MAGICK SCRIPTING LANGUAGE

The Magick Scripting Language (MSL) presently defines the following elements and their attributes: <image> background, color, id, size Define a new image object. </image> destroys it. Because of this, if you wish to reference multiple "subimages" (aka pages or layers), you can embed one image element inside of another. For example: <image> <read filename="input.png" /> <get width="base-width" height="base-height" /> <image height="base-height" width="base-width"> <image /> <write filename="output.mng" /> </image> <image size="400x400" /> <group> Define a new group of image objects. By default, images are only valid for the life of their <image>element. <image> -- creates the image ..... -- do stuff with it </image> -- dispose of the image However, in a group, all images in that group will stay around for the life of the group: <group> -- start a group <image> -- create an image .... -- do stuff </image> -- NOOP <image> -- create another image .... -- do more stuff </image> -- NOOP <write filename="image.mng" /> -- output </group> -- dispose of both images <read> filename Read a new image from a disk file. <read filename="image.gif" /> To read two images use <read filename="image.gif" /> <read filename="image.png /> <write> filename Write the image(s) to disk, either as a single multiple-image file or multi‐ ple ones if necessary. <write filename=image.tiff" /> <get> Get any attribute recognized by PerlMagick's GetAttribute() and stores it as an image attribute for later use. Currently only width and height are sup‐ ported. <get width="base-width" height="base-height" /> <print output="Image size is %[base-width]x%[base-height].\n" /> <set> background, bordercolor, clip-mask, colorspace, density, magick, mattecolor, opacity. Set an attribute recognized by PerlMagick's GetAttribute(). <profile> [profilename] Read one or more IPTC, ICC or generic profiles from file and assign to image <profile iptc="profile.iptc" generic="generic.dat" /> To remove a specified profile use "!" as the filename eg <profile icm="!" iptc="profile.iptc" /> <border> fill, geometry, height, width <blur> radius, sigma <charcoal> radius, sigma <chop> geometry, height, width, x, y <crop> geometry, height, width, x, y <composite> compose, geometry, gravity, image, x, y <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <group> <image id="image_01"> <read filename="cloud3.gif"/> <resize geometry="250x90"/> </image> <image id="image_02"> <read filename="cloud4.gif"/> <resize geometry="190x100"/> </image> <image> <read filename="background.jpg"/> <composite image="image_01" geometry="+740+470"/> <composite image="image_02" geometry="+390+415"/> </image> <write filename="result.png"/> </group> <despeckle> <emboss> radius, sigma <enhance> <equalize> <edge> radius <flip> <flop> <frame> fill, geometry, height, width, x, y, inner, outer <flatten> <get> height, width <gamma> red, green, blue <image> background, color, id, size <implode> amount <magnify> <minify> <medianfilter> radius <normalize> <oilpaint> radius <print> output <profile> [profilename] <read> <resize> blur, filter, geometry, height, width <roll> geometry, x, y <rotate> degrees <reducenoise> radius <sample> geometry, height, width <scale> geometry, height, width <sharpen> radius, sigma <shave> geometry, height, width <shear> x, y <solarize> threshold <spread> radius <stegano> image <stereo> image <swirl> degrees <texture> image <threshold> threshold <transparent> color <trim>

GM CONVERT

Convert converts an input file using one image format to an output file with a differing image format. In addition, various types of image processing can be performed on the con‐ verted image during the conversion process. Convert recognizes the image formats listed in GraphicsMagick(1).

EXAMPLES

To make a thumbnail of a JPEG image, use: gm convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120 +profile "*" thumbnail.jpg In this example, '-size 120x120' gives a hint to the JPEG decoder that the image is going to be downscaled to 120x120, allowing it to run faster by avoiding returning full-resolu‐ tion images to GraphicsMagick for the subsequent resizing operation. The ´-resize 120x120' specifies the desired dimensions of the output image. It will be scaled so its largest dimension is 120 pixels. The ´+profile "*"' removes any ICM, EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles that might be present in the input and aren't needed in the thumbnail. To convert a MIFF image of a cockatoo to a SUN raster image, use: gm convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras To convert a multi-page PostScript document to individual FAX pages, use: gm convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page To convert a TIFF image to a PostScript A4 page with the image in the lower left-hand cor‐ ner, use: gm convert -page A4+0+0 image.tiff document.ps To convert a raw Gray image with a 128 byte header to a portable graymap, use: gm convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw image.pgm In this example, "raw" is the input file. Its format is "gray" and it has the dimensions and number of header bytes specified by the -size option and the sample depth specified by the -depth option. The output file is "image.pgm". The suffix ".pgm" specifies its for‐ mat. To convert a Photo CD image to a TIFF image, use: gm convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff gm convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff To create a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use: gm convert 'vid:*.jpg' directory.miff To annotate an image with blue text using font 12x24 at position (100,100), use: gm convert -font helvetica -fill blue -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo" bird.jpg bird.miff To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with bumps use: gm convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg tiled.png To surround an icon with an ornamental border to use with Mosaic(1), use: gm convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame 6x6 bird.jpg icon.png To create a MNG animation from a DNA molecule sequence, use: gm convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.mng

OPTIONS

Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows, until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop. Some options only affect the decoding of images and others only the encoding. The latter can appear after the final group of input images. For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -adjoin join images into a single multi-image file -affine <matrix> drawing transform matrix -antialias remove pixel aliasing -append append a set of images -asc-cdl <spec> apply ASC CDL color transform -authenticate <string> decrypt image with this password -auto-orient orient (rotate) image so it is upright -average average a set of images -background <color> the background color -black-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity] pixels below the threshold become black -blue-primary <x>,<y> blue chromaticity primary point -blur <radius>{x<sigma>} blur the image with a Gaussian operator -border <width>x<height> surround the image with a border of color -bordercolor <color> the border color -box <color> set the color of the annotation bounding box -channel <type> the type of channel -charcoal <factor> simulate a charcoal drawing -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} remove pixels from the interior of an image -clip apply the clipping path, if one is present -coalesce merge a sequence of images -colorize <value> colorize the image with the pen color -colors <value> preferred number of colors in the image -colorspace <value> the type of colorspace -comment <string> annotate an image with a comment -compose <operator> the type of image composition -compress <type> the type of image compression -contrast enhance or reduce the image contrast -convolve <kernel> convolve image with the specified convolution kernel -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} preferred size and location of the cropped image -cycle <amount> displace image colormap by amount -debug <events> enable debug printout -deconstruct break down an image sequence into constituent parts -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -delay <1/100ths of a second> display the next image after pausing -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image -depth <value> depth of the image -despeckle reduce the speckles within an image -display <host:display[.screen]> specifies the X server to contact -dispose <method> GIF disposal method -dither apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image -draw <string> annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives -edge <radius> detect edges within an image -emboss <radius> emboss an image -encoding <type> specify the text encoding -endian <type> specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image -enhance apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image -equalize perform histogram equalization to the image -extent <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y> composite image on background color canvas image -fill <color> color to use when filling a graphic primitive -filter <type> use this type of filter when resizing an image -flatten flatten a sequence of images -flip create a "mirror image" -flop create a "mirror image" -font <name> use this font when annotating the image with text -format <string> output formatted image characteristics -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width> surround the image with an ornamental border -fuzz <distance>{%} colors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal -gamma <value> level of gamma correction -gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>} blur the image with a Gaussian operator -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>} Specify dimension, offset, and resize options. -gravity <type> direction primitive gravitates to when annotating the image. -green-primary <x>,<y> green chromaticity primary point -hald-clut <clut> apply a Hald CLUT to the image -help print usage instructions -implode <factor> implode image pixels about the center -intent <type> use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme -label <name> assign a label to an image -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%} perform local adaptive thresholding -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%} adjust the level of image contrast -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit -list <type> the type of list -log <string> Specify format for debug log -loop <iterations> add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation -magnify magnify the image -map <filename> choose a particular set of colors from this image -mask <filename> Specify a clipping mask -matte store matte channel if the image has one -mattecolor <color> specify the color to be used with the -frame option -median <radius> apply a median filter to the image -minify <factor> minify the image -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]] vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image -monitor show progress indication -monochrome transform the image to black and white -morph <frames> morphs an image sequence -mosaic create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence -motion-blur <radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle} Simulate motion blur -negate replace every pixel with its complementary color -noise <radius|type> add or reduce noise in an image -noop NOOP (no option) -normalize transform image to span the full range of color values -opaque <color> change this color to the pen color within the image -operator channel operator rvalue[%] apply a mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to an image channel -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN> ordered dither the image -orient <orientation> Set the image orientation attribute -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>} size and location of an image canvas -paint <radius> simulate an oil painting -pen <color> (This option has been replaced by the -fill option) -ping efficiently determine image characteristics -pointsize <value> pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font -preview <type> image preview type -process <command> process a sequence of images using a process module -profile <filename> add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile to image -quality <value> JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level -raise <width>x<height> lighten or darken image edges -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH> random threshold the image -recolor <matrix> apply a color translation matrix to image channels -red-primary <x>,<y> red chromaticity primary point -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y> apply options to a portion of the image -render render vector operations -repage <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!] Adjust image page offsets -resample <horizontal>x<vertical> Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y> roll an image vertically or horizontally -rotate <degrees>{<}{>} rotate the image -sample <geometry> scale image using pixel sampling -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors -scale <geometry> scale the image. -scene <value> set scene number -set <attribute> <value> set an image attribute +set <attribute> unset an image attribute -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold> segment an image -shade <azimuth>x<elevation> shade the image using a distant light source -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>} sharpen the image -shave <width>x<height>{%} shave pixels from the image edges -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees> shear the image along the X or Y axis -size <width>x<height>{+offset} width and height of the image -solarize <factor> negate all pixels above the threshold level -spread <amount> displace image pixels by a random amount -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image -stroke <color> color to use when stroking a graphic primitive -strokewidth <value> set the stroke width -swirl <degrees> swirl image pixels about the center -texture <filename> name of texture to tile onto the image background -threshold <value>{%} threshold the image -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image (quickly) -tile <filename> tile image when filling a graphic primitive -transform transform the image -transparent <color> make this color transparent within the image -treedepth <value> tree depth for the color reduction algorithm -trim trim an image -type <type> the image type -units <type> the units of image resolution -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>} sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator -use-pixmap use the pixmap -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string -view <string> FlashPix viewing parameters -virtual-pixel <method> specify contents of "virtual pixels" -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength> alter an image along a sine wave -white-point <x>,<y> chromaticity white point -white-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity] pixels above the threshold become white -write <filename> write an intermediate image [convert, composite] For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

GM DISPLAY

Display is a machine architecture independent image processing and display program. It can display an image on any workstation screen running an X server. Display can read and write many of the more popular image formats (e.g. JPEG, TIFF, PNM, Photo CD, etc.). With display, you can perform these functions on an image: o load an image from a file o display the next image o display the former image o display a sequence of images as a slide show o write the image to a file o print the image to a PostScript printer o delete the image file o create a Visual Image Directory o select the image to display by its thumbnail rather than name o undo last image transformation o copy a region of the image o paste a region to the image o restore the image to its original size o refresh the image o half the image size o double the image size o resize the image o crop the image o cut the image o flop image in the horizontal direction o flip image in the vertical direction o rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise o rotate the image 90 degrees counter-clockwise o rotate the image o shear the image o roll the image o trim the image edges o invert the colors of the image o vary the color brightness o vary the color saturation o vary the image hue o gamma correct the image o sharpen the image contrast o dull the image contrast o perform histogram equalization on the image o perform histogram normalization on the image o negate the image colors o convert the image to grayscale o set the maximum number of unique colors in the image o reduce the speckles within an image o eliminate peak noise from an image o detect edges within the image o emboss an image o segment the image by color o simulate an oil painting o simulate a charcoal drawing o annotate the image with text o draw on the image o edit an image pixel color o edit the image matte information o composite an image with another o add a border to the image o surround image with an ornamental border o apply image processing techniques to a region of interest o display information about the image o zoom a portion of the image o show a histogram of the image o display image to background of a window o set user preferences o display information about this program o discard all images and exit program o change the level of magnification o display images specified by a World Wide Web (WWW) uniform resource locator (URL)

EXAMPLES

To scale an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in width and 480 pixels in height and position the window at location (200,200), use: gm display -geometry 640x480+200+200! cockatoo.miff To display an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a backdrop, use: gm display +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.miff To tile a slate texture onto the root window, use: gm display -size 1280x1024 -window root slate.png To display a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use: gm display 'vid:*.jpg' To display a MAP image that is 640 pixels in width and 480 pixels in height with 256 col‐ ors, use: gm display -size 640x480+256 cockatoo.map To display an image of a cockatoo specified with a World Wide Web (WWW) uniform resource locator (URL), use: gm display ftp://wizards.dupont.com/images/cockatoo.jpg To display histogram of an image, use: gm gm convert file.jpg HISTOGRAM:- | gm display -

OPTIONS

Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by specifying the option again with a different effect. For example to display three images, the first with 32 colors, the sec‐ ond with an unlimited number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use: gm display -colors 32 cockatoo.miff -noop duck.miff -colors 16 macaw.miff Display options can appear on the command line or in your X resources file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X resources file. For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -authenticate <string> decrypt image with this password -backdrop display the image centered on a backdrop. -background <color> the background color -border <width>x<height> surround the image with a border of color -bordercolor <color> the border color -borderwidth <geometry> the border width -colormap <type> define the colormap type -colors <value> preferred number of colors in the image -colorspace <value> the type of colorspace -comment <string> annotate an image with a comment -compress <type> the type of image compression -contrast enhance or reduce the image contrast -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} preferred size and location of the cropped image -debug <events> enable debug printout -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -delay <1/100ths of a second> display the next image after pausing -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image -depth <value> depth of the image -despeckle reduce the speckles within an image -display <host:display[.screen]> specifies the X server to contact -dispose <method> GIF disposal method -dither apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image -edge <radius> detect edges within an image -endian <type> specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image -enhance apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image -filter <type> use this type of filter when resizing an image -flip create a "mirror image" -flop create a "mirror image" -font <name> use this font when annotating the image with text -foreground <color> define the foreground color -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width> surround the image with an ornamental border -gamma <value> level of gamma correction -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>} Specify dimension, offset, and resize options. -help print usage instructions -iconGeometry <geometry> specify the icon geometry -iconic iconic animation -immutable make image immutable -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme -label <name> assign a label to an image -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit -log <string> Specify format for debug log -magnify <factor> magnify the image -map <type> display image using this type. -matte store matte channel if the image has one -mattecolor <color> specify the color to be used with the -frame option -monitor show progress indication -monochrome transform the image to black and white -name name an image -negate replace every pixel with its complementary color -noop NOOP (no option) -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>} size and location of an image canvas +progress disable progress monitor and busy cursor -quality <value> JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level -raise <width>x<height> lighten or darken image edges -remote perform a X11 remote operation -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y> roll an image vertically or horizontally -rotate <degrees>{<}{>} rotate the image -sample <geometry> scale image using pixel sampling -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors -scenes <value-value> range of image scene numbers to read -set <attribute> <value> set an image attribute +set <attribute> unset an image attribute -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold> segment an image -shared-memory use shared memory -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>} sharpen the image -size <width>x<height>{+offset} width and height of the image -text-font <name> font for writing fixed-width text -texture <filename> name of texture to tile onto the image background -title <string> assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage] -treedepth <value> tree depth for the color reduction algorithm -trim trim an image -type <type> the image type -update <seconds> detect when image file is modified and redisplay. -use-pixmap use the pixmap -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string -visual <type> animate images using this X visual type -window <id> make image the background of a window -window-group specify the window group -write <filename> write the image to a file [display] For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

MOUSE BUTTONS

The effects of each button press is described below. Three buttons are required. If you have a two button mouse, button 1 and 3 are returned. Press ALT and button 3 to simulate button 2. 1 Press this button to map or unmap the Command widget . See the next section for more information about the Command widget. 2 Press and drag to define a region of the image to magnify. 3 Press and drag to choose from a select set of display(1) commands. This button behaves differently if the image being displayed is a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile of the directory and press this button and drag to select a command from a pop-up menu. Choose from these menu items: Open Next Former Delete Update If you choose Open, the image represented by the tile is displayed. To return to the visual image directory, choose Next from the Command widget (refer to Command Widget). Next and Former moves to the next or former image respectively. Choose Delete to delete a particular image tile. Finally, choose Update to synchronize all the image tiles with their respective images. See montage and miff for more details.

COMMAND WIDGET

The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are File Open... Next Former Select... Save... Print... Delete... Canvas... Visual Directory... Quit Edit Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste View Half Size Original Size Double Size Resize... Apply Refresh Restore Transform Crop Chop Flop Flip Rotate Right Rotate Left Rotate... Shear... Roll... Trim Edges Enhance Hue... Saturation... Brightness... Gamma... Spiff... Dull Equalize Normalize Negate GRAYscale Quantize... Effects Despeckle Emboss Reduce Noise Add Noise Sharpen... Blur... Threshold... Edge Detect... Spread... Shade... Raise... Segment... F/X Solarize... Swirl... Implode... Wave... Oil Paint... Charcoal Draw... Image Edit Annotate... Draw... Color... Matte... Composite... Add Border... Add Frame... Comment... Launch... Region of Interest... Miscellany Image Info Zoom Image Show Preview... Show Histogram Show Matte Background... Slide Show Preferences... Help Overview Browse Documentation About Display Menu items with a indented triangle have a sub-menu. They are represented above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu item, move the pointer to the appropriate menu and press button 1 and drag. When you find the desired sub-menu item, release the button and the command is executed. Move the pointer away from the sub-menu if you decide not to execute a particular command.

KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS

Accelerators are one or two key presses that effect a particular command. The keyboard accelerators that display understands is: Ctl+O Press to load an image from a file. space Press to display the next image. If the image is a multi-paged document such as a PostScript document, you can skip ahead several pages by preceding this command with a number. For example to display the fourth page beyond the current page, press 4space. backspace Press to display the former image. If the image is a multi-paged document such as a PostScript document, you can skip behind several pages by preceding this command with a number. For example to display the fourth page preceding the current page, press 4n. Ctl-S Press to save the image to a file. Ctl-P Press to print the image to a PostScript printer. Ctl-D Press to delete an image file. Ctl-N Press to create a blank canvas. Ctl-Q Press to discard all images and exit program. Ctl+Z Press to undo last image transformation. Ctl+R Press to redo last image transformation. Ctl-X Press to cut a region of the image. Ctl-C Press to copy a region of the image. Ctl-V Press to paste a region to the image. < Press to halve the image size. . Press to return to the original image size. > Press to double the image size. % Press to resize the image to a width and height you specify. Cmd-A Press to make any image transformations permanent. By default, any image size transformations are applied to the original image to create the image displayed on the X server. However, the transformations are not permanent (i.e. the original image does not change size only the X image does). For example, if you press ">" the X image will appear to double in size, but the original image will in fact remain the same size. To force the original image to double in size, press ">" followed by "Cmd-A". @ Press to refresh the image window. C Press to crop the image. [ Press to chop the image. H Press to flop image in the horizontal direction. V Press to flip image in the vertical direction. / Press to rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise. \ Press to rotate the image 90 degrees counter-clockwise. * Press to rotate the image the number of degrees you specify. S Press to shear the image the number of degrees you specify. R Press to roll the image. T Press to trim the image edges. Shft-H Press to vary the color hue. Shft-S Press to vary the color saturation. Shft-L Press to vary the image brightness. Shft-G Press to gamma correct the image. Shft-C Press to spiff up the image contrast. Shft-Z Press to dull the image contrast. = Press to perform histogram equalization on the image. Shft-N Press to perform histogram normalization on the image. Shft-~ Press to negate the colors of the image. . Press to convert the image colors to gray. Shft-# Press to set the maximum number of unique colors in the image. F2 Press to reduce the speckles in an image. F2 Press to emboss an image. F4 Press to eliminate peak noise from an image. F5 Press to add noise to an image. F6 Press to sharpen an image. F7 Press to blur image an image. F8 Press to threshold the image. F9 Press to detect edges within an image. F10 Press to displace pixels by a random amount. F11 Press to shade the image using a distant light source. F12 Press to lighten or darken image edges to create a 3-D effect. F13 Press to segment the image by color. Meta-S Press to swirl image pixels about the center. Meta-I Press to implode image pixels about the center. Meta-W Press to alter an image along a sine wave. Meta-P Press to simulate an oil painting. Meta-C Press to simulate a charcoal drawing. Alt-X Press to composite the image with another. Alt-A Press to annotate the image with text. Alt-D Press to draw a line on the image. Alt-P Press to edit an image pixel color. Alt-M Press to edit the image matte information. Alt-X Press to composite the image with another. Alt-A Press to add a border to the image. Alt-F Press to add a ornamental frame to the image. Alt-Shft-! Press to add an image comment. Ctl-A Press to apply image processing techniques to a region of interest. Shft-? Press to display information about the image. Shft-+ Press to map the zoom image window. Shft-P Press to preview an image enhancement, effect, or f/x. F1 Press to display helpful information about the "display" utility. Find Press to browse documentation about GraphicsMagick. 1-9 Press to change the level of magnification. Use the arrow keys to move the image one pixel up, down, left, or right within the magnify window. Be sure to first map the magnify window by pressing button 2. Press ALT and one of the arrow keys to trim off one pixel from any side of the image.

X RESOURCES

Display options can appear on the command line or in your X resource file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X resource file. See X(1) for more infor‐ mation on X resources. Most display options have a corresponding X resource. In addition, display uses the fol‐ lowing X resources: background (class Background) Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window background. The default is #ccc. borderColor (class BorderColor) Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window border. The default is #ccc. borderWidth (class BorderWidth) Specifies the width in pixels of the image window border. The default is 2. browseCommand (class browseCommand) Specifies the name of the preferred browser when displaying GraphicsMagick docu‐ mentation. The default is netscape %s. confirmExit (class ConfirmExit) Display pops up a dialog box to confirm exiting the program when exiting the pro‐ gram. Set this resource to False to exit without a confirmation. displayGamma (class DisplayGamma) Specifies the gamma of the X server. You can apply separate gamma values to the red, green, and blue channels of the image with a gamma value list delineated with slashes (i.e. 1.7/2.3/1.2). The default is 2.2. displayWarnings (class DisplayWarnings) Display pops up a dialog box whenever a warning message occurs. Set this resource to False to ignore warning messages. font (class FontList) Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in normal formatted text. The default is 14 point Helvetica. font[1-9] (class Font[1-9]) Specifies the name of the preferred font to use when annotating the image window with text. The default fonts are fixed, variable, 5x8, 6x10, 7x13bold, 8x13bold, 9x15bold, 10x20, and 12x24. foreground (class Foreground) Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the image window. The default is black. gammaCorrect (class gammaCorrect) This resource, if true, will lighten or darken an image of known gamma to match the gamma of the display (see resource displayGamma). The default is True. geometry (class Geometry) Specifies the preferred size and position of the image window. It is not necessar‐ ily obeyed by all window managers. Offsets, if present, are handled in X(1) style. A negative x offset is measured from the right edge of the screen to the right edge of the icon, and a negative y offset is measured from the bottom edge of the screen to the bottom edge of the icon. iconGeometry (class IconGeometry) Specifies the preferred size and position of the application when iconified. It is not necessarily obeyed by all window managers. Offsets, if present, are handled in the same manner as in class Geometry. iconic (class Iconic) This resource indicates that you would prefer that the application's windows ini‐ tially not be visible as if the windows had be immediately iconified by you. Window managers may choose not to honor the application's request. magnify (class Magnify) specifies an integral factor by which the image should be enlarged. The default is 3. This value only affects the magnification window which is invoked with button number 3 after the image is displayed. matteColor (class MatteColor) Specify the color of windows. It is used for the backgrounds of windows, menus, and notices. A 3D effect is achieved by using highlight and shadow colors derived from this color. Default value: #697B8F. name (class Name) This resource specifies the name under which resources for the application should be found. This resource is useful in shell aliases to distinguish between invoca‐ tions of an application, without resorting to creating links to alter the exe‐ cutable file name. The default is the application name. pen[1-9] (class Pen[1-9]) Specifies the color of the preferred font to use when annotating the image window with text. The default colors are black, blue, green, cyan, gray, red, magenta, yellow, and white. printCommand (class PrintCommand) This command is executed whenever Print is issued. In general, it is the command to print PostScript to your printer. Default value: lp -c -s %i. sharedMemory (class SharedMemory) This resource specifies whether display should attempt use shared memory for pixmaps. GraphicsMagick must be compiled with shared memory support, and the dis‐ play must support the MIT-SHM extension. Otherwise, this resource is ignored. The default is True. textFont (class textFont) Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed (typewriter style) for‐ matted text. The default is 14 point Courier. title (class Title) This resource specifies the title to be used for the image window. This informa‐ tion is sometimes used by a window manager to provide a header identifying the win‐ dow. The default is the image file name. undoCache (class UndoCache) Specifies, in mega-bytes, the amount of memory in the undo edit cache. Each time you modify the image it is saved in the undo edit cache as long as memory is avail‐ able. You can subsequently undo one or more of these transformations. The default is 16 Megabytes. usePixmap (class UsePixmap) Images are maintained as a XImage by default. Set this resource to True to utilize a server Pixmap instead. This option is useful if your image exceeds the dimensions of your server screen and you intend to pan the image. Panning is much faster with Pixmaps than with a XImage. Pixmaps are considered a precious resource, use them with discretion. To set the geometry of the Magnify or Pan or window, use the geometry resource. For example, to set the Pan window geometry to 256x256, use: gm display.pan.geometry: 256x256

IMAGE LOADING

To select an image to display, choose Open of the File sub-menu from the Command widget. A file browser is displayed. To choose a particular image file, move the pointer to the filename and press any button. The filename is copied to the text window. Next, press Open or press the RETURN key. Alternatively, you can type the image file name directly into the text window. To descend directories, choose a directory name and press the button twice quickly. A scrollbar allows a large list of filenames to be moved through the viewing area if it exceeds the size of the list area. You can trim the list of file names by using shell globbing characters. For example, type *.jpg to list only files that end with .jpg. To select your image from the X server screen instead of from a file, Choose Grab of the Open widget.

VISUAL IMAGE DIRECTORY

To create a Visual Image Directory, choose Visual Directory of the File sub-menu from the Command widget . A file browser is displayed. To create a Visual Image Directory from all the images in the current directory, press Directory or press the RETURN key. Alterna‐ tively, you can select a set of image names by using shell globbing characters. For exam‐ ple, type *.jpg to include only files that end with .jpg. To descend directories, choose a directory name and press the button twice quickly. A scrollbar allows a large list of filenames to be moved through the viewing area if it exceeds the size of the list area. After you select a set of files, they are turned into thumbnails and tiled onto a single image. Now move the pointer to a particular thumbnail and press button 3 and drag. Finally, select Open. The image represented by the thumbnail is displayed at its full size. Choose Next from the File sub-menu of the Command widget to return to the Visual Image Directory.

IMAGE CUTTING

Note that cut information for image window is not retained for colormapped X server visu‐ als (e.g. StaticColor, StaticColor, GRAYScale, PseudoColor). Correct cutting behavior may require a TrueColor or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap. To begin, press choose Cut of the Edit sub-menu from the Command widget. Alternatively, press F3 in the image window. A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image window. You are now in cut mode. In cut mode, the Command widget has these options: Help Dismiss To define a cut region, press button 1 and drag. The cut region is defined by a high‐ lighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it follows the pointer. Once you are satis‐ fied with the cut region, release the button. You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the Command widget has these options: Cut Help Dismiss You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the cut rectangle corners, press‐ ing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Cut to commit your copy region. To exit without cutting the image, press Dismiss.

IMAGE COPYING

To begin, press choose Copy of the Edit sub-menu from the Command widget. Alternatively, press F4 in the image window. A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image window. You are now in copy mode. In copy mode, the Command widget has these options: Help Dismiss To define a copy region, press button 1 and drag. The copy region is defined by a high‐ lighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it follows the pointer. Once you are satis‐ fied with the copy region, release the button. You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the Command widget has these options: Copy Help Dismiss You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the copy rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Copy to commit your copy region. To exit without copying the image, press Dismiss.

IMAGE PASTING

To begin, press choose Paste of the Edit sub-menu from the Command widget. Alternatively, press F5 in the image window. A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image window. You are now in Paste mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In Paste mode, the Command widget has these options: Operators over in out atop xor plus minus add subtract difference multiply bumpmap replace Help Dismiss Choose a composite operation from the Operators sub-menu of the Command widget. How each operator behaves is described below. image window is the image currently displayed on your X server and image is the image obtained with the File Browser widget. over The result is the union of the two image shapes, with image obscuring image window in the region of overlap. in The result is simply image cut by the shape of image window. None of the image data of image window is in the result. out The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut out. atop The result is the same shape as image window, with image obscuring image window where the image shapes overlap. Note this differs from over because the portion of image outside image window's shape does not appear in the result. xor The result is the image data from both image and image window that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is blank. plus The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are cropped to the maximum value (no overflow). This operation is independent of the matte channels. minus The result of image - image window, with underflow cropped to zero. The matte channel is ignored (set to opaque, full coverage). add The result of image + image window, with overflow wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1). subtract The result of image - image window, with underflow wrapping around (mod MaxRGB+1). The add and subtract operators can be used to perform reversible transformations. difference The result of abs(image - image window). This is useful for comparing two very similar images. multiply The result of image * image window. This is useful for the creation of drop-shad‐ ows. bumpmap The result of image window shaded by window. replace The resulting image is image window replaced with image. Here the matte informa‐ tion is ignored. The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the image for some oper‐ ations. This extra channel usually defines a mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is the case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels inside the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the boundary. If image does not have a matte channel, it is initialized with 0 for any pixel match‐ ing in color to pixel location (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method of defining a matte channel. Note that matte information for image window is not retained for colormapped X server visuals (e.g. StaticColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, PseudoColor). Correct compositing behavior may require a TrueColor or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap. Choosing a composite operator is optional. The default operator is replace. How‐ ever, you must choose a location to composite your image and press button 1. Press and hold the button before releasing and an outline of the image will appear to help you identify your location. The actual colors of the pasted image is saved. However, the color that appears in image window may be different. For example, on a monochrome screen image window will appear black or white even though your pasted image may have many colors. If the image is saved to a file it is written with the correct colors. To assure the correct colors are saved in the final image, any PseudoClass image is promoted to DirectClass. To force a PseudoClass image to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

IMAGE CROPPING

To begin, press choose Crop of the Transform submenu from the Command widget. Alterna‐ tively, press C in the image window. A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image window. You are now in crop mode. In crop mode, the Command widget has these options: Help Dismiss To define a cropping region, press button 1 and drag. The cropping region is defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it follows the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the cropping region, release the button. You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the Command widget has these options: Crop Help Dismiss You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the cropping rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Crop to commit your cropping region. To exit without cropping the image, press Dismiss.

IMAGE CHOPPING

An image is chopped interactively. There is no command line argument to chop an image. To begin, choose Chop of the Transform sub-menu from the Command widget. Alternatively, press [ in the Image window. You are now in Chop mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In Chop mode, the Command widget has these options: Direction horizontal vertical Help Dismiss If the you choose the horizontal direction (this is the default), the area of the image between the two horizontal endpoints of the chop line is removed. Otherwise, the area of the image between the two vertical endpoints of the chop line is removed. Select a location within the image window to begin your chop, press and hold any button. Next, move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move a line will connect the initial location and the pointer. When you release the button, the area within the image to chop is determined by which direction you choose from the Command widget. To cancel the image chopping, move the pointer back to the starting point of the line and release the button.

IMAGE ROTATION

Press the / key to rotate the image 90 degrees or \ to rotate -90 degrees. To interac‐ tively choose the degree of rotation, choose Rotate... of the Transform submenu from the Command Widget. Alternatively, press * in the image window. A small horizontal line is drawn next to the pointer. You are now in rotate mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In rotate mode, the Command widget has these options: Pixel Color black blue cyan green gray red magenta yellow white Browser... Direction horizontal vertical Help Dismiss Choose a background color from the Pixel Color sub-menu. Additional background colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9. If you choose the color browser and press Grab, you can select the background color by moving the pointer to the desired color on the screen and press any button. Choose a point in the image window and press this button and hold. Next, move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move a line connects the initial location and the pointer. When you release the button, the degree of image rotation is determined by the slope of the line you just drew. The slope is relative to the direction you choose from the Direction sub-menu of the Command widget. To cancel the image rotation, move the pointer back to the starting point of the line and release the button.

IMAGE ANNOTATION

An image is annotated interactively. There is no command line argument to annotate an image. To begin, choose Annotate of the Image Edit sub-menu from the Command widget. Alternatively, press a in the image window. A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image window. You are now in annotate mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In annotate mode, the Command wid‐ get has these options: Font Name fixed variable 5x8 6x10 7x13bold 8x13bold 9x15bold 10x20 12x24 Browser... Font Color black blue cyan green gray red magenta yellow white transparent Browser... Box Color black blue cyan green gray red magenta yellow white transparent Browser... Rotate Text -90 -45 -30 0 30 45 90 180 Dialog... Help Dismiss Choose a font name from the Font Name sub-menu. Additional font names can be specified with the font browser. You can change the menu names by setting the X resources font1 through font9. Choose a font color from the Font Color sub-menu. Additional font colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9. If you select the color browser and press Grab, you can choose the font color by moving the pointer to the desired color on the screen and press any button. If you choose to rotate the text, choose Rotate Text from the menu and select an angle. Typically you will only want to rotate one line of text at a time. Depending on the angle you choose, subsequent lines may end up overwriting each other. Choosing a font and its color is optional. The default font is fixed and the default color is black. However, you must choose a location to begin entering text and press a button. An underscore character will appear at the location of the pointer. The cursor changes to a pencil to indicate you are in text mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In text mode, any key presses will display the character at the location of the underscore and advance the underscore cursor. Enter your text and once completed press Apply to fin‐ ish your image annotation. To correct errors press BACK SPACE. To delete an entire line of text, press DELETE. Any text that exceeds the boundaries of the image window is automati‐ cally continued onto the next line. The actual color you request for the font is saved in the image. However, the color that appears in your Image window may be different. For example, on a monochrome screen the text will appear black or white even if you choose the color red as the font color. How‐ ever, the image saved to a file with -write is written with red lettering. To assure the correct color text in the final image, any PseudoClass image is promoted to DirectClass (see miff(5)). To force a PseudoClass image to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

IMAGE COMPOSITING

An image composite is created interactively. There is no command line argument to compos‐ ite an image. To begin, choose Composite of the Image Edit from the Command widget. Alter‐ natively, press x in the Image window. First a popup window is displayed requesting you to enter an image name. Press Composite, Grab or type a file name. Press Cancel if you choose not to create a composite image. When you choose Grab, move the pointer to the desired window and press any button. If the Composite image does not have any matte information, you are informed and the file browser is displayed again. Enter the name of a mask image. The image is typically grayscale and the same size as the composite image. If the image is not grayscale, it is converted to grayscale and the resulting intensities are used as matte information. A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image window. You are now in composite mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In composite mode, the Command widget has these options: Operators over in out atop xor plus minus add subtract difference bumpmap replace Blend Displace Help Dismiss Choose a composite operation from the Operators sub-menu of the Command widget. How each operator behaves is described below. image window is the image currently displayed on your X server and image is the image obtained over The result is the union of the two image shapes, with image obscuring image window in the region of overlap. in The result is simply image cut by the shape of image window. None of the image data of image window is in the result. out The resulting image is image with the shape of image window cut out. atop The result is the same shape as image window, with image obscuring image window where the image shapes overlap. Note this differs from over because the portion of image outside image window's shape does not appear in the result. xor The result is the image data from both image and image window that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region is blank. plus The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are cropped to 255 (no overflow). This operation is independent of the matte channels. minus The result of image - image window, with underflow cropped to zero. The matte channel is ignored (set to 255, full coverage). add The result of image + image window, with overflow wrapping around (mod 256). subtract The result of image - image window, with underflow wrapping around (mod 256). The add and subtract operators can be used to perform reversible transformations. difference The result of abs(image - image window). This is useful for comparing two very similar images. bumpmap The result of image window shaded by window. replace The resulting image is image window replaced with image. Here the matte informa‐ tion is ignored. The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the image for some oper‐ ations. This extra channel usually defines a mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is the case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels inside the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the boundary. If image does not have a matte channel, it is initialized with 0 for any pixel match‐ ing in color to pixel location (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method of defining a matte channel. If you choose blend, the composite operator becomes over. The image matte channel percent transparency is initialized to factor. The image window is initialized to (100-factor). Where factor is the value you specify in the Dialog widget. Displace shifts the image pixels as defined by a displacement map. With this option, image is used as a displacement map. Black, within the displacement map, is a maximum positive displacement. White is a maximum negative displacement and mid‐ dle gray is neutral. The displacement is scaled to determine the pixel shift. By default, the displacement applies in both the horizontal and vertical directions. However, if you specify mask, image is the horizontal X displacement and mask the vertical Y displacement. Note that matte information for image window is not retained for colormapped X server visuals (e.g. StaticColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, PseudoColor). Correct compositing behavior may require a TrueColor or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap. Choosing a composite operator is optional. The default operator is replace. How‐ ever, you must choose a location to composite your image and press button 1. Press and hold the button before releasing and an outline of the image will appear to help you identify your location. The actual colors of the composite image is saved. However, the color that appears in image window may be different. For example, on a monochrome screen Image window will appear black or white even though your composited image may have many colors. If the image is saved to a file it is written with the correct colors. To assure the correct colors are saved in the final image, any PseudoClass image is promoted to DirectClass (see miff). To force a PseudoClass image to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

COLOR EDITING

Changing the the color of a set of pixels is performed interactively. There is no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, choose Color from the Image Edit submenu of the Command widget. Alternatively, press c in the image window. A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image window. You are now in color edit mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In color edit mode, the Command widget has these options: Method point replace floodfill reset Pixel Color black blue cyan green gray red magenta yellow white Browser... Border Color black blue cyan green gray red magenta yellow white Browser... Fuzz 0 2 4 8 16 Dialog... Undo Help Dismiss Choose a color editing method from the Method sub-menu of the Command widget. The point method recolors any pixel selected with the pointer unless the button is released. The replace method recolors any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select with a button press. Floodfill recolors any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select with a button press and is a neighbor. Whereas filltoborder changes the matte value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border color. Finally reset changes the entire image to the designated color. Next, choose a pixel color from the Pixel Color sub-menu. Additional pixel colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9. Now press button 1 to select a pixel within the Image window to change its color. Addi‐ tional pixels may be recolored as prescribed by the method you choose. additional pixels by increasing the Delta value. If the Magnify widget is mapped, it can be helpful in positioning your pointer within the image (refer to button 2). Alternatively you can select a pixel to recolor from within the Magnify widget. Move the pointer to the Magnify widget and position the pixel with the cursor control keys. Finally, press a button to recolor the selected pixel (or pixels). The actual color you request for the pixels is saved in the image. However, the color that appears in your Image window may be different. For example, on a monochrome screen the pixel will appear black or white even if you choose the color red as the pixel color. How‐ ever, the image saved to a file with -write is written with red pixels. To assure the cor‐ rect color text in the final image, any PseudoClass image is promoted to DirectClass To force a PseudoClass image to remain PseudoClass, use -colors.

MATTE EDITING

Matte information within an image is useful for some operations such as image compositing. This extra channel usually defines a mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is the case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels inside the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the boundary. Setting the matte information in an image is done interactively. There is no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, and choose Matte of the Image Edit sub-menu from the Command widget. Alternatively, press m in the image window. A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image window. You are now in matte edit mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In matte edit mode, the Command widget has these options: Method point replace floodfill reset Border Color black blue cyan green gray red magenta yellow white Browser... Fuzz 0 2 4 8 16 Dialog... Matte Undo Help Dismiss Choose a matte editing method from the Method sub-menu of the Command widget. The point method changes the matte value of the any pixel selected with the pointer until the button is released. The replace method changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select with a button press. Floodfill changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select with a button press and is a neighbor. Whereas filltoborder recolors any neighbor pixel that is not the border color. Finally reset changes the entire image to the designated matte value. Choose Matte Value and a dialog appears requesting a matte value. Enter a value between 0 and 255. This value is assigned as the matte value of the selected pixel or pixels. Now, press any but‐ ton to select a pixel within the Image window to change its matte value. You can change the matte value of additional pixels by increasing the Delta value. The Delta value is first added then subtracted from the red, green, and blue of the target color. Any pixels within the range also have their matte value updated. If the Magnify widget is mapped, it can be helpful in positioning your pointer within the image (refer to button 2). Alterna‐ tively you can select a pixel to change the matte value from within the Magnify widget. Move the pointer to the Magnify widget and position the pixel with the cursor control keys. Finally, press a button to change the matte value of the selected pixel (or pixels). Matte information is only valid in a DirectClass image. Therefore, any PseudoClass image is promoted to DirectClass. Note that matte information for PseudoClass is not retained for colormapped X server visuals (e.g. StaticColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, PseudoColor) unless you immediately save your image to a file (refer to Write). Correct matte editing behavior may require a TrueColor or DirectColor visual or a Standard Colormap.

IMAGE DRAWING

An image is drawn upon interactively. There is no command line argument to draw on an image. To begin, choose Draw of the Image Edit sub-menu from the Command widget. Alterna‐ tively, press d in the image window. The cursor changes to a crosshair to indicate you are in draw mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In draw mode, the Command widget has these options: Primitive point line rectangle fill rectangle circle fill circle ellipse fill ellipse polygon fill polygon Color black blue cyan green gray red magenta yellow white transparent Browser... Stipple Brick Diagonal Scales Vertical Wavy Translucent Opaque Open... Width 1 2 4 8 16 Dialog... Undo Help Dismiss Choose a drawing primitive from the Primitive sub-menu. Next, choose a color from the Color sub-menu. Additional colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9. The transparent color updates the image matte channel and is useful for image com‐ positing. If you choose the color browser and press Grab, you can select the primitive color by mov‐ ing the pointer to the desired color on the screen and press any button. The transparent color updates the image matte channel and is useful for image compositing. Choose a stipple, if appropriate, from the Stipple sub-menu. Additional stipples can be specified with the file browser. Stipples obtained from the file browser must be on disk in the X11 bitmap format. Choose a line width, if appropriate, from the Width sub-menu. To choose a specific width select the Dialog widget. Choose a point in the image window and press button 1 and hold. Next, move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move, a line connects the initial location and the pointer. When you release the button, the image is updated with the primitive you just drew. For polygons, the image is updated when you press and release the button without moving the pointer. To cancel image drawing, move the pointer back to the starting point of the line and release the button.

REGION OF INTEREST

To begin, press choose Region of Interest of the Pixel Transform sub-menu from the Command widget. Alternatively, press R in the image window. A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image window. You are now in region of interest mode. In region of interest mode, the Command widget has these options: Help Dismiss To define a region of interest, press button 1 and drag. The region of interest is defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it follows the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the region of interest, release the button. You are now in apply mode. In apply mode the Command widget has these options: File Save... Print... Edit Undo Redo Transform Flip Flop Rotate Right Rotate Left Enhance Hue... Saturation... Brightness... Gamma... Spiff Dull Equalize Normalize Negate GRAYscale Quantize... Effects Despeckle Emboss Reduce Noise Add Noise Sharpen... Blur... Threshold... Edge Detect... Spread... Shade... Raise... Segment... F/X Solarize... Swirl... Implode... Wave... Oil Paint Charcoal Draw... Miscellany Image Info Zoom Image Show Preview... Show Histogram Show Matte Help Dismiss You can make adjustments to the region of interest by moving the pointer to one of the rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, choose an image processing technique from the Command widget. You can choose more than one image processing technique to apply to an area. Alternatively, you can move the region of interest before applying another image processing technique. To exit, press Dismiss.

IMAGE PANNING

When an image exceeds the width or height of the X server screen, display maps a small panning icon. The rectangle within the panning icon shows the area that is currently dis‐ played in the the image window. To pan about the image, press any button and drag the pointer within the panning icon. The pan rectangle moves with the pointer and the image window is updated to reflect the location of the rectangle within the panning icon. When you have selected the area of the image you wish to view, release the button. Use the arrow keys to pan the image one pixel up, down, left, or right within the image window. The panning icon is withdrawn if the image becomes smaller than the dimensions of the X server screen.

USER PREFERENCES

Preferences affect the default behavior of display(1). The preferences are either true or false and are stored in your home directory as .displayrc: display image centered on a backdrop" This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is useful for hiding other X window activity while viewing the image. The color of the backdrop is specified as the background color. Refer to X Resources for details. confirm on program exit" Ask for a confirmation before exiting the display(1) program. correct image for display gamma" If the image has a known gamma, the gamma is corrected to match that of the X server (see the X Resource displayGamma). display warning messages" Display any warning messages. apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to image" The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution for spatial resolution by averaging the intensities of several neighboring pixels. Images which suffer from severe contouring when reducing colors can be improved with this preference. use a shared colormap for colormapped X visuals" This option only applies when the default X server visual is PseudoColor or GRAYScale. Refer to -visual for more details. By default, a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares colors with other X clients. Some image col‐ ors could be approximated, therefore your image may look very different than intended. Otherwise the image colors appear exactly as they are defined. How‐ ever, other clients may go technicolor when the image colormap is installed. display images as an X server pixmap" Images are maintained as a XImage by default. Set this resource to True to utilize a server Pixmap instead. This option is useful if your image exceeds the dimensions of your server screen and you intend to pan the image. Panning is much faster with Pixmaps than with a XImage. Pixmaps are considered a pre‐ cious resource, use them with discretion. GM IDENTIFY Identify describes the format and characteristics of one or more image files as internally supported by the software. It will also report if an image is incomplete or corrupt. The information displayed includes the scene number, the file name, the width and height of the image, whether the image is colormapped or not, the number of colors in the image, the number of bytes in the image, the format of the image (JPEG, PNM, etc.), and finally the number of seconds in both user time and elapsed time it took to read and process the image. If -verbose or +ping are pro‐ vided as an option, the pixel read rate is also displayed. An example line output from identify follows: images/aquarium.miff 640x480 PseudoClass 256c 308135b MIFF 0.000u 0:01 If -verbose is set, expect additional output including any image comment: Image: images/aquarium.miff class: PseudoClass colors: 256 signature: eb5dca81dd93ae7e6ffae99a527eb5dca8... matte: False geometry: 640x480 depth: 8 bytes: 308135 format: MIFF comments: Imported from MTV raster image: aquarium.mtv For some formats, additional format-specific information about the file will be written if the -debug coder or -debug all option is used.

IDENTIFY OPTIONS

Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for the set of images immediately following, until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop. For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -authenticate <string> decrypt image with this password -debug <events> enable debug printout -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image -depth <value> depth of the image -format <string> output formatted image characteristics -help print usage instructions -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit -log <string> Specify format for debug log -ping efficiently determine image characteristics -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors -size <width>x<height>{+offset} width and height of the image -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

GM IMPORT

Import reads an image from any visible window on an X server and outputs it as an image file. You can capture a single window, the entire screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen. Use display for redisplay, printing, editing, formatting, archiving, image processing, etc. of the captured image. The target window can be specified by id, name, or may be selected by clicking the mouse in the desired window. If you press a button and then drag, a rectangle will form which expands and contracts as the mouse moves. To save the portion of the screen defined by the rectangle, just release the button. The keyboard bell is rung once at the beginning of the screen capture and twice when it completes.

EXAMPLES

To select an X window or an area of the screen with the mouse and save it in the MIFF image format to a file entitled window.miff, use: gm import window.miff To select an X window or an area of the screen with the mouse and save it in the Encapsu‐ lated PostScript format to include in another document, use: gm import figure.eps To capture the entire X server screen in the JPEG image format in a file entitled root.jpeg, without using the mouse, use: gm import -window root root.jpeg To capture the 512x256 area at the upper right corner of the X server screen in the PNG image format in a well-compressed file entitled corner.png, without using the mouse, use: gm import -window root -crop 512x256-0+0 -quality 90 corner.png

OPTIONS

Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by specifying the option again with a different effect. Import options can appear on the command line or in your X resources file. See X(1). Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X resources file. For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -bordercolor <color> the border color -colors <value> preferred number of colors in the image -colorspace <value> the type of colorspace -comment <string> annotate an image with a comment -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} preferred size and location of the cropped image -debug <events> enable debug printout -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -delay <1/100ths of a second> display the next image after pausing -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image -depth <value> depth of the image -descend obtain image by descending window hierarchy -display <host:display[.screen]> specifies the X server to contact -dispose <method> GIF disposal method -dither apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image -encoding <type> specify the text encoding -endian <type> specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image -frame include the X window frame in the imported image -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>} Specify dimension, offset, and resize options. -help print usage instructions -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme -label <name> assign a label to an image -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit -log <string> Specify format for debug log -monitor show progress indication -monochrome transform the image to black and white -negate replace every pixel with its complementary color -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>} size and location of an image canvas -pause <seconds> pause between snapshots [import] -ping efficiently determine image characteristics -pointsize <value> pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font -quality <value> JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image -rotate <degrees>{<}{>} rotate the image -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors -scene <value> set scene number -screen specify the screen to capture -set <attribute> <value> set an image attribute +set <attribute> unset an image attribute -silent operate silently -snaps <value> number of screen snapshots -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image (quickly) -transparent <color> make this color transparent within the image -trim trim an image -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

GM MOGRIFY

Mogrify transforms an image or a sequence of images. These transforms include image scal‐ ing, image rotation, color reduction, and others. Each transmogrified image overwrites the corresponding original image, unless an option such as -format causes the output filename to be different from the input filename. The graphics formats supported by mogrify are listed in GraphicsMagick(1).

EXAMPLES

To convert all the TIFF files in a particular directory to JPEG, use: gm mogrify -format jpeg *.tiff To convert a directory full of JPEG images to thumbnails, use: gm mogrify -size 120x120 *.jpg -resize 120x120 +profile "*" In this example, '-size 120x120' gives a hint to the JPEG decoder that the images are going to be downscaled to 120x120, allowing it to run faster by avoiding returning full- resolution images to GraphicsMagick for the subsequent resizing operation. The ´-resize 120x120' specifies the desired dimensions of the output images. It will be scaled so its largest dimension is 120 pixels. The ´+profile "*"' removes any ICM, EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles that might be present in the input and aren't needed in the thumbnails. To scale an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in width and 480 pixels in height, use: gm mogrify -resize 640x480! cockatoo.miff

OPTIONS

Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows, until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop. For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -affine <matrix> drawing transform matrix -antialias remove pixel aliasing -asc-cdl <spec> apply ASC CDL color transform -authenticate <string> decrypt image with this password -auto-orient orient (rotate) image so it is upright -background <color> the background color -black-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity] pixels below the threshold become black -blue-primary <x>,<y> blue chromaticity primary point -blur <radius>{x<sigma>} blur the image with a Gaussian operator -border <width>x<height> surround the image with a border of color -bordercolor <color> the border color -channel <type> the type of channel -charcoal <factor> simulate a charcoal drawing -colorize <value> colorize the image with the pen color -colors <value> preferred number of colors in the image -colorspace <value> the type of colorspace -comment <string> annotate an image with a comment -compose <operator> the type of image composition -compress <type> the type of image compression -contrast enhance or reduce the image contrast -convolve <kernel> convolve image with the specified convolution kernel -create-directories create output directory if required -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} preferred size and location of the cropped image -cycle <amount> displace image colormap by amount -debug <events> enable debug printout -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -delay <1/100ths of a second> display the next image after pausing -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image -depth <value> depth of the image -despeckle reduce the speckles within an image -display <host:display[.screen]> specifies the X server to contact -dispose <method> GIF disposal method -dither apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image -draw <string> annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives -edge <radius> detect edges within an image -emboss <radius> emboss an image -encoding <type> specify the text encoding -endian <type> specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image -enhance apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image -equalize perform histogram equalization to the image -extent <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y> composite image on background color canvas image -fill <color> color to use when filling a graphic primitive -filter <type> use this type of filter when resizing an image -flip create a "mirror image" -flop create a "mirror image" -font <name> use this font when annotating the image with text -format <type> the image format type -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width> surround the image with an ornamental border -fuzz <distance>{%} colors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal -gamma <value> level of gamma correction -gaussian <radius>{x<sigma>} blur the image with a Gaussian operator -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>} Specify dimension, offset, and resize options. -gravity <type> direction primitive gravitates to when annotating the image. -green-primary <x>,<y> green chromaticity primary point -hald-clut <clut> apply a Hald CLUT to the image -help print usage instructions -implode <factor> implode image pixels about the center -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme -label <name> assign a label to an image -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%} perform local adaptive thresholding -level <black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%} adjust the level of image contrast -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit -linewidth the line width for subsequent draw operations -list <type> the type of list -log <string> Specify format for debug log -loop <iterations> add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation -magnify magnify the image -map <filename> choose a particular set of colors from this image -mask <filename> Specify a clipping mask -matte store matte channel if the image has one -mattecolor <color> specify the color to be used with the -frame option -median <radius> apply a median filter to the image -minify <factor> minify the image -modulate brightness[,saturation[,hue]] vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image -monitor show progress indication -monochrome transform the image to black and white -motion-blur <radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle} Simulate motion blur -negate replace every pixel with its complementary color -noise <radius|type> add or reduce noise in an image -noop NOOP (no option) -normalize transform image to span the full range of color values -opaque <color> change this color to the pen color within the image -operator channel operator rvalue[%] apply a mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to an image channel -ordered-dither <channeltype> <NxN> ordered dither the image -output-directory <directory> output files to directory -orient <orientation> Set the image orientation attribute -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>} size and location of an image canvas -paint <radius> simulate an oil painting -pen <color> (This option has been replaced by the -fill option) -pointsize <value> pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font -profile <filename> add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile to image -quality <value> JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level -raise <width>x<height> lighten or darken image edges -random-threshold <channeltype> <LOWxHIGH> random threshold the image -recolor <matrix> apply a color translation matrix to image channels -red-primary <x>,<y> red chromaticity primary point -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y> apply options to a portion of the image -render render vector operations -repage <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!] Adjust image page offsets -resample <horizontal>x<vertical> Resample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y> roll an image vertically or horizontally -rotate <degrees>{<}{>} rotate the image -sample <geometry> scale image using pixel sampling -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors -scale <geometry> scale the image. -scene <value> set scene number -set <attribute> <value> set an image attribute +set <attribute> unset an image attribute -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold> segment an image -shade <azimuth>x<elevation> shade the image using a distant light source -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>} sharpen the image -shave <width>x<height>{%} shave pixels from the image edges -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees> shear the image along the X or Y axis -size <width>x<height>{+offset} width and height of the image -solarize <factor> negate all pixels above the threshold level -spread <amount> displace image pixels by a random amount -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image -stroke <color> color to use when stroking a graphic primitive -strokewidth <value> set the stroke width -swirl <degrees> swirl image pixels about the center -texture <filename> name of texture to tile onto the image background -threshold <value>{%} threshold the image -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image (quickly) -tile <filename> tile image when filling a graphic primitive -transform transform the image -transparent <color> make this color transparent within the image -treedepth <value> tree depth for the color reduction algorithm -trim trim an image -type <type> the image type -units <type> the units of image resolution -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>} sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string -view <string> FlashPix viewing parameters -virtual-pixel <method> specify contents of "virtual pixels" -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength> alter an image along a sine wave -white-point <x>,<y> chromaticity white point -white-threshold red[,green][,blue][,opacity] pixels above the threshold become white For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

GM MONTAGE

montage creates a composite image by combining several separate images. The images are tiled on the composite image with the name of the image optionally appearing just below the individual tile. The composite image is constructed in the following manner. First, each image specified on the command line, except for the last, is scaled to fit the maximum tile size. The maximum tile size by default is 120x120. It can be modified with the -geometry command line argu‐ ment or X resource. See Options for more information on command line arguments. See X(1) for more information on X resources. Note that the maximum tile size need not be a square. Next the composite image is initialized with the color specified by the -background com‐ mand line argument or X resource. The width and height of the composite image is deter‐ mined by the title specified, the maximum tile size, the number of tiles per row, the tile border width and height, the image border width, and the label height. The number of tiles per row specifies how many images are to appear in each row of the composite image. The default is to have 5 tiles in each row and 4 tiles in each column of the composite. A specific value is specified with -tile. The tile border width and height, and the image border width defaults to the value of the X resource -borderwidth. It can be changed with the -borderwidth or -geometry command line argument or X resource. The label height is determined by the font you specify with the -font command line argument or X resource. If you do not specify a font, a font is chosen that allows the name of the image to fit the maximum width of a tiled area. The label colors is determined by the -background and -fill command line argument or X resource. Note, that if the background and pen colors are the same, labels will not appear. Initially, the composite image title is placed at the top if one is specified (refer to -fill). Next, each image is set onto the composite image, surrounded by its border color, with its name centered just below it. The individual images are left-justified within the width of the tiled area. The order of the images is the same as they appear on the com‐ mand line unless the images have a scene keyword. If a scene number is specified in each image, then the images are tiled onto the composite in the order of their scene number. Finally, the last argument on the command line is the name assigned to the composite image. By default, the image is written in the MIFF format and can be viewed or printed with display(1). Note, that if the number of tiles exceeds the default number of 20 (5 per row, 4 per col‐ umn), more than one composite image is created. To ensure a single image is produced, use -tile to increase the number of tiles to meet or exceed the number of input images. Finally, to create one or more empty spaces in the sequence of tiles, use the "NULL:" image format. Note, a composite MIFF image displayed to an X server with display behaves differently than other images. You can think of the composite as a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile of the composite and press a button to display it. See display(1) and miff(5)

EXAMPLES

To create a montage of a cockatoo, a parrot, and a hummingbird and write it to a file called birds, use: gm montage cockatoo.miff parrot.miff hummingbird.miff birds.miff To tile several bird images so that they are at most 256 pixels in width and 192 pixels in height, surrounded by a red border, and separated by 10 pixels of background color, use: gm montage -geometry 256x192+10+10 -bordercolor red birds.* montage.miff To create an unlabeled parrot image, 640 by 480 pixels, and surrounded by a border of black, use: gm montage -geometry 640x480 -bordercolor black -label "" parrot.miff bird.miff To create an image of an eagle with a textured background, use: gm montage -texture bumps.jpg eagle.jpg eagle.png To join several GIF images together without any extraneous graphics (e.g. no label, no shadowing, no surrounding tile frame), use: gm montage +frame +shadow +label -tile 5x1 -geometry 50x50+0+0 *.png joined.png

OPTIONS

Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for the group of images fol‐ lowing it, until the group is terminated by the appearance of any option or -noop. For example, to make a montage of three images, the first with 32 colors, the second with an unlimited number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use: gm montage -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2 -colors 16 cockatoo.3 cockatoos.miff For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above. -adjoin join images into a single multi-image file -affine <matrix> drawing transform matrix -authenticate <string> decrypt image with this password -background <color> the background color -blue-primary <x>,<y> blue chromaticity primary point -blur <radius>{x<sigma>} blur the image with a Gaussian operator -bordercolor <color> the border color -borderwidth <geometry> the border width -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} remove pixels from the interior of an image -colors <value> preferred number of colors in the image -colorspace <value> the type of colorspace -comment <string> annotate an image with a comment -compose <operator> the type of image composition -compress <type> the type of image compression -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%} preferred size and location of the cropped image -debug <events> enable debug printout -define <key>{=<value>},... add coder/decoder specific options -density <width>x<height> horizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image -depth <value> depth of the image -display <host:display[.screen]> specifies the X server to contact -dispose <method> GIF disposal method -dither apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image -draw <string> annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives -encoding <type> specify the text encoding -endian <type> specify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image -fill <color> color to use when filling a graphic primitive -filter <type> use this type of filter when resizing an image -font <name> use this font when annotating the image with text -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width> surround the image with an ornamental border -gamma <value> level of gamma correction -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>} Specify dimension, offset, and resize options. -gravity <type> direction primitive gravitates to when annotating the image. -green-primary <x>,<y> green chromaticity primary point -help print usage instructions -interlace <type> the type of interlacing scheme -label <name> assign a label to an image -limit <type> <value> Disk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit -log <string> Specify format for debug log -matte store matte channel if the image has one -mattecolor <color> specify the color to be used with the -frame option -mode <value> mode of operation -monitor show progress indication -monochrome transform the image to black and white -noop NOOP (no option) -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>} size and location of an image canvas -pen <color> (This option has been replaced by the -fill option) -pointsize <value> pointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font -quality <value> JPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level -red-primary <x>,<y> red chromaticity primary point -render render vector operations -repage <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!] Adjust image page offsets -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image -rotate <degrees>{<}{>} rotate the image -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor> chroma subsampling factors -scenes <value-value> range of image scene numbers to read -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>} shadow the montage -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>} sharpen the image -size <width>x<height>{+offset} width and height of the image -strip remove all profiles and text attributes from the image -stroke <color> color to use when stroking a graphic primitive -strokewidth <value> set the stroke width -texture <filename> name of texture to tile onto the image background -thumbnail <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>} resize an image (quickly) -tile <geometry> layout of images [montage] -title <string> assign title to displayed image [animate, display, montage] -transform transform the image -transparent <color> make this color transparent within the image -treedepth <value> tree depth for the color reduction algorithm -trim trim an image -type <type> the image type -verbose print detailed information about the image -version print GraphicsMagick version string -white-point <x>,<y> chromaticity white point For a more detailed description of each option, see Options, above.

X RESOURCES

Montage options can appear on the command line or in your X resource file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X resource file. See X(1) for more infor‐ mation on X resources. All montage options have a corresponding X resource. In addition, montage uses the follow‐ ing X resources: background (class Background) background color Specifies the preferred color to use for the composite image background. The default is #ccc. borderColor (class BorderColor) border color Specifies the preferred color to use for the composite image border. The default is #ccc. borderWidth (class BorderWidth) border width Specifies the width in pixels of the composite image border. The default is 2. font (class Font) font to use Specifies the name of the preferred font to use when displaying text within the composite image. The default is 9x15, fixed, or 5x8 determined by the composite image size. matteColor (class MatteColor) color of the frame Specify the color of an image frame. A 3D effect is achieved by using highlight and shadow colors derived from this color. The default value is #697B8F. pen (class Pen) text color Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the composite image. The default is black. title (class Title) composite image title This resource specifies the title to be placed at the top of the composite image. The default is not to place a title at the top of the composite image.

GM TIME

DESCRIPTION

time executes an arbitrary gm utility command (e.g. convert) and reports the user and elapsed time. This provides way to measure command execution times similar to the Unix ´time' command but in a portable and consistent way.

EXAMPLES

To obtain time information for the execution of a command: % gm time convert input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm convert input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 out‐ put.ppm 22.60s user 0.00s system 2354% cpu 0.960 total Here is the interpretation of the above output: user - the total user time consumed. system - the total system time consumed. total - the total elapsed time consumed.

OPTIONS

The time command reqires no options other than the gm command to execute.

GM VERSION

DESCRIPTION

version displays the software release version, build quantum (pixel sample) depth, web site URL, copyright notice, enabled features support, configuration parameters, and final build options used to build the software. The available information depends on how the software was configured and the host system.

EXAMPLES

To display the version information: % gm -version GraphicsMagick 1.3.19 2013-12-31 Q16 http://www.GraphicsMagick.org/ Copyright (C) 2002-2013 GraphicsMagick Group. Additional copyrights and licenses apply to this software. See http://www.GraphicsMagick.org/www/Copyright.html for details. Feature Support: Thread Safe yes Large Files (> 32 bit) yes Large Memory (> 32 bit) no BZIP yes DPS no FlashPix no FreeType yes Ghostscript (Library) no JBIG no JPEG-2000 yes JPEG yes Little CMS yes Loadable Modules no OpenMP yes (201107) PNG yes TIFF yes TRIO no UMEM yes WMF no X11 yes XML yes ZLIB yes Host type: i386-pc-solaris2.11 Configured using the command: ./configure ... Final Build Parameters: CC = ... CFLAGS = ... CPPFLAGS = ... CXX = ... CXXFLAGS = ... LDFLAGS = ... LIBS = ...

OPTIONS

The version command does not currently support any options.
GraphicsMagick 2015/10/24 gm(1)
This manual Reference Other manuals
gm(1) referred by abcde(1) | animate-im6(1) | bsetbg(1) | cb2ti3(1) | composite-im6(1) | conjure-im6(1) | convert-im6(1) | ct2-make-movie(1) | cuneiform(1) | display-im6(1) | eqn2graph(1) | eukleides(1) | fbi(1) | fim(1) | gdcmimg(1) | gm-convert_file(1) | grap2graph(1) | greytiff(1) | guestfish(1) | identify-im6(1)
refer to xstdcmap(1)