SSH_CONFIG(5) - Linux man page online | File formats
OpenSSH SSH client configuration files.
September 21, 2017
SSH_CONFIG(5) BSD File Formats Manual SSH_CONFIG(5)
BSD September 21, 2017 BSD
NAMEssh_config — OpenSSH SSH client configuration files
DESCRIPTIONssh(1) obtains configuration data from the following sources in the following order: 1. command-line options 2. user's configuration file (~/.ssh/config) 3. system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) For each parameter, the first obtained value will be used. The configuration files contain sections separated by Host specifications, and that section is only applied for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the specification. The matched host name is usually the one given on the command line (see the CanonicalizeHostname option for exceptions). Since the first obtained value for each parameter is used, more host-specific declarations should be given near the beginning of the file, and general defaults at the end. Note that the Debian openssh-client package sets several options as standard in /etc/ssh/ssh_config which are not the default in ssh(1): · SendEnv LANG LC_* · HashKnownHosts yes · GSSAPIAuthentication yes The file contains keyword-argument pairs, one per line. Lines starting with ‘#’ and empty lines are interpreted as comments. Arguments may optionally be enclosed in double quotes (") in order to represent arguments containing spaces. Configuration options may be sepa‐ rated by whitespace or optional whitespace and exactly one ‘=’; the latter format is useful to avoid the need to quote whitespace when specifying configuration options using the ssh, scp, and sftp -o option. The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insen‐ sitive and arguments are case-sensitive): Host Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host or Match keyword) to be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the keyword. If more than one pattern is provided, they should be separated by whitespace. A single ‘*’ as a pattern can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts. The host is usually the hostname argument given on the command line (see the CanonicalizeHostname keyword for exceptions). A pattern entry may be negated by prefixing it with an exclamation mark (‘!’). If a negated entry is matched, then the Host entry is ignored, regardless of whether any other patterns on the line match. Negated matches are therefore useful to provide exceptions for wildcard matches. See PATTERNS for more information on patterns. Match Restricts the following declarations (up to the next Host or Match keyword) to be used only when the conditions following the Match keyword are satisfied. Match con‐ ditions are specified using one or more criteria or the single token all which always matches. The available criteria keywords are: canonical, exec, host, originalhost, user, and localuser. The all criteria must appear alone or immedi‐ ately after canonical. Other criteria may be combined arbitrarily. All criteria but all and canonical require an argument. Criteria may be negated by prepending an exclamation mark (‘!’). The canonical keyword matches only when the configuration file is being re-parsed after hostname canonicalization (see the CanonicalizeHostname option.) This may be useful to specify conditions that work with canonical host names only. The exec keyword executes the specified command under the user's shell. If the command returns a zero exit status then the condition is considered true. Commands contain‐ ing whitespace characters must be quoted. Arguments to exec accept the tokens described in the TOKENS section. The other keywords' criteria must be single entries or comma-separated lists and may use the wildcard and negation operators described in the PATTERNS section. The cri‐ teria for the host keyword are matched against the target hostname, after any sub‐ stitution by the Hostname or CanonicalizeHostname options. The originalhost keyword matches against the hostname as it was specified on the command-line. The user key‐ word matches against the target username on the remote host. The localuser keyword matches against the name of the local user running ssh(1) (this keyword may be use‐ ful in system-wide ssh_config files). AddKeysToAgent Specifies whether keys should be automatically added to a running ssh-agent(1). If this option is set to yes and a key is loaded from a file, the key and its passphrase are added to the agent with the default lifetime, as if by ssh-add(1). If this option is set to ask, ssh(1) will require confirmation using the SSH_ASKPASS program before adding a key (see ssh-add(1) for details). If this option is set to confirm, each use of the key must be confirmed, as if the -c option was specified to ssh-add(1). If this option is set to no, no keys are added to the agent. The argu‐ ment must be yes, confirm, ask, or no (the default). AddressFamily Specifies which address family to use when connecting. Valid arguments are any (the default), inet (use IPv4 only), or inet6 (use IPv6 only). BatchMode If set to yes, passphrase/password querying will be disabled. In addition, the ServerAliveInterval option will be set to 300 seconds by default (Debian-specific). This option is useful in scripts and other batch jobs where no user is present to supply the password, and where it is desirable to detect a broken network swiftly. The argument must be yes or no (the default). BindAddress Use the specified address on the local machine as the source address of the connec‐ tion. Only useful on systems with more than one address. Note that this option does not work if UsePrivilegedPort is set to yes. CanonicalDomains When CanonicalizeHostname is enabled, this option specifies the list of domain suf‐ fixes in which to search for the specified destination host. CanonicalizeFallbackLocal Specifies whether to fail with an error when hostname canonicalization fails. The default, yes, will attempt to look up the unqualified hostname using the system resolver's search rules. A value of no will cause ssh(1) to fail instantly if CanonicalizeHostname is enabled and the target hostname cannot be found in any of the domains specified by CanonicalDomains. CanonicalizeHostname Controls whether explicit hostname canonicalization is performed. The default, no, is not to perform any name rewriting and let the system resolver handle all hostname lookups. If set to yes then, for connections that do not use a ProxyCommand, ssh(1) will attempt to canonicalize the hostname specified on the command line using the CanonicalDomains suffixes and CanonicalizePermittedCNAMEs rules. If CanonicalizeHostname is set to always, then canonicalization is applied to proxied connections too. If this option is enabled, then the configuration files are processed again using the new target name to pick up any new configuration in matching Host and Match stanzas. CanonicalizeMaxDots Specifies the maximum number of dot characters in a hostname before canonicalization is disabled. The default, 1, allows a single dot (i.e. hostname.subdomain). CanonicalizePermittedCNAMEs Specifies rules to determine whether CNAMEs should be followed when canonicalizing hostnames. The rules consist of one or more arguments of source_domain_list:target_domain_list, where source_domain_list is a pattern-list of domains that may follow CNAMEs in canonicalization, and target_domain_list is a pat‐ tern-list of domains that they may resolve to. For example, "*.a.example.com:*.b.example.com,*.c.example.com" will allow hostnames matching "*.a.example.com" to be canonicalized to names in the "*.b.example.com" or "*.c.example.com" domains. CertificateFile Specifies a file from which the user's certificate is read. A corresponding private key must be provided separately in order to use this certificate either from an IdentityFile directive or -i flag to ssh(1), via ssh-agent(1), or via a PKCS11Provider. Arguments to CertificateFile may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home directory or the tokens described in the TOKENS section. It is possible to have multiple certificate files specified in configuration files; these certificates will be tried in sequence. Multiple CertificateFile directives will add to the list of certificates used for authentication. ChallengeResponseAuthentication Specifies whether to use challenge-response authentication. The argument to this keyword must be yes (the default) or no. CheckHostIP If set to yes (the default), ssh(1) will additionally check the host IP address in the known_hosts file. This allows it to detect if a host key changed due to DNS spoofing and will add addresses of destination hosts to ~/.ssh/known_hosts in the process, regardless of the setting of StrictHostKeyChecking. If the option is set to no, the check will not be executed. Ciphers Specifies the ciphers allowed and their order of preference. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. If the specified value begins with a ‘+’ character, then the specified ciphers will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ character, then the specified ciphers (includ‐ ing wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them. The supported ciphers are: 3des-cbc aes128-cbc aes192-cbc aes256-cbc aes128-ctr aes192-ctr aes256-ctr @openssh.com @openssh.com @openssh.com The default is: @openssh.com, aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr, @openssh.com,@openssh.com, aes128-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc The list of available ciphers may also be obtained using "ssh -Q cipher". ClearAllForwardings Specifies that all local, remote, and dynamic port forwardings specified in the con‐ figuration files or on the command line be cleared. This option is primarily useful when used from the ssh(1) command line to clear port forwardings set in configura‐ tion files, and is automatically set by scp(1) and sftp(1). The argument must be yes or no (the default). Compression Specifies whether to use compression. The argument must be yes or no (the default). ConnectionAttempts Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before exiting. The argument must be an integer. This may be useful in scripts if the connection sometimes fails. The default is 1. ConnectTimeout Specifies the timeout (in seconds) used when connecting to the SSH server, instead of using the default system TCP timeout. This value is used only when the target is down or really unreachable, not when it refuses the connection. ControlMaster Enables the sharing of multiple sessions over a single network connection. When set to yes, ssh(1) will listen for connections on a control socket specified using the ControlPath argument. Additional sessions can connect to this socket using the same ControlPath with ControlMaster set to no (the default). These sessions will try to reuse the master instance's network connection rather than initiating new ones, but will fall back to connecting normally if the control socket does not exist, or is not listening. Setting this to ask will cause ssh(1) to listen for control connections, but require confirmation using ssh-askpass(1). If the ControlPath cannot be opened, ssh(1) will continue without connecting to a master instance. X11 and ssh-agent(1) forwarding is supported over these multiplexed connections, however the display and agent forwarded will be the one belonging to the master con‐ nection i.e. it is not possible to forward multiple displays or agents. Two additional options allow for opportunistic multiplexing: try to use a master connection but fall back to creating a new one if one does not already exist. These options are: auto and autoask. The latter requires confirmation like the ask option. ControlPath Specify the path to the control socket used for connection sharing as described in the ControlMaster section above or the string none to disable connection sharing. Arguments to ControlPath may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home direc‐ tory or the tokens described in the TOKENS section. It is recommended that any ControlPath used for opportunistic connection sharing include at least %h, %p, and %r (or alternatively %C) and be placed in a directory that is not writable by other users. This ensures that shared connections are uniquely identified. ControlPersist When used in conjunction with ControlMaster, specifies that the master connection should remain open in the background (waiting for future client connections) after the initial client connection has been closed. If set to no, then the master con‐ nection will not be placed into the background, and will close as soon as the ini‐ tial client connection is closed. If set to yes or 0, then the master connection will remain in the background indefinitely (until killed or closed via a mechanism such as the "ssh -O exit"). If set to a time in seconds, or a time in any of the formats documented in sshd_config(5), then the backgrounded master connection will automatically terminate after it has remained idle (with no client connections) for the specified time. DynamicForward Specifies that a TCP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel, and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. The argument must be [bind_address:]port. IPv6 addresses can be specified by enclosing addresses in square brackets. By default, the local port is bound in accordance with the GatewayPorts setting. However, an explicit bind_address may be used to bind the connection to a specific address. The bind_address of localhost indicates that the listening port be bound for local use only, while an empty address or ‘*’ indicates that the port should be available from all interfaces. Currently the SOCKS4 and SOCKS5 protocols are supported, and ssh(1) will act as a SOCKS server. Multiple forwardings may be specified, and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. EnableSSHKeysign Setting this option to yes in the global client configuration file /etc/ssh/ssh_config enables the use of the helper program ssh-keysign(8) during HostbasedAuthentication. The argument must be yes or no (the default). This option should be placed in the non-hostspecific section. See ssh-keysign(8) for more information. EscapeChar Sets the escape character (default: ‘~’). The escape character can also be set on the command line. The argument should be a single character, ‘^’ followed by a let‐ ter, or none to disable the escape character entirely (making the connection trans‐ parent for binary data). ExitOnForwardFailure Specifies whether ssh(1) should terminate the connection if it cannot set up all requested dynamic, tunnel, local, and remote port forwardings, (e.g. if either end is unable to bind and listen on a specified port). Note that ExitOnForwardFailure does not apply to connections made over port forwardings and will not, for example, cause ssh(1) to exit if TCP connections to the ultimate forwarding destination fail. The argument must be yes or no (the default). FingerprintHash Specifies the hash algorithm used when displaying key fingerprints. Valid options are: md5 and sha256 (the default). ForwardAgent Specifies whether the connection to the authentication agent (if any) will be for‐ warded to the remote machine. The argument must be yes or no (the default). Agent forwarding should be enabled with caution. Users with the ability to bypass file permissions on the remote host (for the agent's Unix-domain socket) can access the local agent through the forwarded connection. An attacker cannot obtain key material from the agent, however they can perform operations on the keys that enable them to authenticate using the identities loaded into the agent. ForwardX11 Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected over the secure channel and DISPLAY set. The argument must be yes or no (the default). X11 forwarding should be enabled with caution. Users with the ability to bypass file permissions on the remote host (for the user's X11 authorization database) can access the local X11 display through the forwarded connection. An attacker may then be able to perform activities such as keystroke monitoring if the ForwardX11Trusted option is also enabled. ForwardX11Timeout Specify a timeout for untrusted X11 forwarding using the format described in the TIME FORMATS section of sshd_config(5). X11 connections received by ssh(1) after this time will be refused. The default is to disable untrusted X11 forwarding after twenty minutes has elapsed. ForwardX11Trusted If this option is set to yes, (the Debian-specific default), remote X11 clients will have full access to the original X11 display. If this option is set to no (the upstream default), remote X11 clients will be con‐ sidered untrusted and prevented from stealing or tampering with data belonging to trusted X11 clients. Furthermore, the xauth(1) token used for the session will be set to expire after 20 minutes. Remote clients will be refused access after this time. See the X11 SECURITY extension specification for full details on the restrictions imposed on untrusted clients. GatewayPorts Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to local forwarded ports. By default, ssh(1) binds local port forwardings to the loopback address. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that ssh should bind local port forwardings to the wildcard address, thus allowing remote hosts to connect to forwarded ports. The argument must be yes or no (the default). GlobalKnownHostsFile Specifies one or more files to use for the global host key database, separated by whitespace. The default is /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts, /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts2. GSSAPIAuthentication Specifies whether user authentication based on GSSAPI is allowed. The default is no. GSSAPIKeyExchange Specifies whether key exchange based on GSSAPI may be used. When using GSSAPI key exchange the server need not have a host key. The default is no. GSSAPIClientIdentity If set, specifies the GSSAPI client identity that ssh should use when connecting to the server. The default is unset, which means that the default identity will be used. GSSAPIServerIdentity If set, specifies the GSSAPI server identity that ssh should expect when connecting to the server. The default is unset, which means that the expected GSSAPI server identity will be determined from the target hostname. GSSAPIDelegateCredentials Forward (delegate) credentials to the server. The default is no. GSSAPIRenewalForcesRekey If set to yes then renewal of the client's GSSAPI credentials will force the rekey‐ ing of the ssh connection. With a compatible server, this can delegate the renewed credentials to a session on the server. The default is no. GSSAPITrustDns Set to yes to indicate that the DNS is trusted to securely canonicalize the name of the host being connected to. If no, the hostname entered on the command line will be passed untouched to the GSSAPI library. The default is no. HashKnownHosts Indicates that ssh(1) should hash host names and addresses when they are added to ~/.ssh/known_hosts. These hashed names may be used normally by ssh(1) and sshd(8), but they do not reveal identifying information should the file's contents be dis‐ closed. The default is no. Note that existing names and addresses in known hosts files will not be converted automatically, but may be manually hashed using ssh-keygen(1). Use of this option may break facilities such as tab-completion that rely on being able to read unhashed host names from ~/.ssh/known_hosts. HostbasedAuthentication Specifies whether to try rhosts based authentication with public key authentication. The argument must be yes or no (the default). HostbasedKeyTypes Specifies the key types that will be used for hostbased authentication as a comma- separated pattern list. Alternately if the specified value begins with a ‘+’ char‐ acter, then the specified key types will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ character, then the speci‐ fied key types (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them. The default for this option is: @openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com, ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521, ssh-ed25519,ssh-rsa The -Q option of ssh(1) may be used to list supported key types. HostKeyAlgorithms Specifies the host key algorithms that the client wants to use in order of prefer‐ ence. Alternately if the specified value begins with a ‘+’ character, then the specified key types will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ character, then the specified key types (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them. The default for this option is: @openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com, ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521, ssh-ed25519,ssh-rsa If hostkeys are known for the destination host then this default is modified to pre‐ fer their algorithms. The list of available key types may also be obtained using "ssh -Q key". HostKeyAlias Specifies an alias that should be used instead of the real host name when looking up or saving the host key in the host key database files and when validating host cer‐ tificates. This option is useful for tunneling SSH connections or for multiple servers running on a single host. HostName Specifies the real host name to log into. This can be used to specify nicknames or abbreviations for hosts. Arguments to HostName accept the tokens described in the TOKENS section. Numeric IP addresses are also permitted (both on the command line and in HostName specifications). The default is the name given on the command line. IdentitiesOnly Specifies that ssh(1) should only use the authentication identity and certificate files explicitly configured in the ssh_config files or passed on the ssh(1) command- line, even if ssh-agent(1) or a PKCS11Provider offers more identities. The argument to this keyword must be yes or no (the default). This option is intended for situa‐ tions where ssh-agent offers many different identities. IdentityAgent Specifies the UNIX-domain socket used to communicate with the authentication agent. This option overrides the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable and can be used to select a specific agent. Setting the socket name to none disables the use of an authentication agent. If the string "SSH_AUTH_SOCK" is specified, the location of the socket will be read from the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. Arguments to IdentityAgent may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home direc‐ tory or the tokens described in the TOKENS section. IdentityFile Specifies a file from which the user's DSA, ECDSA, Ed25519 or RSA authentication identity is read. The default is ~/.ssh/id_dsa, ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa, ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 and ~/.ssh/id_rsa. Additionally, any identities represented by the authentication agent will be used for authentication unless IdentitiesOnly is set. If no certifi‐ cates have been explicitly specified by CertificateFile, ssh(1) will try to load certificate information from the filename obtained by appending -cert.pub to the path of a specified IdentityFile. Arguments to IdentityFile may use the tilde syntax to refer to a user's home direc‐ tory or the tokens described in the TOKENS section. It is possible to have multiple identity files specified in configuration files; all these identities will be tried in sequence. Multiple IdentityFile directives will add to the list of identities tried (this behaviour differs from that of other con‐ figuration directives). IdentityFile may be used in conjunction with IdentitiesOnly to select which identi‐ ties in an agent are offered during authentication. IdentityFile may also be used in conjunction with CertificateFile in order to provide any certificate also needed for authentication with the identity. IgnoreUnknown Specifies a pattern-list of unknown options to be ignored if they are encountered in configuration parsing. This may be used to suppress errors if ssh_config contains options that are unrecognised by ssh(1). It is recommended that IgnoreUnknown be listed early in the configuration file as it will not be applied to unknown options that appear before it. Include Include the specified configuration file(s). Multiple pathnames may be specified and each pathname may contain glob(3) wildcards and, for user configurations, shell- like ‘~’ references to user home directories. Files without absolute paths are assumed to be in ~/.ssh if included in a user configuration file or /etc/ssh if included from the system configuration file. Include directive may appear inside a Match or Host block to perform conditional inclusion. IPQoS Specifies the IPv4 type-of-service or DSCP class for connections. Accepted values are af11, af12, af13, af21, af22, af23, af31, af32, af33, af41, af42, af43, cs0, cs1, cs2, cs3, cs4, cs5, cs6, cs7, ef, lowdelay, throughput, reliability, a numeric value, or none to use the operating system default. This option may take one or two arguments, separated by whitespace. If one argument is specified, it is used as the packet class unconditionally. If two values are specified, the first is automati‐ cally selected for interactive sessions and the second for non-interactive sessions. The default is lowdelay for interactive sessions and throughput for non-interactive sessions. KbdInteractiveAuthentication Specifies whether to use keyboard-interactive authentication. The argument to this keyword must be yes (the default) or no. KbdInteractiveDevices Specifies the list of methods to use in keyboard-interactive authentication. Multi‐ ple method names must be comma-separated. The default is to use the server speci‐ fied list. The methods available vary depending on what the server supports. For an OpenSSH server, it may be zero or more of: bsdauth, pam, and skey. KexAlgorithms Specifies the available KEX (Key Exchange) algorithms. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. Alternately if the specified value begins with a ‘+’ character, then the specified methods will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ character, then the specified meth‐ ods (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them. The default is: curve25519-sha256,@libssh.org, ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521, diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256, diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1, diffie-hellman-group14-sha1 The list of available key exchange algorithms may also be obtained using "ssh -Q kex". LocalCommand Specifies a command to execute on the local machine after successfully connecting to the server. The command string extends to the end of the line, and is executed with the user's shell. Arguments to LocalCommand accept the tokens described in the TOKENS section. The command is run synchronously and does not have access to the session of the ssh(1) that spawned it. It should not be used for interactive commands. This directive is ignored unless PermitLocalCommand has been enabled. LocalForward Specifies that a TCP port on the local machine be forwarded over the secure channel to the specified host and port from the remote machine. The first argument must be [bind_address:]port and the second argument must be host:hostport. IPv6 addresses can be specified by enclosing addresses in square brackets. Multiple forwardings may be specified, and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. By default, the local port is bound in accordance with the GatewayPorts setting. However, an explicit bind_address may be used to bind the connection to a specific address. The bind_address of localhost indicates that the listening port be bound for local use only, while an empty address or ‘*’ indicates that the port should be available from all interfaces. LogLevel Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from ssh(1). The pos‐ sible values are: QUIET, FATAL, ERROR, INFO, VERBOSE, DEBUG, DEBUG1, DEBUG2, and DEBUG3. The default is INFO. DEBUG and DEBUG1 are equivalent. DEBUG2 and DEBUG3 each specify higher levels of verbose output. MACs Specifies the MAC (message authentication code) algorithms in order of preference. The MAC algorithm is used for data integrity protection. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. If the specified value begins with a ‘+’ character, then the specified algorithms will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ character, then the specified algorithms (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them. The algorithms that contain "-etm" calculate the MAC after encryption (encrypt-then- mac). These are considered safer and their use recommended. The default is: @openssh.com,@openssh.com, @openssh.com,@openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com,@openssh.com, hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-sha1 The list of available MAC algorithms may also be obtained using "ssh -Q mac". NoHostAuthenticationForLocalhost This option can be used if the home directory is shared across machines. In this case localhost will refer to a different machine on each of the machines and the user will get many warnings about changed host keys. However, this option disables host authentication for localhost. The argument to this keyword must be yes or no (the default). NumberOfPasswordPrompts Specifies the number of password prompts before giving up. The argument to this keyword must be an integer. The default is 3. PasswordAuthentication Specifies whether to use password authentication. The argument to this keyword must be yes (the default) or no. PermitLocalCommand Allow local command execution via the LocalCommand option or using the !command escape sequence in ssh(1). The argument must be yes or no (the default). PKCS11Provider Specifies which PKCS#11 provider to use. The argument to this keyword is the PKCS#11 shared library ssh(1) should use to communicate with a PKCS#11 token provid‐ ing the user's private RSA key. Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host. The default is 22. PreferredAuthentications Specifies the order in which the client should try authentication methods. This allows a client to prefer one method (e.g. keyboard-interactive) over another method (e.g. password). The default is: gssapi-with-mic,hostbased,publickey, keyboard-interactive,password ProxyCommand Specifies the command to use to connect to the server. The command string extends to the end of the line, and is executed using the user's shell ‘exec’ directive to avoid a lingering shell process. Arguments to ProxyCommand accept the tokens described in the TOKENS section. The command can be basically anything, and should read from its standard input and write to its standard output. It should eventually connect an sshd(8) server running on some machine, or execute sshd -i somewhere. Host key management will be done using the HostName of the host being connected (defaulting to the name typed by the user). Setting the command to none disables this option entirely. Note that CheckHostIP is not available for connects with a proxy command. This directive is useful in conjunction with nc(1) and its proxy support. For exam‐ ple, the following directive would connect via an HTTP proxy at 192.0.2.0: ProxyCommand /usr/bin/nc -X connect -x 192.0.2.0:8080 %h %p ProxyJump Specifies one or more jump proxies as [user@]host[:port]. Multiple proxies may be separated by comma characters and will be visited sequentially. Setting this option will cause ssh(1) to connect to the target host by first making a ssh(1) connection to the specified ProxyJump host and then establishing a TCP forwarding to the ulti‐ mate target from there. Note that this option will compete with the ProxyCommand option - whichever is spec‐ ified first will prevent later instances of the other from taking effect. ProxyUseFdpass Specifies that ProxyCommand will pass a connected file descriptor back to ssh(1) instead of continuing to execute and pass data. The default is no. PubkeyAcceptedKeyTypes Specifies the key types that will be used for public key authentication as a comma- separated pattern list. Alternately if the specified value begins with a ‘+’ char‐ acter, then the key types after it will be appended to the default instead of replacing it. If the specified value begins with a ‘-’ character, then the speci‐ fied key types (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them. The default for this option is: @openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com, @openssh.com, ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521, ssh-ed25519,ssh-rsa The list of available key types may also be obtained using "ssh -Q key". PubkeyAuthentication Specifies whether to try public key authentication. The argument to this keyword must be yes (the default) or no. RekeyLimit Specifies the maximum amount of data that may be transmitted before the session key is renegotiated, optionally followed a maximum amount of time that may pass before the session key is renegotiated. The first argument is specified in bytes and may have a suffix of ‘K’, ‘M’, or ‘G’ to indicate Kilobytes, Megabytes, or Gigabytes, respectively. The default is between ‘1G’ and ‘4G’, depending on the cipher. The optional second value is specified in seconds and may use any of the units docu‐ mented in the TIME FORMATS section of sshd_config(5). The default value for RekeyLimit is default none, which means that rekeying is performed after the cipher's default amount of data has been sent or received and no time based rekeying is done. RemoteCommand Specifies a command to execute on the remote machine after successfully connecting to the server. The command string extends to the end of the line, and is executed with the user's shell. Arguments to RemoteCommand accept the tokens described in the TOKENS section. RemoteForward Specifies that a TCP port on the remote machine be forwarded over the secure chan‐ nel. The remote port may either be fowarded to a specified host and port from the local machine, or may act as a SOCKS 4/5 proxy that allows a remote client to con‐ nect to arbitrary destinations from the local machine. The first argument must be [bind_address:]port If forwarding to a specific destination then the second argument must be host:hostport, otherwise if no destination argument is specified then the remote forwarding will be established as a SOCKS proxy. IPv6 addresses can be specified by enclosing addresses in square brackets. Multiple forwardings may be specified, and additional forwardings can be given on the command line. Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine. If the port argument is 0, the listen port will be dynamically allocated on the server and reported to the client at run time. If the bind_address is not specified, the default is to only bind to loopback addresses. If the bind_address is ‘*’ or an empty string, then the forwarding is requested to listen on all interfaces. Specifying a remote bind_address will only succeed if the server's GatewayPorts option is enabled (see sshd_config(5)). RequestTTY Specifies whether to request a pseudo-tty for the session. The argument may be one of: no (never request a TTY), yes (always request a TTY when standard input is a TTY), force (always request a TTY) or auto (request a TTY when opening a login ses‐ sion). This option mirrors the -t and -T flags for ssh(1). RevokedHostKeys Specifies revoked host public keys. Keys listed in this file will be refused for host authentication. Note that if this file does not exist or is not readable, then host authentication will be refused for all hosts. Keys may be specified as a text file, listing one public key per line, or as an OpenSSH Key Revocation List (KRL) as generated by ssh-keygen(1). For more information on KRLs, see the KEY REVOCATION LISTS section in ssh-keygen(1). SendEnv Specifies what variables from the local environ(7) should be sent to the server. The server must also support it, and the server must be configured to accept these environment variables. Note that the TERM environment variable is always sent when‐ ever a pseudo-terminal is requested as it is required by the protocol. Refer to AcceptEnv in sshd_config(5) for how to configure the server. Variables are speci‐ fied by name, which may contain wildcard characters. Multiple environment variables may be separated by whitespace or spread across multiple SendEnv directives. The default is not to send any environment variables. See PATTERNS for more information on patterns. ServerAliveCountMax Sets the number of server alive messages (see below) which may be sent without ssh(1) receiving any messages back from the server. If this threshold is reached while server alive messages are being sent, ssh will disconnect from the server, terminating the session. It is important to note that the use of server alive mes‐ sages is very different from TCPKeepAlive (below). The server alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable. The TCP keepalive option enabled by TCPKeepAlive is spoofable. The server alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive. The default value is 3. If, for example, ServerAliveInterval (see below) is set to 15 and ServerAliveCountMax is left at the default, if the server becomes unrespon‐ sive, ssh will disconnect after approximately 45 seconds. ServerAliveInterval Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the server, ssh(1) will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the server. The default is 0, indicating that these messages will not be sent to the server, or 300 if the BatchMode option is set (Debian-specific). ProtocolKeepAlives and SetupTimeOut are Debian-specific compatibility aliases for this option. StreamLocalBindMask Sets the octal file creation mode mask (umask) used when creating a Unix-domain socket file for local or remote port forwarding. This option is only used for port forwarding to a Unix-domain socket file. The default value is 0177, which creates a Unix-domain socket file that is readable and writable only by the owner. Note that not all operating systems honor the file mode on Unix-domain socket files. StreamLocalBindUnlink Specifies whether to remove an existing Unix-domain socket file for local or remote port forwarding before creating a new one. If the socket file already exists and StreamLocalBindUnlink is not enabled, ssh will be unable to forward the port to the Unix-domain socket file. This option is only used for port forwarding to a Unix- domain socket file. The argument must be yes or no (the default). StrictHostKeyChecking If this flag is set to yes, ssh(1) will never automatically add host keys to the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file, and refuses to connect to hosts whose host key has changed. This provides maximum protection against trojan horse attacks, though it can be annoying when the /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts file is poorly maintained or when connec‐ tions to new hosts are frequently made. This option forces the user to manually add all new hosts. If this flag is set to “accept-new” then ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files, but will not permit connections to hosts with changed host keys. If this flag is set to “no” or “off”, ssh will automatically add new host keys to the user known hosts files and allow connections to hosts with changed hostkeys to proceed, subject to some restrictions. If this flag is set to ask (the default), new host keys will be added to the user known host files only after the user has confirmed that is what they really want to do, and ssh will refuse to con‐ nect to hosts whose host key has changed. The host keys of known hosts will be ver‐ ified automatically in all cases. SyslogFacility Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from ssh(1). The possi‐ ble values are: DAEMON, USER, AUTH, LOCAL0, LOCAL1, LOCAL2, LOCAL3, LOCAL4, LOCAL5, LOCAL6, LOCAL7. The default is USER. TCPKeepAlive Specifies whether the system should send TCP keepalive messages to the other side. If they are sent, death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. This option only uses TCP keepalives (as opposed to using ssh level keepalives), so takes a long time to notice when the connection dies. As such, you probably want the ServerAliveInterval option as well. However, this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily, and some people find it annoying. The default is yes (to send TCP keepalive messages), and the client will notice if the network goes down or the remote host dies. This is important in scripts, and many users want it too. To disable TCP keepalive messages, the value should be set to no. Tunnel Request tun(4) device forwarding between the client and the server. The argument must be yes, point-to-point (layer 3), ethernet (layer 2), or no (the default). Specifying yes requests the default tunnel mode, which is point-to-point. TunnelDevice Specifies the tun(4) devices to open on the client (local_tun) and the server (remote_tun). The argument must be local_tun[:remote_tun]. The devices may be specified by numer‐ ical ID or the keyword any, which uses the next available tunnel device. If remote_tun is not specified, it defaults to any. The default is any:any. UpdateHostKeys Specifies whether ssh(1) should accept notifications of additional hostkeys from the server sent after authentication has completed and add them to UserKnownHostsFile. The argument must be yes, no (the default) or ask. Enabling this option allows learning alternate hostkeys for a server and supports graceful key rotation by allowing a server to send replacement public keys before old ones are removed. Additional hostkeys are only accepted if the key used to authenticate the host was already trusted or explicitly accepted by the user. If UpdateHostKeys is set to ask, then the user is asked to confirm the modifications to the known_hosts file. Confirmation is currently incompatible with ControlPersist, and will be disabled if it is enabled. Presently, only sshd(8) from OpenSSH 6.8 and greater support the "@openssh.com" protocol extension used to inform the client of all the server's hostkeys. UsePrivilegedPort Specifies whether to use a privileged port for outgoing connections. The argument must be yes or no (the default). If set to yes, ssh(1) must be setuid root. User Specifies the user to log in as. This can be useful when a different user name is used on different machines. This saves the trouble of having to remember to give the user name on the command line. UserKnownHostsFile Specifies one or more files to use for the user host key database, separated by whitespace. The default is ~/.ssh/known_hosts, ~/.ssh/known_hosts2. VerifyHostKeyDNS Specifies whether to verify the remote key using DNS and SSHFP resource records. If this option is set to yes, the client will implicitly trust keys that match a secure fingerprint from DNS. Insecure fingerprints will be handled as if this option was set to ask. If this option is set to ask, information on fingerprint match will be displayed, but the user will still need to confirm new host keys according to the StrictHostKeyChecking option. The default is no. See also VERIFYING HOST KEYS in ssh(1). VisualHostKey If this flag is set to yes, an ASCII art representation of the remote host key fin‐ gerprint is printed in addition to the fingerprint string at login and for unknown host keys. If this flag is set to no (the default), no fingerprint strings are printed at login and only the fingerprint string will be printed for unknown host keys. XAuthLocation Specifies the full pathname of the xauth(1) program. The default is /usr/bin/xauth.
PATTERNSA pattern consists of zero or more non-whitespace characters, ‘*’ (a wildcard that matches zero or more characters), or ‘?’ (a wildcard that matches exactly one character). For exam‐ ple, to specify a set of declarations for any host in the ".co.uk" set of domains, the fol‐ lowing pattern could be used: Host *.co.uk The following pattern would match any host in the 192.168.0.[0-9] network range: Host 192.168.0.? A pattern-list is a comma-separated list of patterns. Patterns within pattern-lists may be negated by preceding them with an exclamation mark (‘!’). For example, to allow a key to be used from anywhere within an organization except from the "dialup" pool, the following entry (in authorized_keys) could be used: from="!*.dialup.example.com,*.example.com"
TOKENSArguments to some keywords can make use of tokens, which are expanded at runtime: %% A literal ‘%’. %C Shorthand for %l%h%p%r. %d Local user's home directory. %h The remote hostname. %i The local user ID. %L The local hostname. %l The local hostname, including the domain name. %n The original remote hostname, as given on the command line. %p The remote port. %r The remote username. %u The local username. Match exec accepts the tokens %%, %h, %L, %l, %n, %p, %r, and %u. CertificateFile accepts the tokens %%, %d, %h, %l, %r, and %u. ControlPath accepts the tokens %%, %C, %h, %i, %L, %l, %n, %p, %r, and %u. HostName accepts the tokens %% and %h. IdentityAgent and IdentityFile accept the tokens %%, %d, %h, %l, %r, and %u. LocalCommand accepts the tokens %%, %C, %d, %h, %l, %n, %p, %r, and %u. ProxyCommand accepts the tokens %%, %h, %p, and %r. RemoteCommand accepts the tokens %%, %C, %d, %h, %l, %n, %p, %r, and %u.
FILES~/.ssh/config This is the per-user configuration file. The format of this file is described above. This file is used by the SSH client. Because of the potential for abuse, this file must have strict permissions: read/write for the user, and not accessible by others. It may be group-writable provided that the group in question contains only the user. /etc/ssh/ssh_config Systemwide configuration file. This file provides defaults for those values that are not specified in the user's configuration file, and for those users who do not have a configuration file. This file must be world-readable.
AUTHORSOpenSSH is a derivative of the original and free ssh 1.2.12 release by Tatu Ylonen. Aaron Campbell, Bob Beck, Markus Friedl, Niels Provos, Theo de Raadt and Dug Song removed many bugs, re-added newer features and created OpenSSH. Markus Friedl contributed the support for SSH protocol versions 1.5 and 2.0.
|This manual||Reference||Other manuals|
brlapi_tty(3) | bup-init(1) | bup-join(1) | bup-save(1) | bup-split(1) | Config::Model::models::Ssh(3pm) | Config::Model::models::Ssh::HostElement(3pm) | Config::Model::models::SystemSsh(3pm) | corkscrew(1) | dput.cf(5) | duplicity(1) | express.conf(5) | monkeysphere(1) | nc_openbsd(1) | Net::OpenSSH(3pm) | Net::SFTP::Foreign(3pm) | parallel-nuke(1) | parallel-rsync(1) | parallel-scp(1) | parallel-slurp(1)
|refer to||environ(7) | glob(3) | scp(1) | sftp(1) | ssh(1) | ssh-add(1) | ssh-agent(1) | ssh-keygen(1) | ssh-keysign(8) | sshd(8) | sshd_config(5) | tun(4freebsd) | xauth(1)|