POSTFIX(1) - Linux man page online | User commands

Postfix control program.

POSTFIX(1) General Commands Manual POSTFIX(1)


postfix - Postfix control program


postfix [-Dv] [-c config_dir] command


This command is reserved for the superuser. To submit mail, use the Postfix sendmail(1) command. The postfix(1) command controls the operation of the Postfix mail system: start or stop the master(8) daemon, do a health check, and other maintenance. By default, the postfix(1) command sets up a standardized environment and runs the post‐ fix-script shell script to do the actual work. However, when support for multiple Postfix instances is configured, postfix(1) executes the command specified with the multi_instance_wrapper configuration parameter. This com‐ mand will execute the command for each applicable Postfix instance. The following commands are implemented: check Warn about bad directory/file ownership or permissions, and create missing directo‐ ries. start Start the Postfix mail system. This also runs the configuration check described above. start-fg Like start, but keep the master daemon running in the foreground. This requires that multi-instance support is disabled (i.e. the multi_instance_directories param‐ eter value must be empty). When running Postfix inside a container, mount the con‐ tainer host's /dev/log socket inside the container (example: "docker run -v /dev/log:/dev/log ...") and specify a distinct Postfix "syslog_name" prefix that identifies logging from the Postfix instance. stop Stop the Postfix mail system in an orderly fashion. If possible, running processes are allowed to terminate at their earliest convenience. Note: in order to refresh the Postfix mail system after a configuration change, do not use the start and stop commands in succession. Use the reload command instead. abort Stop the Postfix mail system abruptly. Running processes are signaled to stop imme‐ diately. flush Force delivery: attempt to deliver every message in the deferred mail queue. Nor‐ mally, attempts to deliver delayed mail happen at regular intervals, the interval doubling after each failed attempt. Warning: flushing undeliverable mail frequently will result in poor delivery per‐ formance of all other mail. reload Re-read configuration files. Running processes terminate at their earliest conve‐ nience. status Indicate if the Postfix mail system is currently running. set-permissions [name=value ...] Set the ownership and permissions of Postfix related files and directories, as specified in the postfix-files file. Specify name=value to override and update specific configuration parame‐ ters. Use this, for example, to change the mail_owner or setgid_group setting for an already installed Postfix system. This feature is available in Postfix 2.1 and later. With Postfix 2.0 and earlier, use "$config_directory/post-install set-permissions". tls subcommand Enable opportunistic TLS in the Postfix SMTP client or server, and manage Postfix SMTP server TLS private keys and certificates. See postfix-tls(1) for documenta‐ tion. This feature is available in Postfix 3.1 and later. upgrade-configuration [name=value ...] Update the and files with information that Postfix needs in order to run: add or update services, and add or update configuration parameter settings. Specify name=value to override and update specific configuration parame‐ ters. This feature is available in Postfix 2.1 and later. With Postfix 2.0 and earlier, use "$config_directory/post-install upgrade-configuration". The following options are implemented: -c config_dir Read the and configuration files in the named directory instead of the default configuration directory. Use this to distinguish between multiple Postfix instances on the same host. With Postfix 2.6 and later, this option forces the postfix(1) command to operate on the specified Postfix instance only. This behavior is inherited by postfix(1) com‐ mands that run as a descendant of the current process. -D (with postfix start only) Run each Postfix daemon under control of a debugger as specified via the debug‐ ger_command configuration parameter. -v Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes. Multiple -v options make the soft‐ ware increasingly verbose.


The postfix(1) command exports the following environment variables before executing the postfix-script file: MAIL_CONFIG This is set when the -c command-line option is present. With Postfix 2.6 and later, this environment variable forces the postfix(1) command to operate on the specified Postfix instance only. This behavior is inherited by postfix(1) commands that run as a descendant of the current process. MAIL_VERBOSE This is set when the -v command-line option is present. MAIL_DEBUG This is set when the -D command-line option is present.


The following configuration parameters are exported as environment variables with the same names: config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The default location of the Postfix and configuration files. command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The location of all postfix administrative commands. daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs. html_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The location of Postfix HTML files that describe how to build, configure or operate a specific Postfix subsystem or feature. mail_owner (postfix) The UNIX system account that owns the Postfix queue and most Postfix daemon pro‐ cesses. mailq_path (see 'postconf -d' output) Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies where the Postfix mailq(1) command is installed. manpage_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) Where the Postfix manual pages are installed. newaliases_path (see 'postconf -d' output) Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies the location of the newaliases(1) command. queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory. readme_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The location of Postfix README files that describe how to build, configure or oper‐ ate a specific Postfix subsystem or feature. sendmail_path (see 'postconf -d' output) A Sendmail compatibility feature that specifies the location of the Postfix send‐ mail(1) command. setgid_group (postdrop) The group ownership of set-gid Postfix commands and of group-writable Postfix directories. Available in Postfix version 2.5 and later: data_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The directory with Postfix-writable data files (for example: caches, pseudo-random numbers). Available in Postfix version 3.0 and later: meta_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The location of non-executable files that are shared among multiple Postfix instances, such as postfix-files,, and the multi-instance template files and shlib_directory (see 'postconf -d' output) The location of Postfix dynamically-linked libraries (libpostfix-*.so), and the default location of Postfix database plugins (postfix-*.so) that have a relative pathname in the file. Available in Postfix version 3.1 and later: openssl_path (openssl) The location of the OpenSSL command line program openssl(1). Other configuration parameters: import_environment (see 'postconf -d' output) The list of environment parameters that a privileged Postfix process will import from a non-Postfix parent process, or name=value environment overrides. syslog_facility (mail) The syslog facility of Postfix logging. syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output) A prefix that is prepended to the process name in syslog records, so that, for example, "smtpd" becomes "prefix/smtpd". Available in Postfix version 2.6 and later: multi_instance_directories (empty) An optional list of non-default Postfix configuration directories; these directo‐ ries belong to additional Postfix instances that share the Postfix executable files and documentation with the default Postfix instance, and that are started, stopped, etc., together with the default Postfix instance. multi_instance_wrapper (empty) The pathname of a multi-instance manager command that the postfix(1) command invokes when the multi_instance_directories parameter value is non-empty. multi_instance_group (empty) The optional instance group name of this Postfix instance. multi_instance_name (empty) The optional instance name of this Postfix instance. multi_instance_enable (no) Allow this Postfix instance to be started, stopped, etc., by a multi-instance man‐ ager.


Prior to Postfix version 2.6, all of the following files were in $config_directory. Some files are now in $daemon_directory so that they can be shared among multiple instances that run the same Postfix version. Use the command "postconf config_directory" or "postconf daemon_directory" to expand the names into their actual values. $config_directory/, Postfix configuration parameters $config_directory/, Postfix daemon processes $daemon_directory/postfix-files, file/directory permissions $daemon_directory/postfix-script, administrative commands $daemon_directory/post-install, post-installation configuration $daemon_directory/, plug-in database clients


Commands: postalias(1), create/update/query alias database postcat(1), examine Postfix queue file postconf(1), Postfix configuration utility postfix(1), Postfix control program postfix-tls(1), Postfix TLS management postkick(1), trigger Postfix daemon postlock(1), Postfix-compatible locking postlog(1), Postfix-compatible logging postmap(1), Postfix lookup table manager postmulti(1), Postfix multi-instance manager postqueue(1), Postfix mail queue control postsuper(1), Postfix housekeeping mailq(1), Sendmail compatibility interface newaliases(1), Sendmail compatibility interface sendmail(1), Sendmail compatibility interface Postfix configuration: bounce(5), Postfix bounce message templates master(5), Postfix file syntax postconf(5), Postfix file syntax postfix-wrapper(5), Postfix multi-instance API Table-driven mechanisms: access(5), Postfix SMTP access control table aliases(5), Postfix alias database canonical(5), Postfix input address rewriting generic(5), Postfix output address rewriting header_checks(5), body_checks(5), Postfix content inspection relocated(5), Users that have moved transport(5), Postfix routing table virtual(5), Postfix virtual aliasing Table lookup mechanisms: cidr_table(5), Associate CIDR pattern with value ldap_table(5), Postfix LDAP client lmdb_table(5), Postfix LMDB database driver memcache_table(5), Postfix memcache client mysql_table(5), Postfix MYSQL client nisplus_table(5), Postfix NIS+ client pcre_table(5), Associate PCRE pattern with value pgsql_table(5), Postfix PostgreSQL client regexp_table(5), Associate POSIX regexp pattern with value socketmap_table(5), Postfix socketmap client sqlite_table(5), Postfix SQLite database driver tcp_table(5), Postfix client-server table lookup Daemon processes: anvil(8), Postfix connection/rate limiting bounce(8), defer(8), trace(8), Delivery status reports cleanup(8), canonicalize and enqueue message discard(8), Postfix discard delivery agent dnsblog(8), DNS black/whitelist logger error(8), Postfix error delivery agent flush(8), Postfix fast ETRN service local(8), Postfix local delivery agent master(8), Postfix master daemon oqmgr(8), old Postfix queue manager pickup(8), Postfix local mail pickup pipe(8), deliver mail to non-Postfix command postscreen(8), Postfix zombie blocker proxymap(8), Postfix lookup table proxy server qmgr(8), Postfix queue manager qmqpd(8), Postfix QMQP server scache(8), Postfix connection cache manager showq(8), list Postfix mail queue smtp(8), lmtp(8), Postfix SMTP+LMTP client smtpd(8), Postfix SMTP server spawn(8), run non-Postfix server tlsmgr(8), Postfix TLS cache and randomness manager tlsproxy(8), Postfix TLS proxy server trivial-rewrite(8), Postfix address rewriting verify(8), Postfix address verification virtual(8), Postfix virtual delivery agent Other: syslogd(8), system logging


Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to locate this information. OVERVIEW, overview of Postfix commands and processes BASIC_CONFIGURATION_README, Postfix basic configuration ADDRESS_REWRITING_README, Postfix address rewriting SMTPD_ACCESS_README, SMTP relay/access control CONTENT_INSPECTION_README, Postfix content inspection QSHAPE_README, Postfix queue analysis


The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software. AUTHOR(S) Wietse Venema IBM T.J. Watson Research P.O. Box 704 Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA Wietse Venema Google, Inc. 111 8th Avenue New York, NY 10011, USA TLS support by: Lutz Jaenicke Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Germany Victor Duchovni Morgan Stanley SASL support originally by: Till Franke SuSE Rhein/Main AG 65760 Eschborn, Germany LMTP support originally by: Philip A. Prindeville Mirapoint, Inc. USA. Amos Gouaux University of Texas at Dallas P.O. Box 830688, MC34 Richardson, TX 75083, USA IPv6 support originally by: Mark Huizer, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands Jun-ichiro 'itojun' Hagino, KAME project, Japan The Linux PLD project Dean Strik, Eindhoven University, The Netherlands
This manual Reference Other manuals
postfix(1) referred by bld-pf_policy(8) | ccze(1) | dma(8) | gnarwl(8) | policyd-rate-limit(8) | policyd-weight(8) | postconf(5) | postfix-tls(1) | postfix-wrapper(5) | postmulti(1) | qsf(1) | sendmail(1)
refer to access(5) | aliases(5) | anvil(8postfix) | bounce(5) | bounce(8postfix) | canonical(5) | cidr_table(5) | cleanup(8postfix) | discard(8postfix) | dnsblog(8postfix) | error(8postfix) | flush(8postfix) | generic(5) | header_checks(5) | ldap_table(5) | lmdb_table(5) | local(8postfix) | master(5) | master(8postfix) | memcache_table(5)
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