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LOCALE - reference manual online

Describes a locale definition file.

Chapter
2015-07-23
LOCALE(5)                               Linux User Manual                               LOCALE(5)

NAME locale - describes a locale definition file
DESCRIPTION The locale definition file contains all the information that the localedef(1) command needs to convert it into the binary locale database. The definition files consist of sections which each describe a locale category in detail. See locale(7) for additional details for these categories. Syntax The locale definition file starts with a header that may consist of the following key‐ words: <escape_char> is followed by a character that should be used as the escape-character for the rest of the file to mark characters that should be interpreted in a special way. It defaults to the backslash (\). <comment_char> is followed by a character that will be used as the comment-character for the rest of the file. It defaults to the number sign (#). The locale definition has one part for each locale category. Each part can be copied from another existing locale or can be defined from scratch. If the category should be copied, the only valid keyword in the definition is copy followed by the name of the locale in double quotes which should be copied. The exceptions for this rule are LC_COLLATE and LC_CTYPE where a copy statement can be followed by locale-specific rules and selected overrides. When defining a category from scratch, all field descriptors and strings should be defined as Unicode code points in angle brackets, unless otherwise stated below. For example, "€" is to be presented as "<U20AC>", "%a" as "<U0025><U0061>", and "Monday" as "<U0053><U0075><U006E><U0064><U0061><U0079>". Values defined as Unicode code points must be in double quotes, plain number values are not quoted (but LC_CTYPE and LC_COLLATE fol‐ low special formatting, see the system-provided locale files for examples). Locale category sections The following category sections are defined by POSIX: * LC_CTYPE * LC_COLLATE * LC_MESSAGES * LC_MONETARY * LC_NUMERIC * LC_TIME In addition, since version 2.2, the GNU C library supports the following nonstandard cate‐ gories: * LC_ADDRESS * LC_IDENTIFICATION * LC_MEASUREMENT * LC_NAME * LC_PAPER * LC_TELEPHONE See locale(7) for a more detailed description of each category. LC_ADDRESS The definition starts with the string LC_ADDRESS in the first column. The following keywords are allowed: postal_fmt followed by a string containing field descriptors that define the format used for postal addresses in the locale. The following field descriptors are recognized: %a Care of person, or organization. %f Firm name. %d Department name. %b Building name. %s Street or block (e.g., Japanese) name. %h House number or designation. %N Insert an end-of-line if the previous descriptor's value was not an empty string; otherwise ignore. %t Insert a space if the previous descriptor's value was not an empty string; oth‐ erwise ignore. %r Room number, door designation. %e Floor number. %C Country designation, from the <country_post> keyword. %z Zip number, postal code. %T Town, city. %S State, province, or prefecture. %c Country, as taken from data record. Each field descriptor may have an 'R' after the '%' to specify that the information is taken from a Romanized version string of the entity. country_name followed by the country name in the language of the current document (e.g., "Deutschland" for the de_DE locale). country_post followed by the abbreviation of the country (see CERT_MAILCODES). country_ab2 followed by the two-letter abbreviation of the country (ISO 3166). country_ab3 followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the country (ISO 3166). country_num followed by the numeric country code as plain numbers (ISO 3166). country_car followed by the code for the country car number. country_isbn followed by the ISBN code (for books). lang_name followed by the language name in the language of the current document. lang_ab followed by the two-letter abbreviation of the language (ISO 639). lang_term followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the language (ISO 639-2/T). lang_lib followed by the three-letter abbreviation of the language for library use (ISO 639-2/B). Applications should in general prefer lang_term over lang_lib. The LC_ADDRESS definition ends with the string END LC_ADDRESS. LC_CTYPE The definition starts with the string LC_CTYPE in the first column. The following keywords are allowed: upper followed by a list of uppercase letters. The letters A through Z are included automatically. Characters also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed. lower followed by a list of lowercase letters. The letters a through z are included automatically. Characters also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed. alpha followed by a list of letters. All character specified as either upper or lower are automatically included. Characters also specified as cntrl, digit, punct, or space are not allowed. digit followed by the characters classified as numeric digits. Only the digits 0 through 9 are allowed. They are included by default in this class. space followed by a list of characters defined as white-space characters. Characters also specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit, graph, or xdigit are not allowed. The characters <space>, <form-feed>, <newline>, <carriage-return>, <tab>, and <ver‐ tical-tab> are automatically included. cntrl followed by a list of control characters. Characters also specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit, punct, graph, print, or xdigit are not allowed. punct followed by a list of punctuation characters. Characters also specified as upper, lower, alpha, digit, cntrl, xdigit, or the <space> character are not allowed. graph followed by a list of printable characters, not including the <space> character. The characters defined as upper, lower, alpha, digit, xdigit, and punct are auto‐ matically included. Characters also specified as cntrl are not allowed. print followed by a list of printable characters, including the <space> character. The characters defined as upper, lower, alpha, digit, xdigit, punct, and the <space> character are automatically included. Characters also specified as cntrl are not allowed. xdigit followed by a list of characters classified as hexadecimal digits. The decimal digits must be included followed by one or more set of six characters in ascending order. The following characters are included by default: 0 through 9, a through f, A through F. blank followed by a list of characters classified as blank. The characters <space> and <tab> are automatically included. charclass followed by a list of locale-specific character class names which are then to be defined in the locale. toupper followed by a list of mappings from lowercase to uppercase letters. Each mapping is a pair of a lowercase and an uppercase letter separated with a , and enclosed in parentheses. The members of the list are separated with semicolons. tolower followed by a list of mappings from uppercase to lowercase letters. If the keyword tolower is not present, the reverse of the toupper list is used. map totitle followed by a list of mapping pairs of characters and letters to be used in titles (headings). class followed by a locale-specific character class definition, starting with the class name followed by the characters belonging to the class. charconv followed by a list of locale-specific character mapping names which are then to be defined in the locale. outdigit followed by a list of alternate output digits for the locale. map to_inpunct followed by a list of mapping pairs of alternate digits and separators for input digits for the locale. map to_outpunct followed by a list of mapping pairs of alternate separators for output for the locale. translit_start marks the start of the transliteration rules section. The section can contain the include keyword in the beginning followed by locale-specific rules and overrides. Any rule specified in the locale file will override any rule copied or included from other files. In case of duplicate rule definitions in the locale file, only the first rule is used. A transliteration rule consist of a character to be transliterated followed by a list of transliteration targets separated by semicolons. The first target which can be presented in the target character set is used, if none of them can be used the default_missing character will be used instead. include in the transliteration rules section includes a transliteration rule file (and optionally a repertoire map file). default_missing in the transliteration rules section defines the default character to be used for transliteration where none of the targets cannot be presented in the target charac‐ ter set. translit_end marks the end of the transliteration rules. The LC_CTYPE definition ends with the string END LC_CTYPE. LC_COLLATE Due to limitations of glibc not all POSIX-options are implemented. The definition starts with the string LC_COLLATE in the first column. The following keywords are allowed: collating-element followed by the definition of a collating-element symbol representing a multichar‐ acter collating element. collating-symbol followed by the definition of a collating symbol that can be used in collation order statements. The order-definition starts with a line: order_start followed by a list of keywords chosen from forward, backward, or position. The order definition consists of lines that describe the order and is terminated with the keyword order_end. The LC_COLLATE definition ends with the string END LC_COLLATE. LC_IDENTIFICATION The definition starts with the string LC_IDENTIFICATION in the first column. The values in this category are defined as plain strings. The following keywords are allowed: title followed by the title of the locale document (e.g., "Maori language locale for New Zealand"). source followed by the name of the organization that maintains this document. address followed by the address of the organization that maintains this document. contact followed by the name of the contact person at the organization that maintains this document. email followed by the email address of the person or organization that maintains this document. tel followed by the telephone number (in international format) of the organization that maintains this document. fax followed by the fax number (in international format) of the organization that main‐ tains this document. language followed by the name of the language to which this document applies. territory followed by the name of the country/geographic extent to which this document applies. audience followed by a description of the audience for which this document is intended. application followed by a description of any special application for which this document is intended. abbreviation followed by the short name for this document. revision followed by the revision number of this document. date followed by the revision date of this document. In addition, for each of the categories defined by the document, there should be a line starting with the keyword category, followed by: * a string that identifies this locale category definition, * a semicolon, and * one of the LC_* identifiers. The LC_IDENTIFICATION definition ends with the string END LC_IDENTIFICATION. LC_MESSAGES The definition starts with the string LC_MESSAGES in the first column. The following keywords are allowed: yesexpr followed by a regular expression that describes possible yes-responses. noexpr followed by a regular expression that describes possible no-responses. yesstr followed by the output string corresponding to "yes". nostr followed by the output string corresponding to "no". The LC_MESSAGES definition ends with the string END LC_MESSAGES. LC_MEASUREMENT The definition starts with the string LC_MEASUREMENT in the first column. The following keywords are allowed: measurement followed by number identifying the standard used for measurement. The following values are recognized: 1 Metric. 2 US customary measurements. The LC_MEASUREMENT definition ends with the string END LC_MEASUREMENT. LC_MONETARY The definition starts with the string LC_MONETARY in the first column. Values for int_curr_symbol, currency_symbol, mon_decimal_point, mon_thousands_sep, posi‐ tive_sign, and negative_sign are defined as Unicode code points, the others as plain num‐ bers. The following keywords are allowed: int_curr_symbol followed by the international currency symbol. This must be a 4-character string containing the international currency symbol as defined by the ISO 4217 standard (three characters) followed by a separator. currency_symbol followed by the local currency symbol. mon_decimal_point followed by the string that will be used as the decimal delimiter when formatting monetary quantities. mon_thousands_sep followed by the string that will be used as a group separator when formatting mone‐ tary quantities. mon_grouping followed by a sequence of integers separated by semicolons that describe the for‐ matting of monetary quantities. See grouping below for details. positive_sign followed by a string that is used to indicate a positive sign for monetary quanti‐ ties. negative_sign followed by a string that is used to indicate a negative sign for monetary quanti‐ ties. int_frac_digits followed by the number of fractional digits that should be used when formatting with the int_curr_symbol. frac_digits followed by the number of fractional digits that should be used when formatting with the currency_symbol. p_cs_precedes followed by an integer that indicates the placement of currency_symbol for a non‐ negative formatted monetary quantity: 0 the symbol succeeds the value. 1 the symbol precedes the value. p_sep_by_space followed by an integer that indicates the separation of currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a nonnegative formatted monetary quantity. The following values are recognized: 0 No space separates the currency symbol and the value. 1 If the currency symbol and the sign string are adjacent, a space separates them from the value; otherwise a space separates the currency symbol and the value. 2 If the currency symbol and the sign string are adjacent, a space separates them from the value; otherwise a space separates the sign string and the value. n_cs_precedes followed by an integer that indicates the placement of currency_symbol for a nega‐ tive formatted monetary quantity. The same values are recognized as for p_cs_pre‐ cedes. n_sep_by_space followed by an integer that indicates the separation of currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a negative formatted monetary quantity. The same values are recognized as for p_sep_by_space. p_sign_posn followed by an integer that indicates where the positive_sign should be placed for a nonnegative monetary quantity: 0 Parentheses enclose the quantity and the currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol. 1 The sign string precedes the quantity and the currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol. 2 The sign string succeeds the quantity and the currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol. 3 The sign string precedes the currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol. 4 The sign string succeeds the currency_symbol or the int_curr_symbol. n_sign_posn followed by an integer that indicates where the negative_sign should be placed for a negative monetary quantity. The same values are recognized as for p_sign_posn. int_p_cs_precedes followed by an integer that indicates the placement of int_currency_symbol for a nonnegative internationally formatted monetary quantity. The same values are rec‐ ognized as for p_cs_precedes. int_n_cs_precedes followed by an integer that indicates the placement of int_currency_symbol for a negative internationally formatted monetary quantity. The same values are recog‐ nized as for p_cs_precedes. int_p_sep_by_space followed by an integer that indicates the separation of int_currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a nonnegative internationally formatted monetary quantity. The same values are recognized as for p_sep_by_space. int_n_sep_by_space followed by an integer that indicates the separation of int_currency_symbol, the sign string, and the value for a negative internationally formatted monetary quan‐ tity. The same values are recognized as for p_sep_by_space. int_p_sign_posn followed by an integer that indicates where the positive_sign should be placed for a nonnegative internationally formatted monetary quantity. The same values are recognized as for p_sign_posn. int_n_sign_posn followed by an integer that indicates where the negative_sign should be placed for a negative internationally formatted monetary quantity. The same values are recog‐ nized as for p_sign_posn. The LC_MONETARY definition ends with the string END LC_MONETARY. LC_NAME The definition starts with the string LC_NAME in the first column. Various keywords are allowed, but only name_fmt is mandatory. Other keywords are needed only if there is common convention to use the corresponding salutation in this locale. The allowed keywords are as follows: name_fmt followed by a string containing field descriptors that define the format used for names in the locale. The following field descriptors are recognized: %f Family name(s). %F Family names in uppercase. %g First given name. %G First given initial. %l First given name with Latin letters. %o Other shorter name. %m Additional given name(s). %M Initials for additional given name(s). %p Profession. %s Salutation, such as "Doctor". %S Abbreviated salutation, such as "Mr." or "Dr.". %d Salutation, using the FDCC-sets conventions. %t If the preceding field descriptor resulted in an empty string, then the empty string, otherwise a space character. name_gen followed by the general salutation for any gender. name_mr followed by the salutation for men. name_mrs followed by the salutation for married women. name_miss followed by the salutation for unmarried women. name_ms followed by the salutation valid for all women. The LC_NAME definition ends with the string END LC_NAME. LC_NUMERIC The definition starts with the string LC_NUMERIC in the first column. The following keywords are allowed: decimal_point followed by the string that will be used as the decimal delimiter when formatting numeric quantities. thousands_sep followed by the string that will be used as a group separator when formatting numeric quantities. grouping followed by a sequence of integers as plain numbers separated by semicolons that describe the formatting of numeric quantities. Each integer specifies the number of digits in a group. The first integer defines the size of the group immediately to the left of the decimal delimiter. Subsequent integers define succeeding groups to the left of the previous group. If the last integer is not -1, then the size of the previous group (if any) is repeatedly used for the remainder of the digits. If the last integer is -1, then no further group‐ ing is performed. The LC_NUMERIC definition ends with the string END LC_NUMERIC. LC_PAPER The definition starts with the string LC_PAPER in the first column. Values in this category are defined as plain numbers. The following keywords are allowed: height followed by the height, in millimeters, of the standard paper format. width followed by the width, in millimeters, of the standard paper format. The LC_PAPER definition ends with the string END LC_PAPER. LC_TELEPHONE The definition starts with the string LC_TELEPHONE in the first column. The following keywords are allowed: tel_int_fmt followed by a string that contains field descriptors that identify the format used to dial international numbers. The following field descriptors are recognized: %a Area code without nationwide prefix (the prefix is often "00"). %A Area code including nationwide prefix. %l Local number (within area code). %e Extension (to local number). %c Country code. %C Alternate carrier service code used for dialing abroad. %t If the preceding field descriptor resulted in an empty string, then the empty string, otherwise a space character. tel_dom_fmt followed by a string that contains field descriptors that identify the format used to dial domestic numbers. The recognized field descriptors are the same as for tel_int_fmt. int_select followed by the prefix used to call international phone numbers. int_prefix followed by the prefix used from other countries to dial this country. The LC_TELEPHONE definition ends with the string END LC_TELEPHONE. LC_TIME The definition starts with the string LC_TIME in the first column. The following keywords are allowed: abday followed by a list of abbreviated names of the days of the week. The list starts with the first day of the week as specified by week (Sunday by default). See NOTES. day followed by a list of names of the days of the week. The list starts with the first day of the week as specified by week (Sunday by default). See NOTES. abmon followed by a list of abbreviated month names. mon followed by a list of month names. d_t_fmt followed by the appropriate date and time format (for syntax, see strftime(3)). d_fmt followed by the appropriate date format (for syntax, see strftime(3)). t_fmt followed by the appropriate time format (for syntax, see strftime(3)). am_pm followed by the appropriate representation of the am and pm strings. This should be left empty for locales not using AM/PM convention. t_fmt_ampm followed by the appropriate time format (for syntax, see strftime(3)) when using 12h clock format. This should be left empty for locales not using AM/PM conven‐ tion. era followed by semicolon-separated strings that define how years are counted and dis‐ played for each era in the locale. Each string has the following format: direction:offset:start_date:end_date:era_name:era_format The fields are to be defined as follows: direction Either + or -. + means the years closer to start_date have lower numbers than years closer to end_date. - means the opposite. offset The number of the year closest to start_date in the era, corresponding to the %Ey descriptor (see strptime(3)). start_date The start of the era in the form of yyyy/mm/dd. Years prior AD 1 are repre‐ sented as negative numbers. end_date The end of the era in the form of yyyy/mm/dd, or one of the two special values of -* or +*. -* means the ending date is the beginning of time. +* means the ending date is the end of time. era_name The name of the era corresponding to the %EC descriptor (see strptime(3)). era_format The format of the year in the era corresponding to the %EY descriptor (see strptime(3)). era_d_fmt followed by the format of the date in alternative era notation, corresponding to the %Ex descriptor (see strptime(3)). era_t_fmt followed by the format of the time in alternative era notation, corresponding to the %EX descriptor (see strptime(3)). era_d_t_fmt followed by the format of the date and time in alternative era notation, corre‐ sponding to the %Ec descriptor (see strptime(3)). alt_digits followed by the alternative digits used for date and time in the locale. week followed by a list of three values as plain numbers: The number of days in a week (by default 7), a date of beginning of the week (by default corresponds to Sunday), and the minimal length of the first week in year (by default 4). Regarding the start of the week, 19971130 shall be used for Sunday and 19971201 shall be used for Monday. See NOTES. first_weekday (since glibc 2.2) followed by the number of the first day from the day list to be shown in calendar applications. The default value of 1 (plain number) corresponds to either Sunday or Monday depending on the value of the second week list item. See NOTES. first_workday (since glibc 2.2) followed by the number of the first working day from the day list. The default value is 2 (plain number). See NOTES. cal_direction followed by a plain number value that indicates the direction for the display of calendar dates, as follows: 1 Left-right from top. 2 Top-down from left. 3 Right-left from top. date_fmt followed by the appropriate date representation for date(1) (for syntax, see strf‐ time(3)). The LC_TIME definition ends with the string END LC_TIME.
FILES /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive Usual default locale archive location. /usr/share/i18n/locales Usual default path for locale definition files.
CONFORMING TO POSIX.2, ISO/IEC TR 14652.
NOTES The collective GNU C library community wisdom regarding abday, day, week, first_weekday, and first_workday states at https://sourceware.org/glibc/wiki/Locales the following: * The value of the second week list item specifies the base of the abday and day lists. * first_weekday specifies the offset of the first day-of-week in the abday and day lists. * For compatibility reasons, all glibc locales should set the value of the second week list item to 19971130 (Sunday) and base the abday and day lists appropriately, and set first_weekday and first_workday to 1 or 2, depending on whether the week and work week actually starts on Sunday or Monday for the locale.
SEE ALSO iconv(1), locale(1), localedef(1), localeconv(3), newlocale(3), setlocale(3), strftime(3), strptime(3), uselocale(3), charmap(5), charsets(7), locale(7), unicode(7), utf-8(7)
COLOPHON This page is part of release 4.04 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.
Linux 2015-07-23 LOCALE(5)
This manual Reference Other manuals
locale(5) referred by charmap(5) | duplocale(3) | enca(1) | locale(1) | locale(7) | localedef(1) | ncmpc(1) | newlocale(3) | printf(3) | repertoiremap(5) | Text::CharWidth(3pm) | Text::WrapI18N(3pm) | tin(1) | uselocale(3)
refer to charmap(5) | charsets(7) | date(1) | iconv(1) | locale(1) | locale(7) | localeconv(3) | localedef(1) | newlocale(3) | setlocale(3) | strftime(3) | strptime(3) | unicode(7) | uselocale(3) | utf-8(7)