SIMPLE SOLUTIONS

# RSYNC(1) - Linux man page online | User commands

A fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool.

Chapter
21 Dec 2015
rsync(1) rsync(1)

## NAME

rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

## SYNOPSIS

Local: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST] Access via remote shell: Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST] Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST Access via rsync daemon: Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST] rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST] Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files instead of copy‐ ing.

## DESCRIPTION

Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool. It can copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon. It offers a large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible specification of the set of files to be copied. It is famous for its delta-transfer algo‐ rithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by sending only the differ‐ ences between the source files and the existing files in the destination. Rsync is widely used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use. Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size or in last-modified time. Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination file directly when the quick check indicates that the file’s data does not need to be updated. Some of the additional features of rsync are: o support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions o exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar o a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore o can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh o does not require super-user privileges o pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs o support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)

## GENERAL

Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it does not support copying files between two remote hosts). There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP. The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single colon (:) separator after a host specification. Contacting an rsync daemon directly happens when the source or destination path contains a double colon (::) separa‐ tor after a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this lat‐ ter rule). As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l". As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option). Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the "server". Don’t confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.

## SETUP

See the file README for installation instructions. Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode protocol). For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh. You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable. Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.

## USAGE

You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destination, one of which may be remote. Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples: rsync -t *.c foo:src/ This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the files already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the dif‐ ferences in the data. Note that the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c) into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and not by rsync itself (exactly the same as all other posix-style programs). rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine. The files are transferred in "ar‐ chive" mode, which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, owner‐ ships, etc. are preserved in the transfer. Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the size of data portions of the transfer. rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional directory level at the destination. You can think of a trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the containing directory on the destination. In other words, each of the following commands copies the files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo: rsync -av /src/foo /dest rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo Note also that host and module references don’t require a trailing slash to copy the con‐ tents of the default directory. For example, both of these copy the remote directory’s contents into "/dest": rsync -av host: /dest rsync -av host::module /dest You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and destination don’t have a ’:’ in the name. In this case it behaves like an improved copy command. Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name: rsync somehost.mydomain.com:: See the following section for more details.

The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by specifying addi‐ tional remote-host args in the same style as the first, or with the hostname omitted. For instance, all these work: rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/ rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/ rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4} Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these examples: rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is not as easy to use as the first method. If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you’ll need to escape the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand. For instance: rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

## STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS

In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular port). For full information on how to start a daemon that will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations). If you’re using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

## SORTED TRANSFER ORDER

Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer list. This handles the merging together of the contents of identically named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may confuse someone when the files are transferred in a different order than what was given on the command-line. If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another, either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using --delay-updates (which doesn’t affect the sorted transfer order, but does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

## EXAMPLES

Here are some examples of how I use rsync. To backup my wife’s home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and mail fold‐ ers, I use a cron job that runs rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur". To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets: get: rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ . put: rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/ sync: get put this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn’t very efficient. I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command: rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge" This is launched from cron every few hours.

## FILTER RULES

The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude). The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file). As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be trans‐ ferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first matching pat‐ tern is acted on: if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the filename is not skipped. Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the command-line. Filter rules have the following syntax: RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below. If you use a short-named rule, the ’,’ separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional. The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single space or an underscore (_). Here are the available rule prefixes: exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern. include, + specifies an include pattern. merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules. dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file. hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden. protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion. risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected. clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that start with a "#". Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the specification of include/exclude pat‐ terns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file). If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string. A --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule. Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from options. INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against the names of the files that are going to be transferred. These patterns can take several forms: o if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname. This is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions. Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file’s directory (for a per-directory rule). An unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied recur‐ sively from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the end of the filename. Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub". See the sec‐ tion on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer. o if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device. o rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: ’*’, ’?’, and ’[’ . o a ’*’ matches any path component, but it stops at slashes. o use ’**’ to match anything, including slashes. o a ’?’ matches any character except a slash (/). o a ’[’ introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]]. o in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present. This means that there is an extra level of backslash removal when a pattern contains wildcard characters com‐ pared to a pattern that has none. e.g. if you add a wildcard to "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b". o if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is matched against the full pathname, including any leading directories. If the pat‐ tern doesn’t contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final com‐ ponent of the filename. (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on down.) o a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been speci‐ fied). This behavior was added in version 2.6.7. Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subcom‐ ponent of every path is visited from the top down, so include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent’s full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcompo‐ nents "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be excluded). The exclude patterns actually short-circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files to send. If a pat‐ tern excludes a particular parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern inef‐ fectual because rsync did not descend through that excluded section of the hierarchy. This is particularly important when using a trailing ’*’ rule. For instance, this won’t work: + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found + /file-is-included - * This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the ’*’ rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories. One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option. Another solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited. For instance, this set of rules works fine: + /some/ + /some/path/ + /some/path/this-file-is-found + /file-also-included - * Here are some examples of exclude/include matching: o "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o o "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root direc‐ tory o "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo o "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory o "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a direc‐ tory named foo in the transfer-root directory o The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option) o The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*") The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-": o A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer. o A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to match. For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories. o A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should follow. o An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side. When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred. The default is for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case default rules become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes. o An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted. See the s modi‐ fier for more info. See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes. o A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the -C option’s default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a direc‐ tory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination. MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance (’.’) and per-directory (’:’). A single-instance merge file is read one time, and its rules are incorporated into the fil‐ ter list in the place of the "." rule. For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists into the current list of inherited rules. These per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to affect what files don’t get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below). Some examples: merge /etc/rsync/default.rules . /etc/rsync/default.rules dir-merge .per-dir-filter dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule: o A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible manner. This turns on ’n’, ’w’, and ’-’, but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed. o A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g. "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules". o An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories. o A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off comments. Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn’t also disabled). o You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier set (except for the ! modifier, which would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide). Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory where the merge-file was found unless the ’n’ modifier was used. Each subdirectory’s rules are pre‐ fixed to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the inherited rules. The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global rules. When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the inher‐ ited rules for the current merge file. Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash. Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file’s directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter file was found. Here’s an example filter file which you’d specify via --filter=". file": merge /home/user/.global-filter - *.gz dir-merge .rules + *.[ch] - *.o This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root of the transfer). If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file. For instance, here is a com‐ mon filter (see -F): --filter=': /.rsync-filter' That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal direc‐ tory scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module’s "path".) Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files: rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is a part of the transfer. If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compati‐ ble manner. You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option’s inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules. Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules). For example: cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b + foo.o :C - *.old EOT rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b Both of the above rsync commands are identical. Each one will merge all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end. This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclu‐ sions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of$CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--fil‐ ter=-C". LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent’s rules). ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored at the merge-file’s directory). If you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match. Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination host). The following examples demonstrate this. Let’s say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz". Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer: Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") Target file: /dest/foo/bar Target file: /dest/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar (starts at specified path) +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you’re not yet ready to copy any files). PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the ’e’ modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equiva‐ lent commands: rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be excluded from being deleted, you’ll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything: rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you’ll need to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you’ll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves): rsync -av --filter=’: .rules’ --filter=’. /my/extra.rules’ --delete host:src/dir /dest In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule. In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the trans‐ fer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don’t get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else should not get deleted. Like one of these commands: rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \ host:src/dir /dest rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

## BATCH MODE

Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts. Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the destination trees. The write-batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees. Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multiple destination trees. Multicast trans‐ port protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually. To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file. For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh" appended. This script file con‐ tains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the one used to create the batch file. Examples: $rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ scp foo* remote: $ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/ \$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/ and the informa‐ tion to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "foo.sh". The host "remote" is then updated with the batched data going into the directory /bdest/dir. The differences between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with batches: o The first example shows that the initial copy doesn’t have to be local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired. o The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get the right rsync options when running the read-batch command on the remote host. o The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that the batch file doesn’t need to be copied to the remote machine first. This example avoids the foo.sh script because it needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure that no other option is trying to use standard input, such as the "--exclude-from=-" option). Caveats: The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the batch update fileset. When a difference between the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error. This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got interrupted. If you wish to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file’s size and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch). If an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially updated state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree. The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the one used to gen‐ erate the batch file. Rsync will die with an error if the protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync to handle. See also the --protocol option for a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand. (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.) When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data in the batch file if you didn’t set them to the same as the batch-writing command. Other options can (and should) be changed. For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch, --files-from is dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified. The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file. An advanced user can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by --delete is desired. A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data. The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a new implementation.

## DIAGNOSTICS

rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?". This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your remote shell like this: ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins. If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the -vv option. At this level of verbosity rsync will show why each individual file is included or excluded.

## EXIT VALUES

0 Success 1 Syntax or usage error 2 Protocol incompatibility 3 Errors selecting input/output files, dirs 4 Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an option was specified that is supported by the client and not by the server. 5 Error starting client-server protocol 6 Daemon unable to append to log-file 10 Error in socket I/O 11 Error in file I/O 12 Error in rsync protocol data stream 13 Errors with program diagnostics 14 Error in IPC code 20 Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT 21 Some error returned by waitpid() 22 Error allocating core memory buffers 23 Partial transfer due to error 24 Partial transfer due to vanished source files 25 The --max-delete limit stopped deletions 30 Timeout in data send/receive 35 Timeout waiting for daemon connection

## ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

CVSIGNORE The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore patterns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more details. RSYNC_ICONV Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.) RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.) RSYNC_RSH The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as the transport for rsync. Command line options are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e option. RSYNC_PROXY The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair. RSYNC_PASSWORD Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell’s documentation. USER or LOGNAME The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine the default user‐ name sent to an rsync daemon. If neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody". HOME The HOME environment variable is used to find the user’s default .cvsignore file.

## FILES

/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

rsyncd.conf(5)

## BUGS

times are transferred as *nix time_t values When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files. See the comments on the --modify-window option. file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values see also the comments on the --delete option Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

## VERSION

This man page is current for version 3.1.2 of rsync.

## INTERNAL OPTIONS

The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances. Some awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command. For instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.

## CREDITS

rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public License. See the file COPYING for details. A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/. The site includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page. The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync. We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program. Please contact the mail‐ ing-list at @lists.samba.org. This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

## THANKS

Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W. Terpstra, David Dyk‐ stra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz. Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and David Bell. I’ve probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

## AUTHOR

rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras. Many people have later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by Wayne Davison. Mailing lists for support and development are available at http://lists.samba.org
21 Dec 2015 rsync(1)
This manual Reference Other manuals
rsync(1) referred by agedu(1) | cdist-type__rsync(7) | cdw(1) | clsync(1) | cowpoke(1) | cvsconvert(1) | cvssync(1) | dirvish(8) | dirvish.conf(5) | ecryptfs-migrate-home(8) | fakeroot-sysv(1) | fakeroot-tcp(1) | File::Rsync(3pm) | fpart(1) | fpsync(1) | fsvs(1) | ftpsync.conf(5) | git-annex(1) | gitkeeper(8) | guestfish(1)
refer to chmod(1) | cp(1) | cvs(1) | fallocate(2) | posix_fallocate(3) | rsyncd.conf(5) | stat(2) | tar(1)