SIMPLE SOLUTIONS

SALT(7) - Linux man page online | Overview, conventions, and miscellany

Salt Documentation.

Chapter
Apr 05, 2019
SALT(7) Salt SALT(7)

NAME

salt - Salt Documentation

INSTALLATION

This section contains instructions to install Salt. If you are setting up your environment for the first time, you should install a Salt master on a dedicated management server or VM, and then install a Salt minion on each system that you want to manage using Salt. For now you don't need to worry about your architecture, you can easily add components and modify your configuration later without needing to reinstall anything. The general installation process is as follows: 1. Install a Salt master using the instructions for your platform or by running the Salt bootstrap script. If you use the bootstrap script, be sure to include the -M option to install the Salt master. 2. Make sure that your Salt minions can find the Salt master. 3. Install the Salt minion on each system that you want to manage. 4. Accept the Salt minion keys after the Salt minion connects. After this, you should be able to run a simple command and receive returns from all con‐ nected Salt minions. salt '*' test.ping Quick Install On most distributions, you can set up a Salt Minion with the Salt bootstrap. Platform-specific Installation Instructions These guides go into detail how to install Salt on a given platform. Arch Linux Installation Salt (stable) is currently available via the Arch Linux Official repositories. There are currently -git packages available in the Arch User repositories (AUR) as well. Stable Release Install Salt stable releases from the Arch Linux Official repositories as follows: pacman -S salt Tracking develop To install the bleeding edge version of Salt (may include bugs!), use the -git package. Installing the -git package as follows: wget https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/sa/salt-git/salt-git.tar.gz tar xf salt-git.tar.gz cd salt-git/ makepkg -is NOTE: yaourt If a tool such as Yaourt is used, the dependencies will be gathered and built automati‐ cally. The command to install salt using the yaourt tool is: yaourt salt-git Post-installation tasks systemd Activate the Salt Master and/or Minion via systemctl as follows: systemctl enable salt-master.service systemctl enable salt-minion.service Start the Master Once you've completed all of these steps you're ready to start your Salt Master. You should be able to start your Salt Master now using the command seen here: systemctl start salt-master Now go to the Configuring Salt page. Debian GNU/Linux / Raspbian Debian GNU/Linux distribution and some derivatives such as Raspbian already have included Salt packages to their repositories. However, current stable release codenamed "Jessie" contains old outdated Salt release. It is recommended to use SaltStack repository for Debian as described below. Installation from official Debian and Raspbian repositories is described here. Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository Packages for Debian 9 (Stretch) and Debian 8 (Jessie) are available in the Official Salt‐ Stack repository. Instructions are at https://repo.saltstack.com/#debian. NOTE: Regular security support for Debian 7 ended on April 25th 2016. As a result, 2016.3.1 and 2015.8.10 will be the last Salt releases for which Debian 7 packages are created. Installation from the Debian / Raspbian Official Repository Stretch (Testing) and Sid (Unstable) distributions are already contain mostly up-to-date Salt packages built by Debian Salt Team. You can install Salt components directly from Debian. On Jessie (Stable) there is an option to install Salt minion from Stretch with python-tor‐ nado dependency from jessie-backports repositories. To install fresh release of Salt minion on Jessie: 1. Add jessie-backports and stretch repositories: Debian: echo 'deb http://httpredir.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main' >> /etc/apt/sources ↲ .list echo 'deb http://httpredir.debian.org/debian stretch main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list Raspbian: echo 'deb http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ stretch main' >> /etc/apt/sources.list 2. Make Jessie a default release: echo 'APT::Default-Release "jessie";' > /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/10apt 3. Install Salt dependencies: Debian: apt-get update apt-get install python-zmq python-systemd/jessie-backports python-tornado/jessie-backpo ↲ rts salt-common/stretch Raspbian: apt-get update apt-get install python-zmq python-tornado/stretch salt-common/stretch 4. Install Salt minion package from Stretch: apt-get install salt-minion/stretch Install Packages Install the Salt master, minion or other packages from the repository with the apt-get command. These examples each install one of Salt components, but more than one package name may be given at a time: · apt-get install salt-api · apt-get install salt-cloud · apt-get install salt-master · apt-get install salt-minion · apt-get install salt-ssh · apt-get install salt-syndic Post-installation tasks Now, go to the Configuring Salt page. Arista EOS Salt minion installation guide The Salt minion for Arista EOS is distributed as a SWIX extension and can be installed directly on the switch. The EOS network operating system is based on old Fedora distribu‐ tions and the installation of the salt-minion requires backports. This SWIX extension con‐ tains the necessary backports, together with the Salt basecode. NOTE: This SWIX extension has been tested on Arista DCS-7280SE-68-R, running EOS 4.17.5M and vEOS 4.18.3F. Important Notes This package is in beta, make sure to test it carefully before running it in production. If confirmed working correctly, please report and add a note on this page with the plat‐ form model and EOS version. If you want to uninstall this package, please refer to the uninstalling section. Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository Download the swix package and save it to flash. veos#copy https://salt-eos.netops.life/salt-eos-latest.swix flash: veos#copy https://salt-eos.netops.life/startup.sh flash: Install the Extension Copy the Salt package to extension veos#copy flash:salt-eos-latest.swix extension: Install the SWIX veos#extension salt-eos-latest.swix force Verify the installation veos#show extensions | include salt-eos salt-eos-2017-07-19.swix 1.0.11/1.fc25 A, F 27 Change the Salt master IP address or FQDN, by edit the variable (SALT_MASTER) veos#bash vi /mnt/flash/startup.sh Make sure you enable the eAPI with unix-socket veos(config)#management api http-commands protocol unix-socket no shutdown Post-installation tasks Generate Keys and host record and start Salt minion veos#bash #sudo /mnt/flash/startup.sh salt-minion should be running Copy the installed extensions to boot-extensions veos#copy installed-extensions boot-extensions Apply event-handler to let EOS start salt-minion during boot-up veos(config)#event-handler boot-up-script trigger on-boot action bash sudo /mnt/flash/startup.sh For more specific installation details of the salt-minion, please refer to Configuring Salt. Uninstalling If you decide to uninstall this package, the following steps are recommended for safety: 1. Remove the extension from boot-extensions veos#bash rm /mnt/flash/boot-extensions 2. Remove the extension from extensions folder veos#bash rm /mnt/flash/.extensions/salt-eos-latest.swix 2. Remove boot-up script veos(config)#no event-handler boot-up-script Additional Information This SWIX extension contains the following RPM packages: libsodium-1.0.11-1.fc25.i686.rpm libstdc++-6.2.1-2.fc25.i686.rpm openpgm-5.2.122-6.fc24.i686.rpm python-Jinja2-2.8-0.i686.rpm python-PyYAML-3.12-0.i686.rpm python-babel-0.9.6-5.fc18.noarch.rpm python-backports-1.0-3.fc18.i686.rpm python-backports-ssl_match_hostname-3.4.0.2-1.fc18.noarch.rpm python-backports_abc-0.5-0.i686.rpm python-certifi-2016.9.26-0.i686.rpm python-chardet-2.0.1-5.fc18.noarch.rpm python-crypto-1.4.1-1.noarch.rpm python-crypto-2.6.1-1.fc18.i686.rpm python-futures-3.1.1-1.noarch.rpm python-jtextfsm-0.3.1-0.noarch.rpm python-kitchen-1.1.1-2.fc18.noarch.rpm python-markupsafe-0.18-1.fc18.i686.rpm python-msgpack-python-0.4.8-0.i686.rpm python-napalm-base-0.24.3-1.noarch.rpm python-napalm-eos-0.6.0-1.noarch.rpm python-netaddr-0.7.18-0.noarch.rpm python-pyeapi-0.7.0-0.noarch.rpm python-salt-2017.7.0_1414_g2fb986f-1.noarch.rpm python-singledispatch-3.4.0.3-0.i686.rpm python-six-1.10.0-0.i686.rpm python-tornado-4.4.2-0.i686.rpm python-urllib3-1.5-7.fc18.noarch.rpm python2-zmq-15.3.0-2.fc25.i686.rpm zeromq-4.1.4-5.fc25.i686.rpm Fedora Beginning with version 0.9.4, Salt has been available in the primary Fedora repositories and EPEL. It is installable using yum or dnf, depending on your version of Fedora. NOTE: Released versions of Salt starting with 2015.5.2 through 2016.3.2 do not have Fedora packages available though EPEL. To install a version of Salt within this release array, please use SaltStack's Bootstrap Script and use the git method of installing Salt using the version's associated release tag. Release 2016.3.3 and onward will have packaged versions available via EPEL. WARNING: Fedora 19 comes with systemd 204. Systemd has known bugs fixed in later revi‐ sions that prevent the salt-master from starting reliably or opening the network connec‐ tions that it needs to. It's not likely that a salt-master will start or run reliably on any distribution that uses systemd version 204 or earlier. Running salt-minions should be OK. Installation Salt can be installed using yum and is available in the standard Fedora repositories. Stable Release Salt is packaged separately for the minion and the master. It is necessary only to install the appropriate package for the role the machine will play. Typically, there will be one master and multiple minions. yum install salt-master yum install salt-minion Installing from updates-testing When a new Salt release is packaged, it is first admitted into the updates-testing reposi‐ tory, before being moved to the stable repo. To install from updates-testing, use the enablerepo argument for yum: yum --enablerepo=updates-testing install salt-master yum --enablerepo=updates-testing install salt-minion Installation Using pip Since Salt is on PyPI, it can be installed using pip, though most users prefer to install using a package manager. Installing from pip has a few additional requirements: · Install the group 'Development Tools', dnf groupinstall 'Development Tools' · Install the 'zeromq-devel' package if it fails on linking against that afterwards as well. A pip install does not make the init scripts or the /etc/salt directory, and you will need to provide your own systemd service unit. Installation from pip: pip install salt WARNING: If installing from pip (or from source using setup.py install), be advised that the yum-utils package is needed for Salt to manage packages. Also, if the Python dependen‐ cies are not already installed, then you will need additional libraries/tools installed to build some of them. More information on this can be found here. Post-installation tasks Master To have the Master start automatically at boot time: systemctl enable salt-master.service To start the Master: systemctl start salt-master.service Minion To have the Minion start automatically at boot time: systemctl enable salt-minion.service To start the Minion: systemctl start salt-minion.service Now go to the Configuring Salt page. FreeBSD Installation Salt is available in binary package form from both the FreeBSD pkgng repository or directly from SaltStack. The instructions below outline installation via both methods: FreeBSD repo The FreeBSD pkgng repository is preconfigured on systems 10.x and above. No configuration is needed to pull from these repositories. pkg install py27-salt These packages are usually available within a few days of upstream release. SaltStack repo SaltStack also hosts internal binary builds of the Salt package, available from https://repo.saltstack.com/freebsd/. To make use of this repository, add the following file to your system: /usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/saltstack.conf: saltstack: { url: "https://repo.saltstack.com/freebsd/${ABI}/", enabled: yes } You should now be able to install Salt from this new repository: pkg install py27-salt These packages are usually available earlier than upstream FreeBSD. Also available are release candidates and development releases. Use these pre-release packages with caution. Post-installation tasks Master Copy the sample configuration file: cp /usr/local/etc/salt/master.sample /usr/local/etc/salt/master rc.conf Activate the Salt Master in /etc/rc.conf: sysrc salt_master_enable="YES" Start the Master Start the Salt Master as follows: service salt_master start Minion Copy the sample configuration file: cp /usr/local/etc/salt/minion.sample /usr/local/etc/salt/minion rc.conf Activate the Salt Minion in /etc/rc.conf: sysrc salt_minion_enable="YES" Start the Minion Start the Salt Minion as follows: service salt_minion start Now go to the Configuring Salt page. Gentoo Salt can be easily installed on Gentoo via Portage: emerge app-admin/salt Post-installation tasks Now go to the Configuring Salt page. OpenBSD Salt was added to the OpenBSD ports tree on Aug 10th 2013. It has been tested on OpenBSD 5.5 onwards. Salt is dependent on the following additional ports. These will be installed as dependen‐ cies of the sysutils/salt port: devel/py-futures devel/py-progressbar net/py-msgpack net/py-zmq security/py-crypto security/py-M2Crypto textproc/py-MarkupSafe textproc/py-yaml www/py-jinja2 www/py-requests www/py-tornado Installation To install Salt from the OpenBSD pkg repo, use the command: pkg_add salt Post-installation tasks Master To have the Master start automatically at boot time: rcctl enable salt_master To start the Master: rcctl start salt_master Minion To have the Minion start automatically at boot time: rcctl enable salt_minion To start the Minion: rcctl start salt_minion Now go to the Configuring Salt page. macOS Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository Latest stable build from the selected branch: The output of md5 <salt pkg> should match the contents of the corresponding md5 file. Earlier builds from supported branches Archived builds from unsupported branches Installation from Homebrew brew install saltstack It should be noted that Homebrew explicitly discourages the use of sudo: Homebrew is designed to work without using sudo. You can decide to use it but we strongly recommend not to do so. If you have used sudo and run into a bug then it is likely to be the cause. Please don’t file a bug report unless you can reproduce it after reinstalling Homebrew from scratch without using sudo Installation from MacPorts sudo port install salt Installation from Pip When only using the macOS system's pip, install this way: sudo pip install salt Salt-Master Customizations NOTE: Salt master on macOS is not tested or supported by SaltStack. See SaltStack Platform Support for more information. To run salt-master on macOS, sudo add this configuration option to the /etc/salt/master file: max_open_files: 8192 On versions previous to macOS 10.10 (Yosemite), increase the root user maxfiles limit: sudo launchctl limit maxfiles 4096 8192 NOTE: On macOS 10.10 (Yosemite) and higher, maxfiles should not be adjusted. The default lim‐ its are sufficient in all but the most extreme scenarios. Overriding these values with the setting below will cause system instability! Now the salt-master should run without errors: sudo salt-master --log-level=all Post-installation tasks Now go to the Configuring Salt page. RHEL / CentOS / Scientific Linux / Amazon Linux / Oracle Linux Salt should work properly with all mainstream derivatives of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including CentOS, Scientific Linux, Oracle Linux, and Amazon Linux. Report any bugs or issues on the issue tracker. Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository Packages for Redhat, CentOS, and Amazon Linux are available in the SaltStack Repository. · Red Hat / CentOS · Amazon Linux NOTE: As of 2015.8.0, EPEL repository is no longer required for installing on RHEL systems. SaltStack repository provides all needed dependencies. WARNING: If installing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 with disabled (not subscribed on) 'RHEL Server Releases' or 'RHEL Server Optional Channel' repositories, append CentOS 7 GPG key URL to SaltStack yum repository configuration to install required base packages: [saltstack-repo] name=SaltStack repo for Red Hat Enterprise Linux $releasever baseurl=https://repo.saltstack.com/yum/redhat/$releasever/$basearch/latest enabled=1 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=https://repo.saltstack.com/yum/redhat/$releasever/$basearch/latest/SALTSTACK-GP ↲ G-KEY.pub https://repo.saltstack.com/yum/redhat/$releasever/$basearch/latest/base/RPM-GPG ↲ -KEY-CentOS-7 NOTE: systemd and systemd-python are required by Salt, but are not installed by the Red Hat 7 @base installation or by the Salt installation. These dependencies might need to be installed before Salt. Installation from the Community-Maintained Repository Beginning with version 0.9.4, Salt has been available in EPEL. For RHEL/CentOS 5, Fedora COPR is a single community repository that provides Salt packages due to the removal from EPEL5. NOTE: Packages in these repositories are built by community, and it can take a little while until the latest stable SaltStack release become available. RHEL/CentOS 6 and 7, Scientific Linux, etc. WARNING: Salt 2015.8 is currently not available in EPEL due to unsatisfied dependencies: python-crypto 2.6.1 or higher, and python-tornado version 4.2.1 or higher. These pack‐ ages are not currently available in EPEL for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and 7. Enabling EPEL If the EPEL repository is not installed on your system, you can download the RPM for RHEL/CentOS 6 or for RHEL/CentOS 7 and install it using the following command: rpm -Uvh epel-release-X-Y.rpm Replace epel-release-X-Y.rpm with the appropriate filename. Installing Stable Release Salt is packaged separately for the minion and the master. It is necessary to install only the appropriate package for the role the machine will play. Typically, there will be one master and multiple minions. · yum install salt-master · yum install salt-minion · yum install salt-ssh · yum install salt-syndic · yum install salt-cloud Installing from epel-testing When a new Salt release is packaged, it is first admitted into the epel-testing reposi‐ tory, before being moved to the stable EPEL repository. To install from epel-testing, use the enablerepo argument for yum: yum --enablerepo=epel-testing install salt-minion Installation Using pip Since Salt is on PyPI, it can be installed using pip, though most users prefer to install using RPM packages (which can be installed from EPEL). Installing from pip has a few additional requirements: · Install the group 'Development Tools', yum groupinstall 'Development Tools' · Install the 'zeromq-devel' package if it fails on linking against that afterwards as well. A pip install does not make the init scripts or the /etc/salt directory, and you will need to provide your own systemd service unit. Installation from pip: pip install salt WARNING: If installing from pip (or from source using setup.py install), be advised that the yum-utils package is needed for Salt to manage packages. Also, if the Python dependen‐ cies are not already installed, then you will need additional libraries/tools installed to build some of them. More information on this can be found here. ZeroMQ 4 We recommend using ZeroMQ 4 where available. SaltStack provides ZeroMQ 4.0.5 and pyzmq 14.5.0 in the SaltStack Repository as well as a separate zeromq4 COPR repository. If this repository is added before Salt is installed, then installing either salt-master or salt-minion will automatically pull in ZeroMQ 4.0.5, and additional steps to upgrade ZeroMQ and pyzmq are unnecessary. WARNING: RHEL/CentOS 5 Users Using COPR repos on RHEL/CentOS 5 requires that the python-hashlib package be installed. Not having it present will result in checksum errors because YUM will not be able to process the SHA256 checksums used by COPR. NOTE: For RHEL/CentOS 5 installations, if using the SaltStack repo or Fedora COPR to install Salt (as described above), then it is not necessary to enable the zeromq4 COPR, because those repositories already include ZeroMQ 4. Package Management Salt's interface to yum makes heavy use of the repoquery utility, from the yum-utils pack‐ age. This package will be installed as a dependency if salt is installed via EPEL. How‐ ever, if salt has been installed using pip, or a host is being managed using salt-ssh, then as of version 2014.7.0 yum-utils will be installed automatically to satisfy this dependency. Post-installation tasks Master To have the Master start automatically at boot time: RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6 chkconfig salt-master on RHEL/CentOS 7 systemctl enable salt-master.service To start the Master: RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6 service salt-master start RHEL/CentOS 7 systemctl start salt-master.service Minion To have the Minion start automatically at boot time: RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6 chkconfig salt-minion on RHEL/CentOS 7 systemctl enable salt-minion.service To start the Minion: RHEL/CentOS 5 and 6 service salt-minion start RHEL/CentOS 7 systemctl start salt-minion.service Now go to the Configuring Salt page. Solaris Salt is known to work on Solaris but community packages are unmaintained. It is possible to install Salt on Solaris by using setuptools. For example, to install the develop version of salt: git clone https://github.com/saltstack/salt cd salt sudo python setup.py install --force NOTE: SaltStack does offer commerical support for Solaris which includes packages. Ubuntu Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository Packages for Ubuntu 16 (Xenial), Ubuntu 14 (Trusty), and Ubuntu 12 (Precise) are available in the SaltStack repository. Instructions are at https://repo.saltstack.com/#ubuntu. Install Packages Install the Salt master, minion or other packages from the repository with the apt-get command. These examples each install one of Salt components, but more than one package name may be given at a time: · apt-get install salt-api · apt-get install salt-cloud · apt-get install salt-master · apt-get install salt-minion · apt-get install salt-ssh · apt-get install salt-syndic Post-installation tasks Now go to the Configuring Salt page. Windows Salt has full support for running the Salt minion on Windows. You must connect Windows Salt minions to a Salt master on a supported operating system to control your Salt Min‐ ions. Many of the standard Salt modules have been ported to work on Windows and many of the Salt States currently work on Windows as well. Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository Latest stable build from the selected branch: The output of md5sum <salt minion exe> should match the contents of the corresponding md5 file. Earlier builds from supported branches Archived builds from unsupported branches NOTE: The installation executable installs dependencies that the Salt minion requires. The 64bit installer has been tested on Windows 7 64bit and Windows Server 2008R2 64bit. The 32bit installer has been tested on Windows 2008 Server 32bit. Please file a bug report on our GitHub repo if issues for other platforms are found. There are installers available for Python 2 and Python 3. The installer will detect previous installations of Salt and ask if you would like to remove them. Clicking OK will remove the Salt binaries and related files but leave any existing config, cache, and PKI information. Salt Minion Installation After the Welcome and the License Agreement, the installer asks for two bits of informa‐ tion to configure the minion; the master hostname and the minion name. The installer will update the minion config with these options. If the installer finds an existing minion config file, these fields will be populated with values from the existing config. The final page allows you to start the minion service and optionally change its startup type. By default, the minion is set to Automatic. You can change the minion start type to Automatic (Delayed Start) by checking the 'Delayed Start' checkbox. NOTE: Highstates that require a reboot may fail after reboot because salt continues the high‐ state before Windows has finished the booting process. This can be fixed by changing the startup type to 'Automatic (Delayed Start)'. The drawback is that it may increase the time it takes for the 'salt-minion' service to actually start. The salt-minion service will appear in the Windows Service Manager and can be managed there or from the command line like any other Windows service. sc start salt-minion net start salt-minion NOTE: If the minion won't start, you may need to install the Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 x64 SP1 redistributable. Allow all Windows updates to run salt-minion smoothly. Installation Prerequisites Most Salt functionality should work just fine right out of the box. A few Salt modules rely on PowerShell. The minimum version of PowerShell required for Salt is version 3. If you intend to work with DSC then Powershell version 5 is the minimum. Silent Installer Options The installer can be run silently by providing the /S option at the command line. The in‐ staller also accepts the following options for configuring the Salt Minion silently: ┌──────────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────┐ │Option │ Description │ ├──────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │/minion-name= │ A string value to set the minion │ │ │ name. Default is 'hostname' │ ├──────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │/master= │ A string value to set the IP │ │ │ address or host name of the mas‐ │ │ │ ter. Default value is 'salt' │ ├──────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │/start-minion= │ Either a 1 or 0. '1' will start │ │ │ the salt-minion service, '0' │ │ │ will not. Default is to start │ │ │ the service after installation. │ ├──────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │/start-minion-delayed │ Set the minion start type to │ │ │ Automatic (Delayed Start) │ └──────────────────────┴──────────────────────────────────┘ NOTE: /start-service has been deprecated but will continue to function as expected for the time being. Here are some examples of using the silent installer: # Install the Salt Minion # Configure the minion and start the service Salt-Minion-2017.7.1-Py2-AMD64-Setup.exe /S /master=yoursaltmaster /minion-name=yourminion ↲ name # Install the Salt Minion # Configure the minion but don't start the minion service Salt-Minion-2017.7.1-Py3-AMD64-Setup.exe /S /master=yoursaltmaster /minion-name=yourminion ↲ name /start-minion=0 Running the Salt Minion on Windows as an Unprivileged User Notes: · These instructions were tested with Windows Server 2008 R2 · They are generalizable to any version of Windows that supports a salt-minion Create the Unprivileged User that the Salt Minion will Run As 1. Click Start > Control Panel > User Accounts. 2. Click Add or remove user accounts. 3. Click Create new account. 4. Enter salt-user (or a name of your preference) in the New account name field. 5. Select the Standard user radio button. 6. Click the Create Account button. 7. Click on the newly created user account. 8. Click the Create a password link. 9. In the New password and Confirm new password fields, provide a password (e.g "Super‐ SecretMinionPassword4Me!"). 10. In the Type a password hint field, provide appropriate text (e.g. "My Salt Password"). 11. Click the Create password button. 12. Close the Change an Account window. Add the New User to the Access Control List for the Salt Folder 1. In a File Explorer window, browse to the path where Salt is installed (the default path is C:\Salt). 2. Right-click on the Salt folder and select Properties. 3. Click on the Security tab. 4. Click the Edit button. 5. Click the Add button. 6. Type the name of your designated Salt user and click the OK button. 7. Check the box to Allow the Modify permission. 8. Click the OK button. 9. Click the OK button to close the Salt Properties window. Update the Windows Service User for the salt-minion Service 1. Click Start > Administrative Tools > Services. 2. In the Services list, right-click on salt-minion and select Properties. 3. Click the Log On tab. 4. Click the This account radio button. 5. Provide the account credentials created in section A. 6. Click the OK button. 7. Click the OK button to the prompt confirming that the user has been granted the Log On As A Service right. 8. Click the OK button to the prompt confirming that The new logon name will not take effect until you stop and restart the service. 9. Right-Click on salt-minion and select Stop. 10. Right-Click on salt-minion and select Start. Building and Developing on Windows This document will explain how to set up a development environment for Salt on Windows. The development environment allows you to work with the source code to customize or fix bugs. It will also allow you to build your own installation. There are several scripts to automate creating a Windows installer as well as setting up an environment that facilitates developing and troubleshooting Salt code. They are located in the pkg\windows directory in the Salt repo (here). Scripts: ┌────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────┐ │Script │ Description │ ├────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │build_env_2.ps1 │ A PowerShell script that sets up │ │ │ a Python 2 build environment │ ├────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │build_env_3.ps1 │ A PowerShell script that sets up │ │ │ a Python 3 build environment │ ├────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │build_pkg.bat │ A batch file that builds a Win‐ │ │ │ dows installer based on the con‐ │ │ │ tents of the C:\Python27 direc‐ │ │ │ tory │ ├────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │build.bat │ A batch file that fully auto‐ │ │ │ mates the building of the Win‐ │ │ │ dows installer using the above │ │ │ two scripts │ └────────────────┴──────────────────────────────────┘ NOTE: The build.bat and build_pkg.bat scripts both accept a parameter to specify the version of Salt that will be displayed in the Windows installer. If no version is passed, the version will be determined using git. Both scripts also accept an additional parameter to specify the version of Python to use. The default is 2. Prerequisite Software The only prerequisite is Git for Windows. Create a Build Environment 1. Working Directory Create a Salt-Dev directory on the root of C:. This will be our working directory. Navi‐ gate to Salt-Dev and clone the Salt repo from GitHub. Open a command line and type: cd \ md Salt-Dev cd Salt-Dev git clone https://github.com/saltstack/salt Go into the salt directory and checkout the version of salt to work with (2016.3 or higher). cd salt git checkout 2017.7.2 2. Setup the Python Environment Navigate to the pkg\windows directory and execute the build_env.ps1 PowerShell script. cd pkg\windows powershell -file build_env_2.ps1 NOTE: You can also do this from Explorer by navigating to the pkg\windows directory, right clicking the build_env_2.ps1 powershell script and selecting Run with PowerShell This will download and install Python 2 with all the dependencies needed to develop and build Salt. NOTE: If you get an error or the script fails to run you may need to change the execution policy. Open a powershell window and type the following command: Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned 3. Salt in Editable Mode Editable mode allows you to more easily modify and test the source code. For more informa‐ tion see the Pip documentation. Navigate to the root of the salt directory and install Salt in editable mode with pip cd \Salt-Dev\salt pip install -e . NOTE: The . is important NOTE: If pip is not recognized, you may need to restart your shell to get the updated path NOTE: If pip is still not recognized make sure that the Python Scripts folder is in the Sys‐ tem %PATH%. (C:\Python2\Scripts) 4. Setup Salt Configuration Salt requires a minion configuration file and a few other directories. The default config file is named minion located in C:\salt\conf. The easiest way to set this up is to copy the contents of the salt\pkg\windows\buildenv directory to C:\salt. cd \ md salt xcopy /s /e \Salt-Dev\salt\pkg\windows\buildenv\* \salt\ Now go into the C:\salt\conf directory and edit the minion config file named minion (no extension). You need to configure the master and id parameters in this file. Edit the fol‐ lowing lines: master: <ip or name of your master> id: <name of your minion> Create a Windows Installer To create a Windows installer, follow steps 1 and 2 from Create a Build Environment above. Then proceed to 3 below: 3. Install Salt To create the installer for Window we install Salt using Python instead of pip. Navigate to the root salt directory and install Salt. cd \Salt-Dev\salt python setup.py install 4. Create the Windows Installer Navigate to the pkg\windows directory and run the build_pkg.bat with the build version (2017.7.2) and the Python version as parameters. cd pkg\windows build_pkg.bat 2017.7.2 2 ^^^^^^^^ ^ | | # build version -- | # python version ------ NOTE: If no version is passed, the build_pkg.bat will guess the version number using git. If the python version is not passed, the default is 2. Creating a Windows Installer: Alternate Method (Easier) Clone the Salt repo from GitHub into the directory of your choice. We're going to use Salt-Dev. cd \ md Salt-Dev cd Salt-Dev git clone https://github.com/saltstack/salt Go into the salt directory and checkout the version of Salt you want to build. cd salt git checkout 2017.7.2 Then navigate to pkg\windows and run the build.bat script with the version you're build‐ ing. cd pkg\windows build.bat 2017.7.2 3 ^^^^^^^^ ^ | | # build version | # python version -- This will install everything needed to build a Windows installer for Salt using Python 3. The binary will be in the salt\pkg\windows\installer directory. Testing the Salt minion 1. Create the directory C:\salt (if it doesn't exist already) 2. Copy the example conf and var directories from pkg\windows\buildenv into C:\salt 3. Edit C:\salt\conf\minion master: ipaddress or hostname of your salt-master 4. Start the salt-minion cd C:\Python27\Scripts python salt-minion -l debug 5. On the salt-master accept the new minion's key sudo salt-key -A This accepts all unaccepted keys. If you're concerned about security just accept the key for this specific minion. 6. Test that your minion is responding On the salt-master run: sudo salt '*' test.ping You should get the following response: {'your minion hostname': True} Packages Management Under Windows 2003 Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP have both reached End of Support. Though Salt is not officially supported on operating systems that are EoL, some functionality may continue to work. On Windows Server 2003, you need to install optional component "WMI Windows Installer Provider" to get a full list of installed packages. If you don't have this, salt-minion can't report some installed software. SUSE Installation from the Official SaltStack Repository Packages for SUSE 12 SP1, SUSE 12, SUSE 11, openSUSE 13 and openSUSE Leap 42.1 are avail‐ able in the SaltStack Repository. Instructions are at https://repo.saltstack.com/#suse. Installation from the SUSE Repository Since openSUSE 13.2, Salt 2014.1.11 is available in the primary repositories. With the release of SUSE manager 3 a new repository setup has been created. The new repo will by systemsmanagement:saltstack, which is the source for newer stable packages. For backward compatibility a linkpackage will be created to the old devel:language:python repo. All development of suse packages will be done in systemsmanagement:saltstack:testing. This will ensure that salt will be in mainline suse repo's, a stable release repo and a testing repo for further enhancements. Installation Salt can be installed using zypper and is available in the standard openSUSE/SLES reposi‐ tories. Stable Release Salt is packaged separately for the minion and the master. It is necessary only to install the appropriate package for the role the machine will play. Typically, there will be one master and multiple minions. zypper install salt-master zypper install salt-minion Post-installation tasks openSUSE Master To have the Master start automatically at boot time: systemctl enable salt-master.service To start the Master: systemctl start salt-master.service Minion To have the Minion start automatically at boot time: systemctl enable salt-minion.service To start the Minion: systemctl start salt-minion.service Post-installation tasks SLES Master To have the Master start automatically at boot time: chkconfig salt-master on To start the Master: rcsalt-master start Minion To have the Minion start automatically at boot time: chkconfig salt-minion on To start the Minion: rcsalt-minion start Unstable Release openSUSE For openSUSE Tumbleweed run the following as root: zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/open ↲ SUSE_Tumbleweed/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo zypper refresh zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master For openSUSE 42.1 Leap run the following as root: zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/open ↲ SUSE_Leap_42.1/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo zypper refresh zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master For openSUSE 13.2 run the following as root: zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/open ↲ SUSE_13.2/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo zypper refresh zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master SUSE Linux Enterprise For SLE 12 run the following as root: zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/SLE_ ↲ 12/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo zypper refresh zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master For SLE 11 SP4 run the following as root: zypper addrepo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/systemsmanagement:/saltstack/SLE_ ↲ 11_SP4/systemsmanagement:saltstack.repo zypper refresh zypper install salt salt-minion salt-master Now go to the Configuring Salt page. Initial Configuration Configuring Salt Salt configuration is very simple. The default configuration for the master will work for most installations and the only requirement for setting up a minion is to set the location of the master in the minion configuration file. The configuration files will be installed to /etc/salt and are named after the respective components, /etc/salt/master, and /etc/salt/minion. Master Configuration By default the Salt master listens on ports 4505 and 4506 on all interfaces (0.0.0.0). To bind Salt to a specific IP, redefine the "interface" directive in the master configuration file, typically /etc/salt/master, as follows: - #interface: 0.0.0.0 + interface: 10.0.0.1 After updating the configuration file, restart the Salt master. See the master configura‐ tion reference for more details about other configurable options. Minion Configuration Although there are many Salt Minion configuration options, configuring a Salt Minion is very simple. By default a Salt Minion will try to connect to the DNS name "salt"; if the Minion is able to resolve that name correctly, no configuration is needed. If the DNS name "salt" does not resolve to point to the correct location of the Master, redefine the "master" directive in the minion configuration file, typically /etc/salt/min‐ ion, as follows: - #master: salt + master: 10.0.0.1 After updating the configuration file, restart the Salt minion. See the minion configura‐ tion reference for more details about other configurable options. Proxy Minion Configuration A proxy minion emulates the behaviour of a regular minion and inherits their options. Similarly, the configuration file is /etc/salt/proxy and the proxy tries to connect to the DNS name "salt". In addition to the regular minion options, there are several proxy-specific - see the proxy minion configuration reference. Running Salt 1. Start the master in the foreground (to daemonize the process, pass the -d flag): salt-master 2. Start the minion in the foreground (to daemonize the process, pass the -d flag): salt-minion Having trouble? The simplest way to troubleshoot Salt is to run the master and minion in the foreground with log level set to debug: salt-master --log-level=debug For information on salt's logging system please see the logging document. Run as an unprivileged (non-root) user To run Salt as another user, set the user parameter in the master config file. Additionally, ownership, and permissions need to be set such that the desired user can read from and write to the following directories (and their subdirecto‐ ries, where applicable): · /etc/salt · /var/cache/salt · /var/log/salt · /var/run/salt More information about running salt as a non-privileged user can be found here. There is also a full troubleshooting guide available. Key Identity Salt provides commands to validate the identity of your Salt master and Salt minions before the initial key exchange. Validating key identity helps avoid inadvertently con‐ necting to the wrong Salt master, and helps prevent a potential MiTM attack when estab‐ lishing the initial connection. Master Key Fingerprint Print the master key fingerprint by running the following command on the Salt master: salt-key -F master Copy the master.pub fingerprint from the Local Keys section, and then set this value as the master_finger in the minion configuration file. Save the configuration file and then restart the Salt minion. Minion Key Fingerprint Run the following command on each Salt minion to view the minion key fingerprint: salt-call --local key.finger Compare this value to the value that is displayed when you run the salt-key --finger <MIN‐ ION_ID> command on the Salt master. Key Management Salt uses AES encryption for all communication between the Master and the Minion. This ensures that the commands sent to the Minions cannot be tampered with, and that communica‐ tion between Master and Minion is authenticated through trusted, accepted keys. Before commands can be sent to a Minion, its key must be accepted on the Master. Run the salt-key command to list the keys known to the Salt Master: [root@master ~]# salt-key -L Unaccepted Keys: alpha bravo charlie delta Accepted Keys: This example shows that the Salt Master is aware of four Minions, but none of the keys has been accepted. To accept the keys and allow the Minions to be controlled by the Master, again use the salt-key command: [root@master ~]# salt-key -A [root@master ~]# salt-key -L Unaccepted Keys: Accepted Keys: alpha bravo charlie delta The salt-key command allows for signing keys individually or in bulk. The example above, using -A bulk-accepts all pending keys. To accept keys individually use the lowercase of the same option, -a keyname. SEE ALSO: salt-key manpage Sending Commands Communication between the Master and a Minion may be verified by running the test.ping command: [root@master ~]# salt alpha test.ping alpha: True Communication between the Master and all Minions may be tested in a similar way: [root@master ~]# salt '*' test.ping alpha: True bravo: True charlie: True delta: True Each of the Minions should send a True response as shown above. What's Next? Understanding targeting is important. From there, depending on the way you wish to use Salt, you should also proceed to learn about Remote Execution and Configuration Manage‐ ment. Additional Installation Guides Salt Bootstrap The Salt Bootstrap script allows for a user to install the Salt Minion or Master on a variety of system distributions and versions. This shell script known as bootstrap-salt.sh runs through a series of checks to determine the operating system type and version. It then installs the Salt binaries using the appropriate methods. The Salt Bootstrap script installs the minimum number of packages required to run Salt. This means that in the event you run the bootstrap to install via package, Git will not be installed. Installing the minimum number of packages helps ensure the script stays as lightweight as possible, assuming the user will install any other required packages after the Salt binaries are present on the system. The script source is available on GitHub: https://github.com/saltstack/salt-bootstrap Supported Operating Systems NOTE: In the event you do not see your distribution or version available please review the develop branch on GitHub as it may contain updates that are not present in the stable release: https://github.com/saltstack/salt-bootstrap/tree/develop Debian and derivatives · Debian GNU/Linux 7/8 · Linux Mint Debian Edition 1 (based on Debian 8) · Kali Linux 1.0 (based on Debian 7) Red Hat family · Amazon Linux 2012.09/2013.03/2013.09/2014.03/2014.09 · CentOS 5/6/7 · Fedora 17/18/20/21/22 · Oracle Linux 5/6/7 · Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5/6/7 · Scientific Linux 5/6/7 SUSE family · openSUSE 12/13 · openSUSE Leap 42 · openSUSE Tumbleweed 2015 · SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP1/11 SP2/11 SP3/12 Ubuntu and derivatives · Elementary OS 0.2 (based on Ubuntu 12.04) · Linaro 12.04 · Linux Mint 13/14/16/17 · Trisquel GNU/Linux 6 (based on Ubuntu 12.04) · Ubuntu 10.x/11.x/12.x/13.x/14.x/15.x/16.x Other Linux distro · Arch Linux · Gentoo UNIX systems BSD: · OpenBSD (pip installation) · FreeBSD 9/10/11 SunOS: · SmartOS Example Usage If you're looking for the one-liner to install Salt, please scroll to the bottom and use the instructions for Installing via an Insecure One-Liner NOTE: In every two-step example, you would be well-served to examine the downloaded file and examine it to ensure that it does what you expect. The Salt Bootstrap script has a wide variety of options that can be passed as well as sev‐ eral ways of obtaining the bootstrap script itself. NOTE: These examples below show how to bootstrap Salt directly from GitHub or other Git repository. Run the script without any parameters to get latest stable Salt packages for your system from SaltStack corporate repository. See first example in the Install using wget section. Install using curl Using curl to install latest development version from GitHub: curl -o bootstrap-salt.sh -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh git develop If you want to install a specific release version (based on the Git tags): curl -o bootstrap-salt.sh -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh git v2015.8.8 To install a specific branch from a Git fork: curl -o bootstrap-salt.sh -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh -g https://github.com/myuser/salt.git git mybranch If all you want is to install a salt-master using latest Git: curl -o bootstrap-salt.sh -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh -M -N git develop If your host has Internet access only via HTTP proxy: PROXY='http://user:@myproxy.example.com:3128' curl -o bootstrap-salt.sh -L -x "$PROXY" https://bootstrap.saltstack.com sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh -G -H "$PROXY" git Install using wget Using wget to install your distribution's stable packages: wget -O bootstrap-salt.sh https://bootstrap.saltstack.com sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh Downloading the script from develop branch: wget -O bootstrap-salt.sh https://bootstrap.saltstack.com/develop sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh Installing a specific version from git using wget: wget -O bootstrap-salt.sh https://bootstrap.saltstack.com sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh -P git v2015.8.8 NOTE: On the above example we added -P which will allow PIP packages to be installed if required but it's not a necessary flag for Git based bootstraps. Install using Python If you already have Python installed, python 2.6, then it's as easy as: python -m urllib "https://bootstrap.saltstack.com" > bootstrap-salt.sh sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh git develop All Python versions should support the following in-line code: python -c 'import urllib; print urllib.urlopen("https://bootstrap.saltstack.com").read()' ↲ > bootstrap-salt.sh sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh git develop Install using fetch On a FreeBSD base system you usually don't have either of the above binaries available. You do have fetch available though: fetch -o bootstrap-salt.sh https://bootstrap.saltstack.com sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh If you have any SSL issues install ca_root_nssp: pkg install ca_root_nssp And either copy the certificates to the place where fetch can find them: cp /usr/local/share/certs/ca-root-nss.crt /etc/ssl/cert.pem Or link them to the right place: ln -s /usr/local/share/certs/ca-root-nss.crt /etc/ssl/cert.pem Installing via an Insecure One-Liner The following examples illustrate how to install Salt via a one-liner. NOTE: Warning! These methods do not involve a verification step and assume that the delivered file is trustworthy. Any of the example above which use two-lines can be made to run in a single-line configu‐ ration with minor modifications. For example, using curl to install your distribution's stable packages: curl -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com | sudo sh Using wget to install your distribution's stable packages: wget -O - https://bootstrap.saltstack.com | sudo sh Installing the latest develop branch of Salt: curl -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com | sudo sh -s -- git develop Command Line Options Here's a summary of the command line options: $ sh bootstrap-salt.sh -h Usage : bootstrap-salt.sh [options] <install-type> <install-type-args> Installation types: - stable (default) - stable [version] (ubuntu specific) - daily (ubuntu specific) - testing (redhat specific) - git Examples: - bootstrap-salt.sh - bootstrap-salt.sh stable - bootstrap-salt.sh stable 2014.7 - bootstrap-salt.sh daily - bootstrap-salt.sh testing - bootstrap-salt.sh git - bootstrap-salt.sh git develop - bootstrap-salt.sh git v0.17.0 - bootstrap-salt.sh git 8c3fadf15ec183e5ce8c63739850d543617e4357 Options: -h Display this message -v Display script version -n No colours. -D Show debug output. -c Temporary configuration directory -g Salt repository URL. (default: git://github.com/saltstack/salt.git) -G Instead of cloning from git://github.com/saltstack/salt.git, clone from https://gith ↲ ub.com/saltstack/salt.git (Usually necessary on systems which have the regular git protocol port blocked, where https usually is not) -k Temporary directory holding the minion keys which will pre-seed the master. -s Sleep time used when waiting for daemons to start, restart and when checking for the services running. Default: 3 -M Also install salt-master -S Also install salt-syndic -N Do not install salt-minion -X Do not start daemons after installation -C Only run the configuration function. This option automatically bypasses any installation. -P Allow pip based installations. On some distributions the required salt packages or its dependencies are not available as a package for that distribution. Using this flag allows the script to use pip as a last resort method. NOTE: This only works for functions which actually implement pip based installations. -F Allow copied files to overwrite existing(config, init.d, etc) -U If set, fully upgrade the system prior to bootstrapping salt -K If set, keep the temporary files in the temporary directories specified with -c and -k. -I If set, allow insecure connections while downloading any files. For example, pass '--no-check-certificate' to 'wget' or '--insecure' to 'curl' -A Pass the salt-master DNS name or IP. This will be stored under ${BS_SALT_ETC_DIR}/minion.d/99-master-address.conf -i Pass the salt-minion id. This will be stored under ${BS_SALT_ETC_DIR}/minion_id -L Install the Apache Libcloud package if possible(required for salt-cloud) -p Extra-package to install while installing salt dependencies. One package per -p flag. You're responsible for providing the proper package name. -d Disable check_service functions. Setting this flag disables the 'install_<distro>_check_services' checks. You can also do this by touching /tmp/disable_salt_checks on the target host. Defaults ${BS_FALSE} -H Use the specified http proxy for the installation -Z Enable external software source for newer ZeroMQ(Only available for RHEL/CentOS/Fedo ↲ ra/Ubuntu based distributions) -b Assume that dependencies are already installed and software sources are set up. If git is selected, git tree is still checked out as dependency step. Opening the Firewall up for Salt The Salt master communicates with the minions using an AES-encrypted ZeroMQ connection. These communications are done over TCP ports 4505 and 4506, which need to be accessible on the master only. This document outlines suggested firewall rules for allowing these incom‐ ing connections to the master. NOTE: No firewall configuration needs to be done on Salt minions. These changes refer to the master only. Fedora 18 and beyond / RHEL 7 / CentOS 7 Starting with Fedora 18 FirewallD is the tool that is used to dynamically manage the fire‐ wall rules on a host. It has support for IPv4/6 settings and the separation of runtime and permanent configurations. To interact with FirewallD use the command line client fire‐ wall-cmd. firewall-cmd example: firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=<zone> --add-port=4505-4506/tcp Please choose the desired zone according to your setup. Don't forget to reload after you made your changes. firewall-cmd --reload RHEL 6 / CentOS 6 The lokkit command packaged with some Linux distributions makes opening iptables firewall ports very simple via the command line. Just be careful to not lock out access to the server by neglecting to open the ssh port. lokkit example: lokkit -p 22:tcp -p 4505:tcp -p 4506:tcp The system-config-firewall-tui command provides a text-based interface to modifying the firewall. system-config-firewall-tui: system-config-firewall-tui openSUSE Salt installs firewall rules in /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2.d/services/salt. Enable with: SuSEfirewall2 open SuSEfirewall2 start If you have an older package of Salt where the above configuration file is not included, the SuSEfirewall2 command makes opening iptables firewall ports very simple via the com‐ mand line. SuSEfirewall example: SuSEfirewall2 open EXT TCP 4505 SuSEfirewall2 open EXT TCP 4506 The firewall module in YaST2 provides a text-based interface to modifying the firewall. YaST2: yast2 firewall Windows Windows Firewall is the default component of Microsoft Windows that provides firewalling and packet filtering. There are many 3rd party firewalls available for Windows, some of which use rules from the Windows Firewall. If you are experiencing problems see the ven‐ dor's specific documentation for opening the required ports. The Windows Firewall can be configured using the Windows Interface or from the command line. Windows Firewall (interface): 1. Open the Windows Firewall Interface by typing wf.msc at the command prompt or in a run dialog (Windows Key + R) 2. Navigate to Inbound Rules in the console tree 3. Add a new rule by clicking New Rule... in the Actions area 4. Change the Rule Type to Port. Click Next 5. Set the Protocol to TCP and specify local ports 4505-4506. Click Next 6. Set the Action to Allow the connection. Click Next 7. Apply the rule to Domain, Private, and Public. Click Next 8. Give the new rule a Name, ie: Salt. You may also add a description. Click Finish Windows Firewall (command line): The Windows Firewall rule can be created by issuing a single command. Run the following command from the command line or a run prompt: netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="Salt" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport ↲ =4505-4506 iptables Different Linux distributions store their iptables (also known as netfilter) rules in dif‐ ferent places, which makes it difficult to standardize firewall documentation. Included are some of the more common locations, but your mileage may vary. Fedora / RHEL / CentOS: /etc/sysconfig/iptables Arch Linux: /etc/iptables/iptables.rules Debian Follow these instructions: https://wiki.debian.org/iptables Once you've found your firewall rules, you'll need to add the two lines below to allow traffic on tcp/4505 and tcp/4506: -A INPUT -m state --state new -m tcp -p tcp --dport 4505 -j ACCEPT -A INPUT -m state --state new -m tcp -p tcp --dport 4506 -j ACCEPT Ubuntu Salt installs firewall rules in /etc/ufw/applications.d/salt.ufw. Enable with: ufw allow salt pf.conf The BSD-family of operating systems uses packet filter (pf). The following example describes the additions to pf.conf needed to access the Salt master. pass in on $int_if proto tcp from any to $int_if port 4505 pass in on $int_if proto tcp from any to $int_if port 4506 Once these additions have been made to the pf.conf the rules will need to be reloaded. This can be done using the pfctl command. pfctl -vf /etc/pf.conf Whitelist communication to Master There are situations where you want to selectively allow Minion traffic from specific hosts or networks into your Salt Master. The first scenario which comes to mind is to pre‐ vent unwanted traffic to your Master out of security concerns, but another scenario is to handle Minion upgrades when there are backwards incompatible changes between the installed Salt versions in your environment. Here is an example Linux iptables ruleset to be set on the Master: # Allow Minions from these networks -I INPUT -s 10.1.2.0/24 -p tcp -m multiport --dports 4505,4506 -j ACCEPT -I INPUT -s 10.1.3.0/24 -p tcp -m multiport --dports 4505,4506 -j ACCEPT # Allow Salt to communicate with Master on the loopback interface -A INPUT -i lo -p tcp -m multiport --dports 4505,4506 -j ACCEPT # Reject everything else -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 4505,4506 -j REJECT NOTE: The important thing to note here is that the salt command needs to communicate with the listening network socket of salt-master on the loopback interface. Without this you will see no outgoing Salt traffic from the master, even for a simple salt '*' test.ping, because the salt client never reached the salt-master to tell it to carry out the execution. Preseed Minion with Accepted Key In some situations, it is not convenient to wait for a minion to start before accepting its key on the master. For instance, you may want the minion to bootstrap itself as soon as it comes online. You may also want to let your developers provision new development machines on the fly. SEE ALSO: Many ways to preseed minion keys Salt has other ways to generate and pre-accept minion keys in addition to the manual steps outlined below. salt-cloud performs these same steps automatically when new cloud VMs are created (unless instructed not to). salt-api exposes an HTTP call to Salt's REST API to generate and download the new min‐ ion keys as a tarball. There is a general four step process to do this: 1. Generate the keys on the master: root@saltmaster# salt-key --gen-keys=[key_name] Pick a name for the key, such as the minion's id. 2. Add the public key to the accepted minion folder: root@saltmaster# cp key_name.pub /etc/salt/pki/master/minions/[minion_id] It is necessary that the public key file has the same name as your minion id. This is how Salt matches minions with their keys. Also note that the pki folder could be in a differ‐ ent location, depending on your OS or if specified in the master config file. 3. Distribute the minion keys. There is no single method to get the keypair to your minion. The difficulty is finding a distribution method which is secure. For Amazon EC2 only, an AWS best practice is to use IAM Roles to pass credentials. (See blog post, http://blogs.aws.amazon.com/security/post/Tx610S2MLVZWEA/Using-IAM-roles-to-distribute-non-AW ↲ S-credentials-to-your-EC2-instances ) Security Warning Since the minion key is already accepted on the master, distributing the private key poses a potential security risk. A malicious party will have access to your entire state tree and other sensitive data if they gain access to a preseeded minion key. 4. Preseed the Minion with the keys You will want to place the minion keys before starting the salt-minion daemon: /etc/salt/pki/minion/minion.pem /etc/salt/pki/minion/minion.pub Once in place, you should be able to start salt-minion and run salt-call state.apply or any other salt commands that require master authentication. The macOS (Maverick) Developer Step By Step Guide To Salt Installation This document provides a step-by-step guide to installing a Salt cluster consisting of one master, and one minion running on a local VM hosted on macOS. NOTE: This guide is aimed at developers who wish to run Salt in a virtual machine. The offi‐ cial (Linux) walkthrough can be found here. The 5 Cent Salt Intro Since you're here you've probably already heard about Salt, so you already know Salt lets you configure and run commands on hordes of servers easily. Here's a brief overview of a Salt cluster: · Salt works by having a "master" server sending commands to one or multiple "minion" servers [1]. The master server is the "command center". It is going to be the place where you store your configuration files, aka: "which server is the db, which is the web server, and what libraries and software they should have installed". The minions receive orders from the master. Minions are the servers actually performing work for your busi‐ ness. · Salt has two types of configuration files: 1. the "salt communication channels" or "meta" or "config" configuration files (not official names): one for the master (usually is /etc/salt/master , on the master server), and one for minions (default is /etc/salt/minion or /etc/salt/minion.conf, on the minion servers). Those files are used to determine things like the Salt Master IP, port, Salt folder locations, etc.. If these are configured incorrectly, your minions will probably be unable to receive orders from the master, or the master will not know which software a given minion should install. 2. the "business" or "service" configuration files (once again, not an official name): these are configuration files, ending with ".sls" extension, that describe which soft‐ ware should run on which server, along with particular configuration properties for the software that is being installed. These files should be created in the /srv/salt folder by default, but their location can be changed using ... /etc/salt/master configuration file! NOTE: This tutorial contains a third important configuration file, not to be confused with the previous two: the virtual machine provisioning configuration file. This in itself is not specifically tied to Salt, but it also contains some Salt configuration. More on that in step 3. Also note that all configuration files are YAML files. So indentation matters. [1] Salt also works with "masterless" configuration where a minion is autonomous (in which case salt can be seen as a local configuration tool), or in "multiple master" configuration. See the documentation for more on that. Before Digging In, The Architecture Of The Salt Cluster Salt Master The "Salt master" server is going to be the Mac OS machine, directly. Commands will be run from a terminal app, so Salt will need to be installed on the Mac. This is going to be more convenient for toying around with configuration files. Salt Minion We'll only have one "Salt minion" server. It is going to be running on a Virtual Machine running on the Mac, using VirtualBox. It will run an Ubuntu distribution. Step 1 - Configuring The Salt Master On Your Mac official documentation Because Salt has a lot of dependencies that are not built in macOS, we will use Homebrew to install Salt. Homebrew is a package manager for Mac, it's great, use it (for this tuto‐ rial at least!). Some people spend a lot of time installing libs by hand to better under‐ stand dependencies, and then realize how useful a package manager is once they're config‐ uring a brand new machine and have to do it all over again. It also lets you uninstall things easily. NOTE: Brew is a Ruby program (Ruby is installed by default with your Mac). Brew downloads, compiles, and links software. The linking phase is when compiled software is deployed on your machine. It may conflict with manually installed software, especially in the /usr/local directory. It's ok, remove the manually installed version then refresh the link by typing brew link 'packageName'. Brew has a brew doctor command that can help you troubleshoot. It's a great command, use it often. Brew requires xcode command line tools. When you run brew the first time it asks you to install them if they're not already on your system. Brew installs software in /usr/local/bin (system bins are in /usr/bin). In order to use those bins you need your $PATH to search there first. Brew tells you if your $PATH needs to be fixed. TIP: Use the keyboard shortcut cmd + shift + period in the "open" macOS dialog box to dis‐ play hidden files and folders, such as .profile. Install Homebrew Install Homebrew here http://brew.sh/ Or just type ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)" Now type the following commands in your terminal (you may want to type brew doctor after each to make sure everything's fine): brew install python brew install swig brew install zmq NOTE: zmq is ZeroMQ. It's a fantastic library used for server to server network communication and is at the core of Salt efficiency. Install Salt You should now have everything ready to launch this command: pip install salt NOTE: There should be no need for sudo pip install salt. Brew installed Python for your user, so you should have all the access. In case you would like to check, type which python to ensure that it's /usr/local/bin/python, and which pip which should be /usr/local/bin/pip. Now type python in a terminal then, import salt. There should be no errors. Now exit the Python terminal using exit(). Create The Master Configuration If the default /etc/salt/master configuration file was not created, copy-paste it from here: http://docs.saltstack.com/ref/configuration/examples.html#configuration-examples-master NOTE: /etc/salt/master is a file, not a folder. Salt Master configuration changes. The Salt master needs a few customization to be able to run on macOS: sudo launchctl limit maxfiles 4096 8192 In the /etc/salt/master file, change max_open_files to 8192 (or just add the line: max_open_files: 8192 (no quote) if it doesn't already exists). You should now be able to launch the Salt master: sudo salt-master --log-level=all There should be no errors when running the above command. NOTE: This command is supposed to be a daemon, but for toying around, we'll keep it running on a terminal to monitor the activity. Now that the master is set, let's configure a minion on a VM. The Salt minion is going to run on a Virtual Machine. There are a lot of software options that let you run virtual machines on a mac, But for this tutorial we're going to use Vir‐ tualBox. In addition to virtualBox, we will use Vagrant, which allows you to create the base VM configuration. Vagrant lets you build ready to use VM images, starting from an OS image and customizing it using "provisioners". In our case, we'll use it to: · Download the base Ubuntu image · Install salt on that Ubuntu image (Salt is going to be the "provisioner" for the VM). · Launch the VM · SSH into the VM to debug · Stop the VM once you're done. Install VirtualBox Go get it here: https://www.virtualBox.org/wiki/Downloads (click on VirtualBox for macOS hosts => x86/amd64) Install Vagrant Go get it here: http://downloads.vagrantup.com/ and choose the latest version (1.3.5 at time of writing), then the .dmg file. Double-click to install it. Make sure the vagrant command is found when run in the terminal. Type vagrant. It should display a list of com‐ mands. Create The Minion VM Folder Create a folder in which you will store your minion's VM. In this tutorial, it's going to be a minion folder in the $home directory. cd $home mkdir minion Initialize Vagrant From the minion folder, type vagrant init This command creates a default Vagrantfile configuration file. This configuration file will be used to pass configuration parameters to the Salt provisioner in Step 3. Import Precise64 Ubuntu Box vagrant box add precise64 http://files.vagrantup.com/precise64.box NOTE: This box is added at the global Vagrant level. You only need to do it once as each VM will use this same file. Modify the Vagrantfile Modify ./minion/Vagrantfile to use th precise64 box. Change the config.vm.box line to: config.vm.box = "precise64" Uncomment the line creating a host-only IP. This is the ip of your minion (you can change it to something else if that IP is already in use): config.vm.network :private_network, ip: "192.168.33.10" At this point you should have a VM that can run, although there won't be much in it. Let's check that. Checking The VM From the $home/minion folder type: vagrant up A log showing the VM booting should be present. Once it's done you'll be back to the ter‐ minal: ping 192.168.33.10 The VM should respond to your ping request. Now log into the VM in ssh using Vagrant again: vagrant ssh You should see the shell prompt change to something similar to vagrant@precise64:~$ mean‐ ing you're inside the VM. From there, enter the following: ping 10.0.2.2 NOTE: That ip is the ip of your VM host (the macOS host). The number is a VirtualBox default and is displayed in the log after the Vagrant ssh command. We'll use that IP to tell the minion where the Salt master is. Once you're done, end the ssh session by typing exit. It's now time to connect the VM to the salt master Creating The Minion Configuration File Create the /etc/salt/minion file. In that file, put the following lines, giving the ID for this minion, and the IP of the master: master: 10.0.2.2 id: 'minion1' file_client: remote Minions authenticate with the master using keys. Keys are generated automatically if you don't provide one and can accept them later on. However, this requires accepting the min‐ ion key every time the minion is destroyed or created (which could be quite often). A bet‐ ter way is to create those keys in advance, feed them to the minion, and authorize them once. Preseed minion keys From the minion folder on your Mac run: sudo salt-key --gen-keys=minion1 This should create two files: minion1.pem, and minion1.pub. Since those files have been created using sudo, but will be used by vagrant, you need to change ownership: sudo chown youruser:yourgroup minion1.pem sudo chown youruser:yourgroup minion1.pub Then copy the .pub file into the list of accepted minions: sudo cp minion1.pub /etc/salt/pki/master/minions/minion1 Modify Vagrantfile to Use Salt Provisioner Let's now modify the Vagrantfile used to provision the Salt VM. Add the following section in the Vagrantfile (note: it should be at the same indentation level as the other proper‐ ties): # salt-vagrant config config.vm.provision :salt do |salt| salt.run_highstate = true salt.minion_config = "/etc/salt/minion" salt.minion_key = "./minion1.pem" salt.minion_pub = "./minion1.pub" end Now destroy the vm and recreate it from the /minion folder: vagrant destroy vagrant up If everything is fine you should see the following message: "Bootstrapping Salt... (this may take a while) Salt successfully configured and installed!" Checking Master-Minion Communication To make sure the master and minion are talking to each other, enter the following: sudo salt '*' test.ping You should see your minion answering the ping. It's now time to do some configuration. In this step we'll use the Salt master to instruct our minion to install Nginx. Checking the system's original state First, make sure that an HTTP server is not installed on our minion. When opening a browser directed at http://192.168.33.10/ You should get an error saying the site cannot be reached. Initialize the top.sls file System configuration is done in /srv/salt/top.sls (and subfiles/folders), and then applied by running the state.apply function to have the Salt master order its minions to update their instructions and run the associated commands. First Create an empty file on your Salt master (macOS machine): touch /srv/salt/top.sls When the file is empty, or if no configuration is found for our minion an error is reported: sudo salt 'minion1' state.apply This should return an error stating: No Top file or external nodes data matches found. Create The Nginx Configuration Now is finally the time to enter the real meat of our server's configuration. For this tutorial our minion will be treated as a web server that needs to have Nginx installed. Insert the following lines into /srv/salt/top.sls (which should current be empty). base: 'minion1': - bin.nginx Now create /srv/salt/bin/nginx.sls containing the following: nginx: pkg.installed: - name: nginx service.running: - enable: True - reload: True Check Minion State Finally, run the state.apply function again: sudo salt 'minion1' state.apply You should see a log showing that the Nginx package has been installed and the service configured. To prove it, open your browser and navigate to http://192.168.33.10/, you should see the standard Nginx welcome page. Congratulations! Where To Go From Here A full description of configuration management within Salt (sls files among other things) is available here: http://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/index.html#configuration-management running salt as normal user tutorial Before continuing make sure you have a working Salt installation by following the instal‐ lation and the configuration instructions. Stuck? There are many ways to get help from the Salt community including our mailing list and our IRC channel #salt. Running Salt functions as non root user If you don't want to run salt cloud as root or even install it you can configure it to have a virtual root in your working directory. The salt system uses the salt.syspath module to find the variables If you run the salt-build, it will generated in: ./build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7/salt/_syspaths.py To generate it, run the command: python setup.py build Copy the generated module into your salt directory cp ./build/lib.linux-x86_64-2.7/salt/_syspaths.py salt/_syspaths.py Edit it to include needed variables and your new paths # you need to edit this ROOT_DIR = *your current dir* + '/salt/root' # you need to edit this INSTALL_DIR = *location of source code* CONFIG_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/etc/salt' CACHE_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/var/cache/salt' SOCK_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/var/run/salt' SRV_ROOT_DIR= ROOT_DIR + '/srv' BASE_FILE_ROOTS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/srv/salt' BASE_PILLAR_ROOTS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/srv/pillar' BASE_MASTER_ROOTS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/srv/salt-master' LOGS_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/var/log/salt' PIDFILE_DIR = ROOT_DIR + '/var/run' CLOUD_DIR = INSTALL_DIR + '/cloud' BOOTSTRAP = CLOUD_DIR + '/deploy/bootstrap-salt.sh' Create the directory structure mkdir -p root/etc/salt root/var/cache/run root/run/salt root/srv root/srv/salt root/srv/pillar root/srv/salt-master root/var/log/salt root/var/run Populate the configuration files: cp -r conf/* root/etc/salt/ Edit your root/etc/salt/master configuration that is used by salt-cloud: user: *your user name* Run like this: PYTHONPATH=`pwd` scripts/salt-cloud Standalone Minion Since the Salt minion contains such extensive functionality it can be useful to run it standalone. A standalone minion can be used to do a number of things: · Use salt-call commands on a system without connectivity to a master · Masterless States, run states entirely from files local to the minion NOTE: When running Salt in masterless mode, do not run the salt-minion daemon. Otherwise, it will attempt to connect to a master and fail. The salt-call command stands on its own and does not need the salt-minion daemon. Minion Configuration Throughout this document there are several references to setting different options to con‐ figure a masterless Minion. Salt Minions are easy to configure via a configuration file that is located, by default, in /etc/salt/minion. Note, however, that on FreeBSD systems, the minion configuration file is located in /usr/local/etc/salt/minion. You can learn more about minion configuration options in the Configuring the Salt Minion docs. Telling Salt Call to Run Masterless The salt-call command is used to run module functions locally on a minion instead of exe‐ cuting them from the master. Normally the salt-call command checks into the master to retrieve file server and pillar data, but when running standalone salt-call needs to be instructed to not check the master for this data. To instruct the minion to not look for a master when running salt-call the file_client configuration option needs to be set. By default the file_client is set to remote so that the minion knows that file server and pillar data are to be gathered from the master. When setting the file_client option to local the minion is configured to not gather this data from the master. file_client: local Now the salt-call command will not look for a master and will assume that the local system has all of the file and pillar resources. Running States Masterless The state system can be easily run without a Salt master, with all needed files local to the minion. To do this the minion configuration file needs to be set up to know how to return file_roots information like the master. The file_roots setting defaults to /srv/salt for the base environment just like on the master: file_roots: base: - /srv/salt Now set up the Salt State Tree, top file, and SLS modules in the same way that they would be set up on a master. Now, with the file_client option set to local and an available state tree then calls to functions in the state module will use the information in the file_roots on the minion instead of checking in with the master. Remember that when creating a state tree on a minion there are no syntax or path changes needed, SLS modules written to be used from a master do not need to be modified in any way to work with a minion. This makes it easy to "script" deployments with Salt states without having to set up a master, and allows for these SLS modules to be easily moved into a Salt master as the deployment grows. The declared state can now be executed with: salt-call state.apply Or the salt-call command can be executed with the --local flag, this makes it unnecessary to change the configuration file: salt-call state.apply --local External Pillars External pillars are supported when running in masterless mode. Salt Masterless Quickstart Running a masterless salt-minion lets you use Salt's configuration management for a single machine without calling out to a Salt master on another machine. Since the Salt minion contains such extensive functionality it can be useful to run it standalone. A standalone minion can be used to do a number of things: · Stand up a master server via States (Salting a Salt Master) · Use salt-call commands on a system without connectivity to a master · Masterless States, run states entirely from files local to the minion It is also useful for testing out state trees before deploying to a production setup. Bootstrap Salt Minion The salt-bootstrap script makes bootstrapping a server with Salt simple for any OS with a Bourne shell: curl -L https://bootstrap.saltstack.com -o bootstrap_salt.sh sudo sh bootstrap_salt.sh See the salt-bootstrap documentation for other one liners. When using Vagrant to test out salt, the Vagrant salt provisioner will provision the VM for you. Telling Salt to Run Masterless To instruct the minion to not look for a master, the file_client configuration option needs to be set in the minion configuration file. By default the file_client is set to remote so that the minion gathers file server and pillar data from the salt master. When setting the file_client option to local the minion is configured to not gather this data from the master. file_client: local Now the salt minion will not look for a master and will assume that the local system has all of the file and pillar resources. Configuration which resided in the master configuration (e.g. /etc/salt/master) should be moved to the minion configuration since the minion does not read the master configuration. NOTE: When running Salt in masterless mode, do not run the salt-minion daemon. Otherwise, it will attempt to connect to a master and fail. The salt-call command stands on its own and does not need the salt-minion daemon. Create State Tree Following the successful installation of a salt-minion, the next step is to create a state tree, which is where the SLS files that comprise the possible states of the minion are stored. The following example walks through the steps necessary to create a state tree that ensures that the server has the Apache webserver installed. NOTE: For a complete explanation on Salt States, see the tutorial. 1. Create the top.sls file: /srv/salt/top.sls: base: '*': - webserver 2. Create the webserver state tree: /srv/salt/webserver.sls: apache: # ID declaration pkg: # state declaration - installed # function declaration NOTE: The apache package has different names on different platforms, for instance on Debian/Ubuntu it is apache2, on Fedora/RHEL it is httpd and on Arch it is apache The only thing left is to provision our minion using salt-call. Salt-call The salt-call command is used to run remote execution functions locally on a minion instead of executing them from the master. Normally the salt-call command checks into the master to retrieve file server and pillar data, but when running standalone salt-call needs to be instructed to not check the master for this data: salt-call --local state.apply The --local flag tells the salt-minion to look for the state tree in the local file system and not to contact a Salt Master for instructions. To provide verbose output, use -l debug: salt-call --local state.apply -l debug The minion first examines the top.sls file and determines that it is a part of the group matched by * glob and that the webserver SLS should be applied. It then examines the webserver.sls file and finds the apache state, which installs the Apache package. The minion should now have Apache installed, and the next step is to begin learning how to write more complex states. Dependencies Salt should run on any Unix-like platform so long as the dependencies are met. · `Python 2.7`_ >= 2.7 <3.0 · msgpack-python - High-performance message interchange format · YAML - Python YAML bindings · Jinja2 - parsing Salt States (configurable in the master settings) · MarkupSafe - Implements a XML/HTML/XHTML Markup safe string for Python · apache-libcloud - Python lib for interacting with many of the popular cloud service providers using a unified API · Requests - HTTP library · Tornado - Web framework and asynchronous networking library · futures - Backport of the concurrent.futures package from Python 3.2 Depending on the chosen Salt transport, ZeroMQ or RAET, dependencies vary: · ZeroMQ: · ZeroMQ >= 3.2.0 · pyzmq >= 2.2.0 - ZeroMQ Python bindings · PyCrypto - The Python cryptography toolkit · RAET: · libnacl - Python bindings to libsodium · ioflo - The flo programming interface raet and salt-raet is built on · RAET - The worlds most awesome UDP protocol Salt defaults to the ZeroMQ transport, and the choice can be made at install time, for example: python setup.py --salt-transport=raet install This way, only the required dependencies are pulled by the setup script if need be. If installing using pip, the --salt-transport install option can be provided like: pip install --install-option="--salt-transport=raet" salt NOTE: Salt does not bundle dependencies that are typically distributed as part of the base OS. If you have unmet dependencies and are using a custom or minimal installation, you might need to install some additional packages from your OS vendor. Optional Dependencies · mako - an optional parser for Salt States (configurable in the master settings) · gcc - dynamic Cython module compiling Upgrading Salt When upgrading Salt, the master(s) should always be upgraded first. Backward compatibil‐ ity for minions running newer versions of salt than their masters is not guaranteed. Whenever possible, backward compatibility between new masters and old minions will be pre‐ served. Generally, the only exception to this policy is in case of a security vulnerabil‐ ity. SEE ALSO: Installing Salt for development and contributing to the project. Building Packages using Salt Pack Salt-pack is an open-source package builder for most commonly used Linux platforms, for example: Redhat/CentOS and Debian/Ubuntu families, utilizing SaltStack states and execu‐ tion modules to build Salt and a specified set of dependencies, from which a platform spe‐ cific repository can be built. https://github.com/saltstack/salt-pack

CONFIGURING SALT

This section explains how to configure user access, view and store job results, secure and troubleshoot, and how to perform many other administrative tasks. Configuring the Salt Master The Salt system is amazingly simple and easy to configure, the two components of the Salt system each have a respective configuration file. The salt-master is configured via the master configuration file, and the salt-minion is configured via the minion configuration file. SEE ALSO: Example master configuration file. The configuration file for the salt-master is located at /etc/salt/master by default. A notable exception is FreeBSD, where the configuration file is located at /usr/local/etc/salt. The available options are as follows: Primary Master Configuration interface Default: 0.0.0.0 (all interfaces) The local interface to bind to, must be an IP address. interface: 192.168.0.1 ipv6 Default: False Whether the master should listen for IPv6 connections. If this is set to True, the inter‐ face option must be adjusted too (for example: interface: '::') ipv6: True publish_port Default: 4505 The network port to set up the publication interface. publish_port: 4505 master_id Default: None The id to be passed in the publish job to minions. This is used for MultiSyndics to return the job to the requesting master. NOTE: This must be the same string as the syndic is configured with. master_id: MasterOfMaster user Default: root The user to run the Salt processes user: root ret_port Default: 4506 The port used by the return server, this is the server used by Salt to receive execution returns and command executions. ret_port: 4506 pidfile Default: /var/run/salt-master.pid Specify the location of the master pidfile. pidfile: /var/run/salt-master.pid root_dir Default: / The system root directory to operate from, change this to make Salt run from an alterna‐ tive root. root_dir: / NOTE: This directory is prepended to the following options: pki_dir, cachedir, sock_dir, log_file, autosign_file, autoreject_file, pidfile. conf_file Default: /etc/salt/master The path to the master's configuration file. conf_file: /etc/salt/master pki_dir Default: /etc/salt/pki/master The directory to store the pki authentication keys. pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/master extension_modules Changed in version 2016.3.0: The default location for this directory has been moved. Prior to this version, the location was a directory named extmods in the Salt cachedir (on most platforms, /var/cache/salt/extmods). It has been moved into the master cachedir (on most platforms, /var/cache/salt/master/extmods). Directory for custom modules. This directory can contain subdirectories for each of Salt's module types such as runners, output, wheel, modules, states, returners, engines, utils, etc. This path is appended to root_dir. extension_modules: /root/salt_extmods extmod_whitelist/extmod_blacklist New in version 2017.7.0. By using this dictionary, the modules that are synced to the master's extmod cache using saltutil.sync_* can be limited. If nothing is set to a specific type, then all modules are accepted. To block all modules of a specific type, whitelist an empty list. extmod_whitelist: modules: - custom_module engines: - custom_engine pillars: [] extmod_blacklist: modules: - specific_module Valid options: · modules · states · grains · renderers · returners · output · proxy · runners · wheel · engines · queues · pillar · utils · sdb · cache · clouds · tops · roster module_dirs Default: [] Like extension_modules, but a list of extra directories to search for Salt modules. module_dirs: - /var/cache/salt/minion/extmods cachedir Default: /var/cache/salt/master The location used to store cache information, particularly the job information for exe‐ cuted salt commands. This directory may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly. cachedir: /var/cache/salt/master verify_env Default: True Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup. verify_env: True keep_jobs Default: 24 Set the number of hours to keep old job information. Note that setting this option to 0 disables the cache cleaner. keep_jobs: 24 gather_job_timeout New in version 2014.7.0. Default: 10 The number of seconds to wait when the client is requesting information about running jobs. gather_job_timeout: 10 timeout Default: 5 Set the default timeout for the salt command and api. loop_interval Default: 60 The loop_interval option controls the seconds for the master's maintenance process check cycle. This process updates file server backends, cleans the job cache and executes the scheduler. output Default: nested Set the default outputter used by the salt command. outputter_dirs Default: [] A list of additional directories to search for salt outputters in. outputter_dirs: [] output_file Default: None Set the default output file used by the salt command. Default is to output to the CLI and not to a file. Functions the same way as the "--out-file" CLI option, only sets this to a single file for all salt commands. output_file: /path/output/file show_timeout Default: True Tell the client to show minions that have timed out. show_timeout: True show_jid Default: False Tell the client to display the jid when a job is published. show_jid: False color Default: True By default output is colored, to disable colored output set the color value to False. color: False cli_summary Default: False When set to True, displays a summary of the number of minions targeted, the number of min‐ ions returned, and the number of minions that did not return. cli_summary: False sock_dir Default: /var/run/salt/master Set the location to use for creating Unix sockets for master process communication. sock_dir: /var/run/salt/master enable_gpu_grains Default: True Enable GPU hardware data for your master. Be aware that the master can take a while to start up when lspci and/or dmidecode is used to populate the grains for the master. job_cache Default: True The master maintains a temporary job cache. While this is a great addition, it can be a burden on the master for larger deployments (over 5000 minions). Disabling the job cache will make previously executed jobs unavailable to the jobs system and is not generally recommended. Normally it is wise to make sure the master has access to a faster IO system or a tmpfs is mounted to the jobs dir. job_cache: True NOTE: Setting the job_cache to False will not cache minion returns, but the JID directory for each job is still created. The creation of the JID directories is necessary because Salt uses those directories to check for JID collisions. By setting this option to False, the job cache directory, which is /var/cache/salt/master/jobs/ by default, will be smaller, but the JID directories will still be present. Note that the keep_jobs option can be set to a lower value, such as 1, to limit the number of hours jobs are stored in the job cache. (The default is 24 hours.) Please see the Managing the Job Cache documentation for more information. minion_data_cache Default: True The minion data cache is a cache of information about the minions stored on the master, this information is primarily the pillar, grains and mine data. The data is cached via the cache subsystem in the Master cachedir under the name of the minion or in a supported database. The data is used to predetermine what minions are expected to reply from execu‐ tions. minion_data_cache: True cache Default: localfs Cache subsystem module to use for minion data cache. cache: consul memcache_expire_seconds Default: 0 Memcache is an additional cache layer that keeps a limited amount of data fetched from the minion data cache for a limited period of time in memory that makes cache operations faster. It doesn't make much sence for the localfs cache driver but helps for more complex drivers like consul. This option sets the memcache items expiration time. By default is set to 0 that disables the memcache. memcache_expire_seconds: 30 memcache_max_items Default: 1024 Set memcache limit in items that are bank-key pairs. I.e the list of minion_0/data, min‐ ion_0/mine, minion_1/data contains 3 items. This value depends on the count of minions usually targeted in your environment. The best one could be found by analyzing the cache log with memcache_debug enabled. memcache_max_items: 1024 memcache_full_cleanup Default: False If cache storage got full, i.e. the items count exceeds the memcache_max_items value, mem‐ cache cleans up it's storage. If this option set to False memcache removes the only one oldest value from it's storage. If this set set to True memcache removes all the expired items and also removes the oldest one if there are no expired items. memcache_full_cleanup: True memcache_debug Default: False Enable collecting the memcache stats and log it on debug log level. If enabled memcache collect information about how many fetch calls has been done and how many of them has been hit by memcache. Also it outputs the rate value that is the result of division of the first two values. This should help to choose right values for the expiration time and the cache size. memcache_debug: True ext_job_cache Default: '' Used to specify a default returner for all minions. When this option is set, the specified returner needs to be properly configured and the minions will always default to sending returns to this returner. This will also disable the local job cache on the master. ext_job_cache: redis event_return New in version 2015.5.0. Default: '' Specify the returner(s) to use to log events. Each returner may have installation and con‐ figuration requirements. Read the returner's documentation. NOTE: Not all returners support event returns. Verify that a returner has an event_return() function before configuring this option with a returner. event_return: - syslog - splunk event_return_queue New in version 2015.5.0. Default: 0 On busy systems, enabling event_returns can cause a considerable load on the storage sys‐ tem for returners. Events can be queued on the master and stored in a batched fashion using a single transaction for multiple events. By default, events are not queued. event_return_queue: 0 event_return_whitelist New in version 2015.5.0. Default: [] Only return events matching tags in a whitelist. Changed in version 2016.11.0: Supports glob matching patterns. event_return_whitelist: - salt/master/a_tag - salt/run/*/ret event_return_blacklist New in version 2015.5.0. Default: [] Store all event returns _except_ the tags in a blacklist. Changed in version 2016.11.0: Supports glob matching patterns. event_return_blacklist: - salt/master/not_this_tag - salt/wheel/*/ret max_event_size New in version 2014.7.0. Default: 1048576 Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the master event bus. The value is expressed in bytes. max_event_size: 1048576 ping_on_rotate New in version 2014.7.0. Default: False By default, the master AES key rotates every 24 hours. The next command following a key rotation will trigger a key refresh from the minion which may result in minions which do not respond to the first command after a key refresh. To tell the master to ping all minions immediately after an AES key refresh, set ping_on_rotate to True. This should mitigate the issue where a minion does not appear to initially respond after a key is rotated. Note that ping_on_rotate may cause high load on the master immediately after the key rota‐ tion event as minions reconnect. Consider this carefully if this salt master is managing a large number of minions. master_job_cache New in version 2014.7.0. Default: local_cache Specify the returner to use for the job cache. The job cache will only be interacted with from the salt master and therefore does not need to be accessible from the minions. master_job_cache: redis enforce_mine_cache Default: False By-default when disabling the minion_data_cache mine will stop working since it is based on cached data, by enabling this option we explicitly enabling only the cache for the mine system. enforce_mine_cache: False max_minions Default: 0 The maximum number of minion connections allowed by the master. Use this to accommodate the number of minions per master if you have different types of hardware serving your min‐ ions. The default of 0 means unlimited connections. Please note that this can slow down the authentication process a bit in large setups. max_minions: 100 con_cache Default: False If max_minions is used in large installations, the master might experience high-load situ‐ ations because of having to check the number of connected minions for every authentica‐ tion. This cache provides the minion-ids of all connected minions to all MWorker-processes and greatly improves the performance of max_minions. con_cache: True presence_events Default: False Causes the master to periodically look for actively connected minions. Presence events are fired on the event bus on a regular interval with a list of connected minions, as well as events with lists of newly connected or disconnected minions. This is a master-only operation that does not send executions to minions. Note, this does not detect minions that connect to a master via localhost. presence_events: False ping_on_rotate Default: False By default, the master AES key rotates every 24 hours. The next command following a key rotation will trigger a key refresh from the minion which may result in minions which do not respond to the first command after a key refresh. To tell the master to ping all minions immediately after an AES key refresh, set ping_on_rotate to True. This should mitigate the issue where a minion does not appear to initially respond after a key is rotated. Note that ping_on_rotate may cause high load on the master immediately after the key rota‐ tion event as minions reconnect. Consider this carefully if this salt master is managing a large number of minions. If disabled, it is recommended to handle this event by listening for the aes_key_rotate event with the key tag and acting appropriately. ping_on_rotate: False transport Default: zeromq Changes the underlying transport layer. ZeroMQ is the recommended transport while addi‐ tional transport layers are under development. Supported values are zeromq, raet (experi‐ mental), and tcp (experimental). This setting has a significant impact on performance and should not be changed unless you know what you are doing! Transports are explained in Salt Transports. transport: zeromq transport_opts Default: {} (experimental) Starts multiple transports and overrides options for each transport with the provided dictionary This setting has a significant impact on performance and should not be changed unless you know what you are doing! Transports are explained in Salt Trans‐ ports. The following example shows how to start a TCP transport alongside a ZMQ transport. transport_opts: tcp: publish_port: 4605 ret_port: 4606 zeromq: [] sock_pool_size Default: 1 To avoid blocking waiting while writing a data to a socket, we support socket pool for Salt applications. For example, a job with a large number of target host list can cause long period blocking waiting. The option is used by ZMQ and TCP transports, and the other transport methods don't need the socket pool by definition. Most of Salt tools, including CLI, are enough to use a single bucket of socket pool. On the other hands, it is highly recommended to set the size of socket pool larger than 1 for other Salt applications, especially Salt API, which must write data to socket concurrently. sock_pool_size: 15 ipc_mode Default: ipc The ipc strategy. (i.e., sockets versus tcp, etc.) Windows platforms lack POSIX IPC and must rely on TCP based inter-process communications. ipc_mode is set to tcp by default on Windows. ipc_mode: ipc tcp_master_pub_port Default: 4512 The TCP port on which events for the master should be published if ipc_mode is TCP. tcp_master_pub_port: 4512 tcp_master_pull_port Default: 4513 The TCP port on which events for the master should be pulled if ipc_mode is TCP. tcp_master_pull_port: 4513 tcp_master_publish_pull Default: 4514 The TCP port on which events for the master should be pulled fom and then republished onto the event bus on the master. tcp_master_publish_pull: 4514 tcp_master_workers Default: 4515 The TCP port for mworkers to connect to on the master. tcp_master_workers: 4515 auth_events New in version 2017.7.3. Default: True Determines whether the master will fire authentication events. Authentication events are fired when a minion performs an authentication check with the master. auth_events: True minion_data_cache_events New in version 2017.7.3. Default: True Determines whether the master will fire minion data cache events. Minion data cache events are fired when a minion requests a minion data cache refresh. minion_data_cache_events: True Salt-SSH Configuration roster_file Default: /etc/salt/roster Pass in an alternative location for the salt-ssh roster file. roster_file: /root/roster ssh_passwd Default: '' The ssh password to log in with. ssh_passwd: '' ssh_port Default: 22 The target system's ssh port number. ssh_port: 22 ssh_scan_ports Default: 22 Comma-separated list of ports to scan. ssh_scan_ports: 22 ssh_scan_timeout Default: 0.01 Scanning socket timeout for salt-ssh. ssh_scan_timeout: 0.01 ssh_sudo Default: False Boolean to run command via sudo. ssh_sudo: False ssh_timeout Default: 60 Number of seconds to wait for a response when establishing an SSH connection. ssh_timeout: 60 ssh_user Default: root The user to log in as. ssh_user: root ssh_log_file New in version 2016.3.5. Default: /var/log/salt/ssh Specify the log file of the salt-ssh command. ssh_log_file: /var/log/salt/ssh ssh_minion_opts Default: None Pass in minion option overrides that will be inserted into the SHIM for salt-ssh calls. The local minion config is not used for salt-ssh. Can be overridden on a per-minion basis in the roster (minion_opts) ssh_minion_opts: gpg_keydir: /root/gpg ssh_use_home_key Default: False Set this to True to default to using ~/.ssh/id_rsa for salt-ssh authentication with min‐ ions ssh_use_home_key: False ssh_identities_only Default: False Set this to True to default salt-ssh to run with -o IdentitiesOnly=yes. This option is intended for situations where the ssh-agent offers many different identities and allows ssh to ignore those identities and use the only one specified in options. ssh_identities_only: False ssh_list_nodegroups Default: {} List-only nodegroups for salt-ssh. Each group must be formed as either a comma-separated list, or a YAML list. This option is useful to group minions into easy-to-target groups when using salt-ssh. These groups can then be targeted with the normal -N argument to salt-ssh. ssh_list_nodegroups: groupA: minion1,minion2 groupB: minion1,minion3 thin_extra_mods Default: None List of additional modules, needed to be included into the Salt Thin. Pass a list of importable Python modules that are typically located in the site-packages Python directory so they will be also always included into the Salt Thin, once generated. min_extra_mods Default: None Identical as thin_extra_mods, only applied to the Salt Minimal. Master Security Settings open_mode Default: False Open mode is a dangerous security feature. One problem encountered with pki authentication systems is that keys can become "mixed up" and authentication begins to fail. Open mode turns off authentication and tells the master to accept all authentication. This will clean up the pki keys received from the minions. Open mode should not be turned on for general use. Open mode should only be used for a short period of time to clean up pki keys. To turn on open mode set this value to True. open_mode: False auto_accept Default: False Enable auto_accept. This setting will automatically accept all incoming public keys from minions. auto_accept: False keysize Default: 2048 The size of key that should be generated when creating new keys. keysize: 2048 autosign_timeout New in version 2014.7.0. Default: 120 Time in minutes that a incoming public key with a matching name found in pki_dir/min‐ ion_autosign/keyid is automatically accepted. Expired autosign keys are removed when the master checks the minion_autosign directory. This method to auto accept minions can be safer than an autosign_file because the keyid record can expire and is limited to being an exact name match. This should still be considered a less than secure option, due to the fact that trust is based on just the requesting minion id. autosign_file Default: not defined If the autosign_file is specified incoming keys specified in the autosign_file will be automatically accepted. Matches will be searched for first by string comparison, then by globbing, then by full-string regex matching. This should still be considered a less than secure option, due to the fact that trust is based on just the requesting minion id. autoreject_file New in version 2014.1.0. Default: not defined Works like autosign_file, but instead allows you to specify minion IDs for which keys will automatically be rejected. Will override both membership in the autosign_file and the auto_accept setting. permissive_pki_access Default: False Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group you've given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. If an autosign_file is specified, enabling permissive_pki_access will allow group access to that specific file. permissive_pki_access: False publisher_acl Default: {} Enable user accounts on the master to execute specific modules. These modules can be expressed as regular expressions. publisher_acl: fred: - test.ping - pkg.* publisher_acl_blacklist Default: {} Blacklist users or modules This example would blacklist all non sudo users, including root from running any commands. It would also blacklist any use of the "cmd" module. This is completely disabled by default. publisher_acl_blacklist: users: - root - '^(?!sudo_).*$' # all non sudo users modules: - cmd.* - test.echo sudo_acl Default: False Enforce publisher_acl and publisher_acl_blacklist when users have sudo access to the salt command. sudo_acl: False external_auth Default: {} The external auth system uses the Salt auth modules to authenticate and validate users to access areas of the Salt system. external_auth: pam: fred: - test.* token_expire Default: 43200 Time (in seconds) for a newly generated token to live. Default: 12 hours token_expire: 43200 token_expire_user_override Default: False Allow eauth users to specify the expiry time of the tokens they generate. A boolean applies to all users or a dictionary of whitelisted eauth backends and usernames may be given: token_expire_user_override: pam: - fred - tom ldap: - gary keep_acl_in_token Default: False Set to True to enable keeping the calculated user's auth list in the token file. This is disabled by default and the auth list is calculated or requested from the eauth driver each time. keep_acl_in_token: False eauth_acl_module Default: '' Auth subsystem module to use to get authorized access list for a user. By default it's the same module used for external authentication. eauth_acl_module: django file_recv Default: False Allow minions to push files to the master. This is disabled by default, for security pur‐ poses. file_recv: False file_recv_max_size New in version 2014.7.0. Default: 100 Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. It will be interpreted as megabytes. file_recv_max_size: 100 master_sign_pubkey Default: False Sign the master auth-replies with a cryptographic signature of the master's public key. Please see the tutorial how to use these settings in the Multimaster-PKI with Failover Tutorial master_sign_pubkey: True master_sign_key_name Default: master_sign The customizable name of the signing-key-pair without suffix. master_sign_key_name: <filename_without_suffix> master_pubkey_signature Default: master_pubkey_signature The name of the file in the master's pki-directory that holds the pre-calculated signature of the master's public-key. master_pubkey_signature: <filename> master_use_pubkey_signature Default: False Instead of computing the signature for each auth-reply, use a pre-calculated signature. The master_pubkey_signature must also be set for this. master_use_pubkey_signature: True rotate_aes_key Default: True Rotate the salt-masters AES-key when a minion-public is deleted with salt-key. This is a very important security-setting. Disabling it will enable deleted minions to still listen in on the messages published by the salt-master. Do not disable this unless it is abso‐ lutely clear what this does. rotate_aes_key: True publish_session Default: 86400 The number of seconds between AES key rotations on the master. publish_session: Default: 86400 ssl New in version 2016.11.0. Default: None TLS/SSL connection options. This could be set to a dictionary containing arguments corre‐ sponding to python ssl.wrap_socket method. For details see Tornado and Python documenta‐ tion. Note: to set enum arguments values like cert_reqs and ssl_version use constant names with‐ out ssl module prefix: CERT_REQUIRED or PROTOCOL_SSLv23. ssl: keyfile: <path_to_keyfile> certfile: <path_to_certfile> ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2 allow_minion_key_revoke Default: False By default, the master deletes its cache of minion data when the key for that minion is removed. To preserve the cache after key deletion, set preserve_minion_cache to True. WARNING: This may have security implications if compromised minions auth with a previous deleted minion ID. preserve_minion_cache: False allow_minion_key_revoke Default: True Controls whether a minion can request its own key revocation. When True the master will honor the minion's request and revoke its key. When False, the master will drop the request and the minion's key will remain accepted. rotate_aes_key: True Master Large Scale Tuning Settings max_open_files Default: 100000 Each minion connecting to the master uses AT LEAST one file descriptor, the master sub‐ scription connection. If enough minions connect you might start seeing on the console(and then salt-master crashes): Too many open files (tcp_listener.cpp:335) Aborted (core dumped) max_open_files: 100000 By default this value will be the one of ulimit -Hn, i.e., the hard limit for max open files. To set a different value than the default one, uncomment, and configure this setting. Remember that this value CANNOT be higher than the hard limit. Raising the hard limit depends on the OS and/or distribution, a good way to find the limit is to search the internet for something like this: raise max open files hard limit debian worker_threads Default: 5 The number of threads to start for receiving commands and replies from minions. If min‐ ions are stalling on replies because you have many minions, raise the worker_threads value. Worker threads should not be put below 3 when using the peer system, but can drop down to 1 worker otherwise. NOTE: When the master daemon starts, it is expected behaviour to see multiple salt-master processes, even if 'worker_threads' is set to '1'. At a minimum, a controlling process will start along with a Publisher, an EventPublisher, and a number of MWorker processes will be started. The number of MWorker processes is tuneable by the 'worker_threads' configuration value while the others are not. worker_threads: 5 pub_hwm Default: 1000 The zeromq high water mark on the publisher interface. pub_hwm: 1000 zmq_backlog Default: 1000 The listen queue size of the ZeroMQ backlog. zmq_backlog: 1000 salt_event_pub_hwm and event_publisher_pub_hwm These two ZeroMQ High Water Mark settings, salt_event_pub_hwm and event_publisher_pub_hwm are significant for masters with thousands of minions. When these are insufficiently high it will manifest in random responses missing in the CLI and even missing from the job cache. Masters that have fast CPUs and many cores with appropriate worker_threads will not need these set as high. The ZeroMQ high-water-mark for the SaltEvent pub socket default is: salt_event_pub_hwm: 20000 The ZeroMQ high-water-mark for the EventPublisher pub socket default is: event_publisher_pub_hwm: 10000 As an example, on single master deployment with 8,000 minions, 2.4GHz CPUs, 24 cores, and 32GiB memory has these settings: salt_event_pub_hwm: 128000 event_publisher_pub_hwm: 64000 Master Module Management runner_dirs Default: [] Set additional directories to search for runner modules. runner_dirs: - /var/lib/salt/runners cython_enable Default: False Set to true to enable Cython modules (.pyx files) to be compiled on the fly on the Salt master. cython_enable: False Master State System Settings state_top Default: top.sls The state system uses a "top" file to tell the minions what environment to use and what modules to use. The state_top file is defined relative to the root of the base environ‐ ment. state_top: top.sls state_top_saltenv This option has no default value. Set it to an environment name to ensure that only the top file from that environment is considered during a highstate. NOTE: Using this value does not change the merging strategy. For instance, if top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and state_top_saltenv is set to foo, then any sections for environments other than foo in the top file for the foo environment will be ignored. With state_top_saltenv set to base, all states from all environments in the base top file will be applied, while all other top files are ignored. The only way to set state_top_saltenv to something other than base and not have the other envi‐ ronments in the targeted top file ignored, would be to set top_file_merging_strategy to merge_all. state_top_saltenv: dev top_file_merging_strategy Changed in version 2016.11.0: A merge_all strategy has been added. Default: merge When no specific fileserver environment (a.k.a. saltenv) has been specified for a high‐ state, all environments' top files are inspected. This config option determines how the SLS targets in those top files are handled. When set to merge, the base environment's top file is evaluated first, followed by the other environments' top files. The first target expression (e.g. '*') for a given environ‐ ment is kept, and when the same target expression is used in a different top file evalu‐ ated later, it is ignored. Because base is evaluated first, it is authoritative. For example, if there is a target for '*' for the foo environment in both the base and foo environment's top files, the one in the foo environment would be ignored. The environments will be evaluated in no specific order (aside from base coming first). For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order. Note that, aside from the base environment's top file, any sections in top files that do not match that top file's environment will be ignored. So, for example, a section for the qa environment would be ignored if it appears in the dev environment's top file. To keep use cases like this from being ignored, use the merge_all strategy. When set to same, then for each environment, only that environment's top file is pro‐ cessed, with the others being ignored. For example, only the dev environment's top file will be processed for the dev environment, and any SLS targets defined for dev in the base environment's (or any other environment's) top file will be ignored. If an environment does not have a top file, then the top file from the default_top config parameter will be used as a fallback. When set to merge_all, then all states in all environments in all top files will be applied. The order in which individual SLS files will be executed will depend on the order in which the top files were evaluated, and the environments will be evaluated in no spe‐ cific order. For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order. top_file_merging_strategy: same env_order Default: [] When top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and no environment is specified for a highstate, this config option allows for the order in which top files are evaluated to be explicitly defined. env_order: - base - dev - qa master_tops Default: {} The master_tops option replaces the external_nodes option by creating a pluggable system for the generation of external top data. The external_nodes option is deprecated by the master_tops option. To gain the capabilities of the classic external_nodes system, use the following configuration: master_tops: ext_nodes: <Shell command which returns yaml> external_nodes Default: None The external_nodes option allows Salt to gather data that would normally be placed in a top file from and external node controller. The external_nodes option is the executable that will return the ENC data. Remember that Salt will look for external nodes AND top files and combine the results if both are enabled and available! external_nodes: cobbler-ext-nodes renderer Default: yaml_jinja The renderer to use on the minions to render the state data. renderer: yaml_jinja userdata_template New in version 2016.11.4. Default: None The renderer to use for templating userdata files in salt-cloud, if the userdata_template is not set in the cloud profile. If no value is set in the cloud profile or master config file, no templating will be performed. userdata_template: jinja jinja_trim_blocks New in version 2014.1.0. Default: False If this is set to True, the first newline after a Jinja block is removed (block, not vari‐ able tag!). Defaults to False and corresponds to the Jinja environment init variable trim_blocks. jinja_trim_blocks: False jinja_lstrip_blocks New in version 2014.1.0. Default: False If this is set to True, leading spaces and tabs are stripped from the start of a line to a block. Defaults to False and corresponds to the Jinja environment init variable lstrip_blocks. jinja_lstrip_blocks: False failhard Default: False Set the global failhard flag. This informs all states to stop running states at the moment a single state fails. failhard: False state_verbose Default: True Controls the verbosity of state runs. By default, the results of all states are returned, but setting this value to False will cause salt to only display output for states that failed or states that have changes. state_verbose: False state_output Default: full The state_output setting changes if the output is the full multi line output for each changed state if set to 'full', but if set to 'terse' the output will be shortened to a single line. If set to 'mixed', the output will be terse unless a state failed, in which case that output will be full. If set to 'changes', the output will be full unless the state didn't change. state_output: full state_output_diff Default: False The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them. state_output_diff: False state_aggregate Default: False Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by setting to True. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically aggregate just those types. state_aggregate: - pkg state_aggregate: True state_events Default: False Send progress events as each function in a state run completes execution by setting to True. Progress events are in the format salt/job/<JID>/prog/<MID>/<RUN NUM>. state_events: True yaml_utf8 Default: False Enable extra routines for YAML renderer used states containing UTF characters. yaml_utf8: False runner_returns Default: False If set to True, runner jobs will be saved to job cache (defined by master_job_cache). runner_returns: True Master File Server Settings fileserver_backend Default: ['roots'] Salt supports a modular fileserver backend system, this system allows the salt master to link directly to third party systems to gather and manage the files available to minions. Multiple backends can be configured and will be searched for the requested file in the order in which they are defined here. The default setting only enables the standard back‐ end roots, which is configured using the file_roots option. Example: fileserver_backend: - roots - git NOTE: For masterless Salt, this parameter must be specified in the minion config file. fileserver_followsymlinks New in version 2014.1.0. Default: True By default, the file_server follows symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. Currently this only applies to the default roots fileserver_backend. fileserver_followsymlinks: True fileserver_ignoresymlinks New in version 2014.1.0. Default: False If you do not want symlinks to be treated as the files they are pointing to, set file‐ server_ignoresymlinks to True. By default this is set to False. When set to True, any detected symlink while listing files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion. fileserver_ignoresymlinks: False fileserver_limit_traversal New in version 2014.1.0. Default: False By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, set fileserver_limit_traversal to True. This might be useful for installations where a file root has a very large number of files and performance is impacted. fileserver_limit_traversal: False fileserver_list_cache_time New in version 2014.1.0. Changed in version 2016.11.0: The default was changed from 30 seconds to 20. Default: 20 Salt caches the list of files/symlinks/directories for each fileserver backend and envi‐ ronment as they are requested, to guard against a performance bottleneck at scale when many minions all ask the fileserver which files are available simultaneously. This config‐ uration parameter allows for the max age of that cache to be altered. Set this value to 0 to disable use of this cache altogether, but keep in mind that this may increase the CPU load on the master when running a highstate on a large number of min‐ ions. NOTE: Rather than altering this configuration parameter, it may be advisable to use the file‐ server.clear_list_cache runner to clear these caches. fileserver_list_cache_time: 5 fileserver_verify_config New in version 2017.7.0. Default: True By default, as the master starts it performs some sanity checks on the configured file‐ server backends. If any of these sanity checks fail (such as when an invalid configuration is used), the master daemon will abort. To skip these sanity checks, set this option to False. fileserver_verify_config: False hash_type Default: sha256 The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on the master server. The default is sha256, but md5, sha1, sha224, sha384, and sha512 are also supported. hash_type: sha256 file_buffer_size Default: 1048576 The buffer size in the file server in bytes. file_buffer_size: 1048576 file_ignore_regex Default: '' A regular expression (or a list of expressions) that will be matched against the file path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. This includes files affected by the file.recurse state. For example, if you manage your custom modules and states in subver‐ sion and don't want all the '.svn' folders and content synced to your minions, you could set this to '/.svn($|/)'. By default nothing is ignored. file_ignore_regex: - '/\.svn($|/)' - '/\.git($|/)' file_ignore_glob Default '' A file glob (or list of file globs) that will be matched against the file path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. This is similar to file_ignore_regex above, but works on globs instead of regex. By default nothing is ignored. file_ignore_glob: - '\*.pyc' - '\*/somefolder/\*.bak' - '\*.swp' NOTE: Vim's .swp files are a common cause of Unicode errors in file.recurse states which use templating. Unless there is a good reason to distribute them via the fileserver, it is good practice to include '\*.swp' in the file_ignore_glob. roots: Master's Local File Server file_roots Default: base: - /srv/salt Salt runs a lightweight file server written in ZeroMQ to deliver files to minions. This file server is built into the master daemon and does not require a dedicated port. The file server works on environments passed to the master. Each environment can have mul‐ tiple root directories. The subdirectories in the multiple file roots cannot match, other‐ wise the downloaded files will not be able to be reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file. Example: file_roots: base: - /srv/salt dev: - /srv/salt/dev/services - /srv/salt/dev/states prod: - /srv/salt/prod/services - /srv/salt/prod/states NOTE: For masterless Salt, this parameter must be specified in the minion config file. master_roots Default: /srv/salt-master A master-only copy of the file_roots dictionary, used by the state compiler. master_roots: /srv/salt-master git: Git Remote File Server Backend gitfs_remotes Default: [] When using the git fileserver backend at least one git remote needs to be defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo. The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client and the first repo to have the file will return it. Branches and tags are translated into salt environ‐ ments. gitfs_remotes: - git://github.com/saltstack/salt-states.git - file:///var/git/saltmaster NOTE: file:// repos will be treated as a remote and copied into the master's gitfs cache, so only the local refs for those repos will be exposed as fileserver environments. As of 2014.7.0, it is possible to have per-repo versions of several of the gitfs configu‐ ration parameters. For more information, see the GitFS Walkthrough. gitfs_provider New in version 2014.7.0. Optional parameter used to specify the provider to be used for gitfs. More information can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough. Must be either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then each will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that is used. gitfs_provider: gitpython gitfs_ssl_verify Default: True Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when fetching from the reposito‐ ries configured in gitfs_remotes. The False setting is useful if you're using a git repo that uses a self-signed certificate. However, keep in mind that setting this to anything other True is a considered insecure, and using an SSH-based transport (if available) may be a better option. gitfs_ssl_verify: False NOTE: pygit2 only supports disabling SSL verification in versions 0.23.2 and newer. Changed in version 2015.8.0: This option can now be configured on individual repositories as well. See here for more info. Changed in version 2016.11.0: The default config value changed from False to True. gitfs_mountpoint New in version 2014.7.0. Default: '' Specifies a path on the salt fileserver which will be prepended to all files served by gitfs. This option can be used in conjunction with gitfs_root. It can also be configured for an individual repository, see here for more info. gitfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar NOTE: The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). Assuming a file baz.sh in the root of a gitfs remote, and the above example mountpoint, this file would be served up via salt://foo/bar/baz.sh. gitfs_root Default: '' Relative path to a subdirectory within the repository from which Salt should begin to serve files. This is useful when there are files in the repository that should not be available to the Salt fileserver. Can be used in conjunction with gitfs_mountpoint. If used, then from Salt's perspective the directories above the one specified will be ignored and the relative path will (for the purposes of gitfs) be considered as the root of the repo. gitfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder Changed in version 2014.7.0: This option can now be configured on individual repositories as well. See here for more info. gitfs_base Default: master Defines which branch/tag should be used as the base environment. gitfs_base: salt Changed in version 2014.7.0: This option can now be configured on individual repositories as well. See here for more info. gitfs_saltenv New in version 2016.11.0. Default: [] Global settings for per-saltenv configuration parameters. Though per-saltenv configuration parameters are typically one-off changes specific to a single gitfs remote, and thus more often configured on a per-remote basis, this parameter can be used to specify per-saltenv changes which should apply to all remotes. For example, the below configuration will map the develop branch to the dev saltenv for all gitfs remotes. gitfs_saltenv: - dev: - ref: develop gitfs_env_whitelist New in version 2014.7.0. Default: [] Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if the repos in gitfs_remotes contain many branches/tags. More information can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough. gitfs_env_whitelist: - base - v1.* - 'mybranch\d+' gitfs_env_blacklist New in version 2014.7.0. Default: [] Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if the repos in gitfs_remotes contain many branches/tags. More information can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough. gitfs_env_blacklist: - base - v1.* - 'mybranch\d+' gitfs_global_lock New in version 2015.8.9. Default: True When set to False, if there is an update lock for a gitfs remote and the pid written to it is not running on the master, the lock file will be automatically cleared and a new lock will be obtained. When set to True, Salt will simply log a warning when there is an update lock present. On single-master deployments, disabling this option can help automatically deal with instances where the master was shutdown/restarted during the middle of a gitfs update, leaving a update lock in place. However, on multi-master deployments with the gitfs cachedir shared via GlusterFS, nfs, or another network filesystem, it is strongly recommended not to disable this option as doing so will cause lock files to be removed if they were created by a different master. # Disable global lock gitfs_global_lock: False GitFS Authentication Options These parameters only currently apply to the pygit2 gitfs provider. Examples of how to use these can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough. gitfs_user New in version 2014.7.0. Default: '' Along with gitfs_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. gitfs_user: git NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories. gitfs_password New in version 2014.7.0. Default: '' Along with gitfs_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication. gitfs_password: mypassword NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories. gitfs_insecure_auth New in version 2014.7.0. Default: False By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk. gitfs_insecure_auth: True NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories. gitfs_pubkey New in version 2014.7.0. Default: '' Along with gitfs_privkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. Required for SSH remotes. gitfs_pubkey: /path/to/key.pub NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories. gitfs_privkey New in version 2014.7.0. Default: '' Along with gitfs_pubkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. Required for SSH remotes. gitfs_privkey: /path/to/key NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories. gitfs_passphrase New in version 2014.7.0. Default: '' This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to authenticate is protected by a passphrase. gitfs_passphrase: mypassphrase NOTE: This is is a global configuration option, see here for examples of configuring it for individual repositories. gitfs_refspecs New in version 2017.7.0. Default: ['+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*', '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'] When fetching from remote repositories, by default Salt will fetch branches and tags. This parameter can be used to override the default and specify alternate refspecs to be fetched. More information on how this feature works can be found in the GitFS Walkthrough. gitfs_refspecs: - '+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*' - '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' - '+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*' - '+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*' hg: Mercurial Remote File Server Backend hgfs_remotes New in version 0.17.0. Default: [] When using the hg fileserver backend at least one mercurial remote needs to be defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo. The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client and the first repo to have the file will return it. Branches and/or bookmarks are translated into salt environments, as defined by the hgfs_branch_method parameter. hgfs_remotes: - https://@bitbucket.org/username/reponame NOTE: As of 2014.7.0, it is possible to have per-repo versions of the hgfs_root, hgfs_mountpoint, hgfs_base, and hgfs_branch_method parameters. For example: hgfs_remotes: - https://@bitbucket.org/username/repo1 - base: saltstates - https://@bitbucket.org/username/repo2: - root: salt - mountpoint: salt://foo/bar/baz - https://@bitbucket.org/username/repo3: - root: salt/states - branch_method: mixed hgfs_branch_method New in version 0.17.0. Default: branches Defines the objects that will be used as fileserver environments. · branches - Only branches and tags will be used · bookmarks - Only bookmarks and tags will be used · mixed - Branches, bookmarks, and tags will be used hgfs_branch_method: mixed NOTE: Starting in version 2014.1.0, the value of the hgfs_base parameter defines which branch is used as the base environment, allowing for a base environment to be used with an hgfs_branch_method of bookmarks. Prior to this release, the default branch will be used as the base environment. hgfs_mountpoint New in version 2014.7.0. Default: '' Specifies a path on the salt fileserver which will be prepended to all files served by hgfs. This option can be used in conjunction with hgfs_root. It can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info. hgfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar NOTE: The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). Assuming a file baz.sh in the root of an hgfs remote, this file would be served up via salt://foo/bar/baz.sh. hgfs_root New in version 0.17.0. Default: '' Relative path to a subdirectory within the repository from which Salt should begin to serve files. This is useful when there are files in the repository that should not be available to the Salt fileserver. Can be used in conjunction with hgfs_mountpoint. If used, then from Salt's perspective the directories above the one specified will be ignored and the relative path will (for the purposes of hgfs) be considered as the root of the repo. hgfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder Changed in version 2014.7.0: Ability to specify hgfs roots on a per-remote basis was added. See here for more info. hgfs_base New in version 2014.1.0. Default: default Defines which branch should be used as the base environment. Change this if hgfs_branch_method is set to bookmarks to specify which bookmark should be used as the base environment. hgfs_base: salt hgfs_env_whitelist New in version 2014.7.0. Default: [] Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your hgfs remotes contain many branches/bookmarks/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expres‐ sions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID. If used, only branches/bookmarks/tags which match one of the specified expressions will be exposed as fileserver environments. If used in conjunction with hgfs_env_blacklist, then the subset of branches/bookmarks/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments. hgfs_env_whitelist: - base - v1.* - 'mybranch\d+' hgfs_env_blacklist New in version 2014.7.0. Default: [] Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your hgfs remotes contain many branches/bookmarks/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expres‐ sions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID. If used, branches/bookmarks/tags which match one of the specified expressions will not be exposed as fileserver environments. If used in conjunction with hgfs_env_whitelist, then the subset of branches/bookmarks/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environments. hgfs_env_blacklist: - base - v1.* - 'mybranch\d+' svn: Subversion Remote File Server Backend svnfs_remotes New in version 0.17.0. Default: [] When using the svn fileserver backend at least one subversion remote needs to be defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo. The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client and the first repo to have the file will return it. The trunk, branches, and tags become environments, with the trunk being the base environment. svnfs_remotes: - svn://foo.com/svn/myproject NOTE: As of 2014.7.0, it is possible to have per-repo versions of the following configuration parameters: · svnfs_root · svnfs_mountpoint · svnfs_trunk · svnfs_branches · svnfs_tags For example: svnfs_remotes: - svn://foo.com/svn/project1 - svn://foo.com/svn/project2: - root: salt - mountpoint: salt://foo/bar/baz - svn//foo.com/svn/project3: - root: salt/states - branches: branch - tags: tag svnfs_mountpoint New in version 2014.7.0. Default: '' Specifies a path on the salt fileserver which will be prepended to all files served by hgfs. This option can be used in conjunction with svnfs_root. It can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info. svnfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar NOTE: The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). Assuming a file baz.sh in the root of an svnfs remote, this file would be served up via salt://foo/bar/baz.sh. svnfs_root New in version 0.17.0. Default: '' Relative path to a subdirectory within the repository from which Salt should begin to serve files. This is useful when there are files in the repository that should not be available to the Salt fileserver. Can be used in conjunction with svnfs_mountpoint. If used, then from Salt's perspective the directories above the one specified will be ignored and the relative path will (for the purposes of svnfs) be considered as the root of the repo. svnfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder Changed in version 2014.7.0: Ability to specify svnfs roots on a per-remote basis was added. See here for more info. svnfs_trunk New in version 2014.7.0. Default: trunk Path relative to the root of the repository where the trunk is located. Can also be con‐ figured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info. svnfs_trunk: trunk svnfs_branches New in version 2014.7.0. Default: branches Path relative to the root of the repository where the branches are located. Can also be configured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info. svnfs_branches: branches svnfs_tags New in version 2014.7.0. Default: tags Path relative to the root of the repository where the tags are located. Can also be con‐ figured on a per-remote basis, see here for more info. svnfs_tags: tags svnfs_env_whitelist New in version 2014.7.0. Default: [] Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your svnfs remotes contain many branches/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID. If used, only branches/tags which match one of the specified expressions will be exposed as fileserver environments. If used in conjunction with svnfs_env_blacklist, then the subset of branches/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environ‐ ments. svnfs_env_whitelist: - base - v1.* - 'mybranch\d+' svnfs_env_blacklist New in version 2014.7.0. Default: [] Used to restrict which environments are made available. Can speed up state runs if your svnfs remotes contain many branches/tags. Full names, globs, and regular expressions are supported. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID. If used, branches/tags which match one of the specified expressions will not be exposed as fileserver environments. If used in conjunction with svnfs_env_whitelist, then the subset of branches/tags which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed as fileserver environ‐ ments. svnfs_env_blacklist: - base - v1.* - 'mybranch\d+' minion: MinionFS Remote File Server Backend minionfs_env New in version 2014.7.0. Default: base Environment from which MinionFS files are made available. minionfs_env: minionfs minionfs_mountpoint New in version 2014.7.0. Default: '' Specifies a path on the salt fileserver from which minionfs files are served. minionfs_mountpoint: salt://foo/bar NOTE: The salt:// protocol designation can be left off (in other words, foo/bar and salt://foo/bar are equivalent). minionfs_whitelist New in version 2014.7.0. Default: [] Used to restrict which minions' pushed files are exposed via minionfs. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID. If used, only the pushed files from minions which match one of the specified expressions will be exposed. If used in conjunction with minionfs_blacklist, then the subset of hosts which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed. minionfs_whitelist: - server01 - dev* - 'mail\d+.mydomain.tld' minionfs_blacklist New in version 2014.7.0. Default: [] Used to restrict which minions' pushed files are exposed via minionfs. If using a regular expression, the expression must match the entire minion ID. If used, only the pushed files from minions which match one of the specified expressions will not be exposed. If used in conjunction with minionfs_whitelist, then the subset of hosts which match the whitelist but do not match the blacklist will be exposed. minionfs_blacklist: - server01 - dev* - 'mail\d+.mydomain.tld' Pillar Configuration pillar_roots Default: base: - /srv/pillar Set the environments and directories used to hold pillar sls data. This configuration is the same as file_roots: pillar_roots: base: - /srv/pillar dev: - /srv/pillar/dev prod: - /srv/pillar/prod on_demand_ext_pillar New in version 2016.3.6,2016.11.3,2017.7.0. Default: ['libvirt', 'virtkey'] The external pillars permitted to be used on-demand using pillar.ext. on_demand_ext_pillar: - libvirt - virtkey - git WARNING: This will allow minions to request specific pillar data via pillar.ext, and may be con‐ sidered a security risk. However, pillar data generated in this way will not affect the in-memory pillar data, so this risk is limited to instances in which states/mod‐ ules/etc. (built-in or custom) rely upon pillar data generated by pillar.ext. decrypt_pillar New in version 2017.7.0. Default: [] A list of paths to be recursively decrypted during pillar compilation. decrypt_pillar: - 'foo:bar': gpg - 'lorem:ipsum:dolor' Entries in this list can be formatted either as a simple string, or as a key/value pair, with the key being the pillar location, and the value being the renderer to use for pillar decryption. If the former is used, the renderer specified by decrypt_pillar_default will be used. decrypt_pillar_delimiter New in version 2017.7.0. Default: : The delimiter used to distinguish nested data structures in the decrypt_pillar option. decrypt_pillar_delimiter: '|' decrypt_pillar: - 'foo|bar': gpg - 'lorem|ipsum|dolor' decrypt_pillar_default New in version 2017.7.0. Default: gpg The default renderer used for decryption, if one is not specified for a given pillar key in decrypt_pillar. decrypt_pillar_default: my_custom_renderer decrypt_pillar_renderers New in version 2017.7.0. Default: ['gpg'] List of renderers which are permitted to be used for pillar decryption. decrypt_pillar_renderers: - gpg - my_custom_renderer pillar_opts Default: False The pillar_opts option adds the master configuration file data to a dict in the pillar called master. This can be used to set simple configurations in the master config file that can then be used on minions. Note that setting this option to True means the master config file will be included in all minion's pillars. While this makes global configuration of services and systems easy, it may not be desired if sensitive data is stored in the master configuration. pillar_opts: False pillar_safe_render_error Default: True The pillar_safe_render_error option prevents the master from passing pillar render errors to the minion. This is set on by default because the error could contain templating data which would give that minion information it shouldn't have, like a password! When set True the error message will only show: Rendering SLS 'my.sls' failed. Please see master log for details. pillar_safe_render_error: True ext_pillar The ext_pillar option allows for any number of external pillar interfaces to be called when populating pillar data. The configuration is based on ext_pillar functions. The available ext_pillar functions can be found herein: https://github.com/saltstack/salt/blob/develop/salt/pillar By default, the ext_pillar interface is not configured to run. Default: [] ext_pillar: - hiera: /etc/hiera.yaml - cmd_yaml: cat /etc/salt/yaml - reclass: inventory_base_uri: /etc/reclass There are additional details at salt-pillars ext_pillar_first New in version 2015.5.0. Default: False This option allows for external pillar sources to be evaluated before pillar_roots. Exter‐ nal pillar data is evaluated separately from pillar_roots pillar data, and then both sets of pillar data are merged into a single pillar dictionary, so the value of this config option will have an impact on which key "wins" when there is one of the same name in both the external pillar data and pillar_roots pillar data. By setting this option to True, ext_pillar keys will be overridden by pillar_roots, while leaving it as False will allow ext_pillar keys to override those from pillar_roots. NOTE: For a while, this config option did not work as specified above, because of a bug in Pillar compilation. This bug has been resolved in version 2016.3.4 and later. ext_pillar_first: False pillarenv_from_saltenv Default: False When set to True, the pillarenv value will assume the value of the effective saltenv when running states. This essentially makes salt-run pillar.show_pillar saltenv=dev equivalent to salt-run pillar.show_pillar saltenv=dev pillarenv=dev. If pillarenv is set on the CLI, it will override this option. pillarenv_from_saltenv: True NOTE: For salt remote execution commands this option should be set in the Minion configura‐ tion instead. pillar_raise_on_missing New in version 2015.5.0. Default: False Set this option to True to force a KeyError to be raised whenever an attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set to False, the failed attempt returns an empty string. Git External Pillar (git_pillar) Configuration Options git_pillar_provider New in version 2015.8.0. Specify the provider to be used for git_pillar. Must be either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that is used. git_pillar_provider: gitpython git_pillar_base New in version 2015.8.0. Default: master If the desired branch matches this value, and the environment is omitted from the git_pil‐ lar configuration, then the environment for that git_pillar remote will be base. For exam‐ ple, in the configuration below, the foo branch/tag would be assigned to the base environ‐ ment, while bar would be mapped to the bar environment. git_pillar_base: foo ext_pillar: - git: - foo https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git - bar https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git git_pillar_branch New in version 2015.8.0. Default: master If the branch is omitted from a git_pillar remote, then this branch will be used instead. For example, in the configuration below, the first two remotes would use the pillardata branch/tag, while the third would use the foo branch/tag. git_pillar_branch: pillardata ext_pillar: - git: - https://mygitserver/pillar1.git - https://mygitserver/pillar2.git: - root: pillar - foo https://mygitserver/pillar3.git git_pillar_env New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' (unset) Environment to use for git_pillar remotes. This is normally derived from the branch/tag (or from a per-remote env parameter), but if set this will override the process of deriv‐ ing the env from the branch/tag name. For example, in the configuration below the foo branch would be assigned to the base environment, while the bar branch would need to explicitly have bar configured as it's environment to keep it from also being mapped to the base environment. git_pillar_env: base ext_pillar: - git: - foo https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git - bar https://mygitserver/git-pillar.git: - env: bar For this reason, this option is recommended to be left unset, unless the use case calls for all (or almost all) of the git_pillar remotes to use the same environment irrespective of the branch/tag being used. git_pillar_root New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' Path relative to the root of the repository where the git_pillar top file and SLS files are located. In the below configuration, the pillar top file and SLS files would be looked for in a subdirectory called pillar. git_pillar_root: pillar ext_pillar: - git: - master https://mygitserver/pillar1.git - master https://mygitserver/pillar2.git NOTE: This is a global option. If only one or two repos need to have their files sourced from a subdirectory, then git_pillar_root can be omitted and the root can be specified on a per-remote basis, like so: ext_pillar: - git: - master https://mygitserver/pillar1.git - master https://mygitserver/pillar2.git: - root: pillar In this example, for the first remote the top file and SLS files would be looked for in the root of the repository, while in the second remote the pillar data would be retrieved from the pillar subdirectory. git_pillar_ssl_verify New in version 2015.8.0. Changed in version 2016.11.0. Default: False Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting the remote repository. The False setting is useful if you're using a git repo that uses a self-signed certificate. However, keep in mind that setting this to anything other True is a consid‐ ered insecure, and using an SSH-based transport (if available) may be a better option. In the 2016.11.0 release, the default config value changed from False to True. git_pillar_ssl_verify: True NOTE: pygit2 only supports disabling SSL verification in versions 0.23.2 and newer. git_pillar_global_lock New in version 2015.8.9. Default: True When set to False, if there is an update/checkout lock for a git_pillar remote and the pid written to it is not running on the master, the lock file will be automatically cleared and a new lock will be obtained. When set to True, Salt will simply log a warning when there is an lock present. On single-master deployments, disabling this option can help automatically deal with instances where the master was shutdown/restarted during the middle of a git_pillar update/checkout, leaving a lock in place. However, on multi-master deployments with the git_pillar cachedir shared via GlusterFS, nfs, or another network filesystem, it is strongly recommended not to disable this option as doing so will cause lock files to be removed if they were created by a different mas‐ ter. # Disable global lock git_pillar_global_lock: False git_pillar_includes New in version 2017.7.0. Default: True Normally, when processing git_pillar remotes, if more than one repo under the same git section in the ext_pillar configuration refers to the same pillar environment, then each repo in a given environment will have access to the other repos' files to be referenced in their top files. However, it may be desirable to disable this behavior. If so, set this value to False. For a more detailed examination of how includes work, see this explanation from the git_pillar documentation. git_pillar_includes: False Git External Pillar Authentication Options These parameters only currently apply to the pygit2 git_pillar_provider. Authentication works the same as it does in gitfs, as outlined in the GitFS Walkthrough, though the global configuration options are named differently to reflect that they are for git_pillar instead of gitfs. git_pillar_user New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' Along with git_pillar_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. git_pillar_user: git git_pillar_password New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' Along with git_pillar_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication. git_pillar_password: mypassword git_pillar_insecure_auth New in version 2015.8.0. Default: False By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk. git_pillar_insecure_auth: True git_pillar_pubkey New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' Along with git_pillar_privkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), is used to authenti‐ cate to SSH remotes. git_pillar_pubkey: /path/to/key.pub git_pillar_privkey New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' Along with git_pillar_pubkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), is used to authenti‐ cate to SSH remotes. git_pillar_privkey: /path/to/key git_pillar_passphrase New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to authenticate is protected by a passphrase. git_pillar_passphrase: mypassphrase git_pillar_refspecs New in version 2017.7.0. Default: ['+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*', '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'] When fetching from remote repositories, by default Salt will fetch branches and tags. This parameter can be used to override the default and specify alternate refspecs to be fetched. This parameter works similarly to its GitFS counterpart, in that it can be con‐ figured both globally and for individual remotes. git_pillar_refspecs: - '+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*' - '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' - '+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*' - '+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*' git_pillar_verify_config New in version 2017.7.0. Default: True By default, as the master starts it performs some sanity checks on the configured git_pil‐ lar repositories. If any of these sanity checks fail (such as when an invalid configura‐ tion is used), the master daemon will abort. To skip these sanity checks, set this option to False. git_pillar_verify_config: False Pillar Merging Options pillar_source_merging_strategy New in version 2014.7.0. Default: smart The pillar_source_merging_strategy option allows you to configure merging strategy between different sources. It accepts 5 values: · none: New in version 2016.3.4: It will not do any merging at all and only parse the pillar data from the passed environment and 'base' if no environment was specified. · recurse: it will merge recursively mapping of data. For example, theses 2 sources: foo: 42 bar: element1: True bar: element2: True baz: quux will be merged as: foo: 42 bar: element1: True element2: True baz: quux · aggregate: instructs aggregation of elements between sources that use the #!yamlex renderer. For example, these two documents: #!yamlex foo: 42 bar: !aggregate { element1: True } baz: !aggregate quux #!yamlex bar: !aggregate { element2: True } baz: !aggregate quux2 will be merged as: foo: 42 bar: element1: True element2: True baz: - quux - quux2 · overwrite: Will use the behaviour of the 2014.1 branch and earlier. Overwrites elements according the order in which they are processed. First pillar processed: A: first_key: blah second_key: blah Second pillar processed: A: third_key: blah fourth_key: blah will be merged as: A: third_key: blah fourth_key: blah · smart (default): Guesses the best strategy based on the "renderer" setting. pillar_merge_lists New in version 2015.8.0. Default: False Recursively merge lists by aggregating them instead of replacing them. pillar_merge_lists: False Pillar Cache Options pillar_cache New in version 2015.8.8. Default: False A master can cache pillars locally to bypass the expense of having to render them for each minion on every request. This feature should only be enabled in cases where pillar render‐ ing time is known to be unsatisfactory and any attendant security concerns about storing pillars in a master cache have been addressed. When enabling this feature, be certain to read through the additional pillar_cache_* con‐ figuration options to fully understand the tunable parameters and their implications. pillar_cache: False NOTE: Setting pillar_cache: True has no effect on targeting minions with pillar. pillar_cache_ttl New in version 2015.8.8. Default: 3600 If and only if a master has set pillar_cache: True, the cache TTL controls the amount of time, in seconds, before the cache is considered invalid by a master and a fresh pillar is recompiled and stored. pillar_cache_backend New in version 2015.8.8. Default: disk If an only if a master has set pillar_cache: True, one of several storage providers can be utilized: · disk (default): The default storage backend. This caches rendered pillars to the master cache. Rendered pillars are serialized and deserialized as msgpack structures for speed. Note that pil‐ lars are stored UNENCRYPTED. Ensure that the master cache has permissions set appropri‐ ately (sane defaults are provided). · memory [EXPERIMENTAL]: An optional backend for pillar caches which uses a pure-Python in-memory data structure for maximal performance. There are several caveats, however. First, because each master worker contains its own in-memory cache, there is no guarantee of cache consistency between minion requests. This works best in situations where the pillar rarely if ever changes. Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, this means that unencrypted pillars will be accessible to any process which can examine the memory of the salt-master! This may represent a substantial security risk. pillar_cache_backend: disk Master Reactor Settings reactor Default: [] Defines a salt reactor. See the Reactor documentation for more information. reactor: - 'salt/minion/*/start': - salt://reactor/startup_tasks.sls reactor_refresh_interval Default: 60 The TTL for the cache of the reactor configuration. reactor_refresh_interval: 60 reactor_worker_threads Default: 10 The number of workers for the runner/wheel in the reactor. reactor_worker_hwm Default: 10000 The queue size for workers in the reactor. reactor_worker_hwm: 10000 Syndic Server Settings A Salt syndic is a Salt master used to pass commands from a higher Salt master to minions below the syndic. Using the syndic is simple. If this is a master that will have syndic servers(s) below it, set the order_masters setting to True. If this is a master that will be running a syndic daemon for passthrough the syndic_master setting needs to be set to the location of the master server. Do not forget that, in other words, it means that it shares with the local minion its ID and PKI directory. order_masters Default: False Extra data needs to be sent with publications if the master is controlling a lower level master via a syndic minion. If this is the case the order_masters value must be set to True order_masters: False syndic_master Changed in version 2016.3.5,2016.11.1: Set default higher level master address. Default: masterofmasters If this master will be running the salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, spec‐ ify the higher level master with this configuration value. syndic_master: masterofmasters You can optionally connect a syndic to multiple higher level masters by setting the syn‐ dic_master value to a list: syndic_master: - masterofmasters1 - masterofmasters2 Each higher level master must be set up in a multi-master configuration. syndic_master_port Default: 4506 If this master will be running the salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, spec‐ ify the higher level master port with this configuration value. syndic_master_port: 4506 syndic_pidfile Default: /var/run/salt-syndic.pid If this master will be running the salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, spec‐ ify the pidfile of the syndic daemon. syndic_pidfile: /var/run/syndic.pid syndic_log_file Default: /var/log/salt/syndic If this master will be running the salt-syndic to connect to a higher level master, spec‐ ify the log file of the syndic daemon. syndic_log_file: /var/log/salt-syndic.log syndic_failover New in version 2016.3.0. Default: random The behaviour of the multi-syndic when connection to a master of masters failed. Can specify random (default) or ordered. If set to random, masters will be iterated in random order. If ordered is specified, the configured order will be used. syndic_failover: random syndic_wait Default: 5 The number of seconds for the salt client to wait for additional syndics to check in with their lists of expected minions before giving up. syndic_wait: 5 syndic_forward_all_events New in version 2017.7.0. Default: False Option on multi-syndic or single when connected to multiple masters to be able to send events to all connected masters. syndic_forward_all_events: False Peer Publish Settings Salt minions can send commands to other minions, but only if the minion is allowed to. By default "Peer Publication" is disabled, and when enabled it is enabled for specific min‐ ions and specific commands. This allows secure compartmentalization of commands based on individual minions. peer Default: {} The configuration uses regular expressions to match minions and then a list of regular expressions to match functions. The following will allow the minion authenticated as foo.example.com to execute functions from the test and pkg modules. peer: foo.example.com: - test.* - pkg.* This will allow all minions to execute all commands: peer: .*: - .* This is not recommended, since it would allow anyone who gets root on any single minion to instantly have root on all of the minions! By adding an additional layer you can limit the target hosts in addition to the accessible commands: peer: foo.example.com: 'db*': - test.* - pkg.* peer_run Default: {} The peer_run option is used to open up runners on the master to access from the minions. The peer_run configuration matches the format of the peer configuration. The following example would allow foo.example.com to execute the manage.up runner: peer_run: foo.example.com: - manage.up Master Logging Settings log_file Default: /var/log/salt/master The master log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network location. See also log_file. Examples: log_file: /var/log/salt/master log_file: file:///dev/log log_file: udp://loghost:10514 log_level Default: warning The level of messages to send to the console. See also log_level. log_level: warning log_level_logfile Default: warning The level of messages to send to the log file. See also log_level_logfile. When it is not set explicitly it will inherit the level set by log_level option. log_level_logfile: warning log_datefmt Default: %H:%M:%S The date and time format used in console log messages. See also log_datefmt. log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S' log_datefmt_logfile Default: %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S The date and time format used in log file messages. See also log_datefmt_logfile. log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' log_fmt_console Default: [%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s The format of the console logging messages. See also log_fmt_console. NOTE: Log colors are enabled in log_fmt_console rather than the color config since the log‐ ging system is loaded before the master config. Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters: %(colorlevel)s %(colorname)s %(colorprocess)s %(colormsg)s Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, '[' and ']', in the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging. log_fmt_console: '%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s' log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' log_fmt_logfile Default: %(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s The format of the log file logging messages. See also log_fmt_logfile. log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' log_granular_levels Default: {} This can be used to control logging levels more specifically. See also log_granular_lev‐ els. Node Groups Default: {} Node groups allow for logical groupings of minion nodes. A group consists of a group name and a compound target. nodegroups: group1: '@foo.domain.com,bar.domain.com,baz.domain.com or bl*.domain.com' group2: 'G@os:Debian and foo.domain.com' group3: 'G@os:Debian and N@group1' group4: - 'G@foo:bar' - 'or' - 'G@foo:baz' More information on using nodegroups can be found here. Range Cluster Settings range_server Default: 'range:80' The range server (and optional port) that serves your cluster information https://github.com/ytoolshed/range/wiki/%22yamlfile%22-module-file-spec range_server: range:80 Include Configuration default_include Default: master.d/*.conf The master can include configuration from other files. Per default the master will auto‐ matically include all config files from master.d/*.conf where master.d is relative to the directory of the master configuration file. NOTE: Salt creates files in the master.d directory for its own use. These files are prefixed with an underscore. A common example of this is the _schedule.conf file. include Default: not defined The master can include configuration from other files. To enable this, pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory the main minion configuration file lives in. Paths can make use of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this option then the master will log a warning message. # Include files from a master.d directory in the same # directory as the master config file include: master.d/* # Include a single extra file into the configuration include: /etc/roles/webserver # Include several files and the master.d directory include: - extra_config - master.d/* - /etc/roles/webserver Keepalive Settings tcp_keepalive Default: True The tcp keepalive interval to set on TCP ports. This setting can be used to tune Salt con‐ nectivity issues in messy network environments with misbehaving firewalls. tcp_keepalive: True tcp_keepalive_cnt Default: -1 Sets the ZeroMQ TCP keepalive count. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects. tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1 tcp_keepalive_idle Default: 300 Sets ZeroMQ TCP keepalive idle. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects. tcp_keepalive_idle: 300 tcp_keepalive_intvl Default: -1 Sets ZeroMQ TCP keepalive interval. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects. tcp_keepalive_intvl': -1 Windows Software Repo Settings winrepo_provider New in version 2015.8.0. Specify the provider to be used for winrepo. Must be either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried in that same order, and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that is used. winrepo_provider: gitpython winrepo_dir Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo to winrepo_dir. Default: /srv/salt/win/repo Location on the master where the winrepo_remotes are checked out for pre-2015.8.0 minions. 2015.8.0 and later minions use winrepo_remotes_ng instead. winrepo_dir: /srv/salt/win/repo winrepo_dir_ng New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added. Default: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng Location on the master where the winrepo_remotes_ng are checked out for 2015.8.0 and later minions. winrepo_dir_ng: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng winrepo_cachefile Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo_mastercachefile to winrepo_cachefile NOTE: 2015.8.0 and later minions do not use this setting since the cachefile is now located on the minion. Default: winrepo.p Path relative to winrepo_dir where the winrepo cache should be created. winrepo_cachefile: winrepo.p winrepo_remotes Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_gitrepos to winrepo_remotes. Default: ['https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git'] List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo for pre-2015.8.0 minions. 2015.8.0 and later minions use winrepo_remotes_ng instead. winrepo_remotes: - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository: winrepo_remotes: - '<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git' Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo. winrepo_remotes_ng New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added. Default: ['https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git'] List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo for 2015.8.0 and later minions. winrepo_remotes_ng: - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository: winrepo_remotes_ng: - '<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git' Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo. winrepo_branch New in version 2015.8.0. Default: master If the branch is omitted from a winrepo remote, then this branch will be used instead. For example, in the configuration below, the first two remotes would use the winrepo branch/tag, while the third would use the foo branch/tag. winrepo_branch: winrepo ext_pillar: - git: - https://mygitserver/winrepo1.git - https://mygitserver/winrepo2.git: - foo https://mygitserver/winrepo3.git winrepo_ssl_verify New in version 2015.8.0. Changed in version 2016.11.0. Default: False Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting the remote repository. The False setting is useful if you're using a git repo that uses a self-signed certificate. However, keep in mind that setting this to anything other True is a considered insecure, and using an SSH-based transport (if available) may be a better option. In the 2016.11.0 release, the default config value changed from False to True. winrepo_ssl_verify: True Winrepo Authentication Options These parameters only currently apply to the pygit2 winrepo_provider. Authentication works the same as it does in gitfs, as outlined in the GitFS Walkthrough, though the global con‐ figuration options are named differently to reflect that they are for winrepo instead of gitfs. winrepo_user New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' Along with winrepo_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. winrepo_user: git winrepo_password New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' Along with winrepo_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication. winrepo_password: mypassword winrepo_insecure_auth New in version 2015.8.0. Default: False By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk. winrepo_insecure_auth: True winrepo_pubkey New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' Along with winrepo_privkey (and optionally winrepo_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. winrepo_pubkey: /path/to/key.pub winrepo_privkey New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' Along with winrepo_pubkey (and optionally winrepo_passphrase), is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. winrepo_privkey: /path/to/key winrepo_passphrase New in version 2015.8.0. Default: '' This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to authenticate is protected by a passphrase. winrepo_passphrase: mypassphrase winrepo_refspecs New in version 2017.7.0. Default: ['+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*', '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'] When fetching from remote repositories, by default Salt will fetch branches and tags. This parameter can be used to override the default and specify alternate refspecs to be fetched. This parameter works similarly to its GitFS counterpart, in that it can be con‐ figured both globally and for individual remotes. winrepo_refspecs: - '+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*' - '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' - '+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*' - '+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*' Configure Master on Windows The master on Windows requires no additional configuration. You can modify the master con‐ figuration by creating/editing the master config file located at c:\salt\conf\master. The same configuration options available on Linux are available in Windows, as long as they apply. For example, SSH options wouldn't apply in Windows. The main differences are the file paths. If you are familiar with common salt paths, the following table may be useful: ┌────────────┬───────┬───────────────┐ │linux Paths │ │ Windows Paths │ ├────────────┼───────┼───────────────┤ │/etc/salt │ <---> │ c:\salt\conf │ ├────────────┼───────┼───────────────┤ │/ │ <---> │ c:\salt │ └────────────┴───────┴───────────────┘ So, for example, the master config file in Linux is /etc/salt/master. In Windows the mas‐ ter config file is c:\salt\conf\master. The Linux path /etc/salt becomes c:\salt\conf in Windows. Common File Locations ┌───────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────────┐ │Linux Paths │ Windows Paths │ ├───────────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────┤ │conf_file: /etc/salt/master │ conf_file: c:\salt\conf\master │ └───────────────────────────────┴─────────────────────────────────┘ │log_file: /var/log/salt/master │ log_file: │ │ │ c:\salt\var\log\salt\master │ ├───────────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────┤ │pidfile: /var/run/salt-mas‐ │ pidfile: │ │ter.pid │ c:\salt\var\run\salt-master.pid │ └───────────────────────────────┴─────────────────────────────────┘ Common Directories ┌─────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────┐ │Linux Paths │ Windows Paths │ ├─────────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │cachedir: /var/cache/salt/master │ cachedir: │ │ │ c:\salt\var\cache\salt\master │ ├─────────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │extension_modules: │ c:\salt\var\cache\salt\mas‐ │ │/var/cache/salt/master/extmods │ ter\extmods │ ├─────────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/master │ pki_dir: c:\salt\conf\pki\master │ ├─────────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │root_dir: / │ root_dir: c:\salt │ ├─────────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │sock_dir: /var/run/salt/master │ sock_dir: │ │ │ c:\salt\var\run\salt\master │ └─────────────────────────────────┴──────────────────────────────────┘ Roots file_roots ┌──────────────┬──────────────────────┐ │Linux Paths │ Windows Paths │ ├──────────────┼──────────────────────┤ │/srv/salt │ c:\salt\srv\salt │ ├──────────────┼──────────────────────┤ │/srv/spm/salt │ c:\salt\srv\spm\salt │ └──────────────┴──────────────────────┘ pillar_roots ┌────────────────┬────────────────────────┐ │Linux Paths │ Windows Paths │ ├────────────────┼────────────────────────┤ │/srv/pillar │ c:\salt\srv\pillar │ ├────────────────┼────────────────────────┤ │/srv/spm/pillar │ c:\salt\srv\spm\pillar │ └────────────────┴────────────────────────┘ Win Repo Settings ┌────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────────┐ │Linux Paths │ Windows Paths │ ├────────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┤ │winrepo_dir: /srv/salt/win/repo │ winrepo_dir: │ │ │ c:\salt\srv\salt\win\repo │ ├────────────────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┤ │winrepo_dir_ng: │ winrepo_dir_ng: │ │/srv/salt/win/repo-ng │ c:\salt\srv\salt\win\repo-ng │ └────────────────────────────────┴──────────────────────────────┘ Configuring the Salt Minion The Salt system is amazingly simple and easy to configure. The two components of the Salt system each have a respective configuration file. The salt-master is configured via the master configuration file, and the salt-minion is configured via the minion configuration file. SEE ALSO: example minion configuration file The Salt Minion configuration is very simple. Typically, the only value that needs to be set is the master value so the minion knows where to locate its master. By default, the salt-minion configuration will be in /etc/salt/minion. A notable excep‐ tion is FreeBSD, where the configuration will be in /usr/local/etc/salt/minion. Minion Primary Configuration master Default: salt The hostname or IP address of the master. See ipv6 for IPv6 connections to the master. Default: salt master: salt master:port Syntax New in version 2015.8.0. The master config option can also be set to use the master's IP in conjunction with a port number by default. master: localhost:1234 For IPv6 formatting with a port, remember to add brackets around the IP address before adding the port and enclose the line in single quotes to make it a string: master: '[2001:db8:85a3:8d3:1319:8a2e:370:7348]:1234' NOTE: If a port is specified in the master as well as master_port, the master_port setting will be overridden by the master configuration. List of Masters Syntax The option can also be set to a list of masters, enabling multi-master mode. master: - address1 - address2 Changed in version 2014.7.0: The master can be dynamically configured. The master value can be set to an module function which will be executed and will assume that the returning value is the ip or hostname of the desired master. If a function is being specified, then the master_type option must be set to func, to tell the minion that the value is a func‐ tion to be run and not a fully-qualified domain name. master: module.function master_type: func In addition, instead of using multi-master mode, the minion can be configured to use the list of master addresses as a failover list, trying the first address, then the second, etc. until the minion successfully connects. To enable this behavior, set master_type to failover: master: - address1 - address2 master_type: failover ipv6 Default: None Whether the master should be connected over IPv6. By default salt minion will try to auto‐ matically detect IPv6 connectivity to master. ipv6: True master_uri_format New in version 2015.8.0. Specify the format in which the master address will be evaluated. Valid options are default or ip_only. If ip_only is specified, then the master address will not be split into IP and PORT, so be sure that only an IP (or domain name) is set in the master config‐ uration setting. master_uri_format: ip_only master_type New in version 2014.7.0. Default: str The type of the master variable. Can be str, failover, func or disable. master_type: failover If this option is set to failover, master must be a list of master addresses. The minion will then try each master in the order specified in the list until it successfully con‐ nects. master_alive_interval must also be set, this determines how often the minion will verify the presence of the master. master_type: func If the master needs to be dynamically assigned by executing a function instead of reading in the static master value, set this to func. This can be used to manage the minion's mas‐ ter setting from an execution module. By simply changing the algorithm in the module to return a new master ip/fqdn, restart the minion and it will connect to the new master. As of version 2016.11.0 this option can be set to disable and the minion will never attempt to talk to the master. This is useful for running a masterless minion daemon. master_type: disable max_event_size New in version 2014.7.0. Default: 1048576 Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the minion event bus. The value is expressed in bytes. max_event_size: 1048576 master_failback New in version 2016.3.0. Default: False If the minion is in multi-master mode and the :conf_minion`master_type` configuration option is set to failover, this setting can be set to True to force the minion to fail back to the first master in the list if the first master is back online. master_failback: False master_failback_interval New in version 2016.3.0. Default: 0 If the minion is in multi-master mode, the :conf_minion`master_type` configuration is set to failover, and the master_failback option is enabled, the master failback interval can be set to ping the top master with this interval, in seconds. master_failback_interval: 0 master_alive_interval Default: 0 Configures how often, in seconds, the minion will verify that the current master is alive and responding. The minion will try to establish a connection to the next master in the list if it finds the existing one is dead. master_alive_interval: 30 master_shuffle New in version 2014.7.0. Default: False If master is a list of addresses and :conf_minion`master_type` is failover, shuffle them before trying to connect to distribute the minions over all available masters. This uses Python's random.shuffle method. master_shuffle: True random_master Default: False If master is a list of addresses, and :conf_minion`master_type` is set to failover shuffle them before trying to connect to distribute the minions over all available masters. This uses Python's random.shuffle method. random_master: True retry_dns Default: 30 Set the number of seconds to wait before attempting to resolve the master hostname if name resolution fails. Defaults to 30 seconds. Set to zero if the minion should shutdown and not retry. retry_dns: 30 master_port Default: 4506 The port of the master ret server, this needs to coincide with the ret_port option on the Salt master. master_port: 4506 publish_port Default: 4505 The port of the master publish server, this needs to coincide with the publish_port option on the Salt master. publish_port: 4505 user Default: root The user to run the Salt processes user: root sudo_user Default: '' The user to run salt remote execution commands as via sudo. If this option is enabled then sudo will be used to change the active user executing the remote command. If enabled the user will need to be allowed access via the sudoers file for the user that the salt minion is configured to run as. The most common option would be to use the root user. If this option is set the user option should also be set to a non-root user. If migrating from a root minion to a non root minion the minion cache should be cleared and the minion pki directory will need to be changed to the ownership of the new user. sudo_user: root pidfile Default: /var/run/salt-minion.pid The location of the daemon's process ID file pidfile: /var/run/salt-minion.pid root_dir Default: / This directory is prepended to the following options: pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, sock_dir, and pidfile. root_dir: / conf_file Default: /etc/salt/minion The path to the minion's configuration file. conf_file: /etc/salt/minion pki_dir Default: /etc/salt/pki/minion The directory used to store the minion's public and private keys. pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/minion id Default: the system's hostname SEE ALSO: Salt Walkthrough The Setting up a Salt Minion section contains detailed information on how the hostname is determined. Explicitly declare the id for this minion to use. Since Salt uses detached ids it is pos‐ sible to run multiple minions on the same machine but with different ids. id: foo.bar.com minion_id_caching New in version 0.17.2. Default: True Caches the minion id to a file when the minion's :minion_conf:`id` is not statically defined in the minion config. This setting prevents potential problems when automatic minion id resolution changes, which can cause the minion to lose connection with the master. To turn off minion id caching, set this config to False. For more information, please see Issue #7558 and Pull Request #8488. minion_id_caching: True append_domain Default: None Append a domain to a hostname in the event that it does not exist. This is useful for sys‐ tems where socket.getfqdn() does not actually result in a FQDN (for instance, Solaris). append_domain: foo.org cachedir Default: /var/cache/salt/minion The location for minion cache data. This directory may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly. cachedir: /var/cache/salt/minion append_minionid_config_dirs Default: [] (the empty list) for regular minions, ['cachedir'] for proxy minions. Append minion_id to these configuration directories. Helps with multiple proxies and min‐ ions running on the same machine. Allowed elements in the list: pki_dir, cachedir, exten‐ sion_modules. Normally not needed unless running several proxies and/or minions on the same machine. append_minionid_config_dirs: - pki_dir - cachedir verify_env Default: True Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup. verify_env: True NOTE: When set to True the verify_env option requires WRITE access to the configuration directory (/etc/salt/). In certain situations such as mounting /etc/salt/ as read-only for templating this will create a stack trace when state.apply is called. cache_jobs Default: False The minion can locally cache the return data from jobs sent to it, this can be a good way to keep track of the minion side of the jobs the minion has executed. By default this fea‐ ture is disabled, to enable set cache_jobs to True. cache_jobs: False grains Default: (empty) SEE ALSO: static-custom-grains Statically assigns grains to the minion. grains: roles: - webserver - memcache deployment: datacenter4 cabinet: 13 cab_u: 14-15 grains_cache Default: False The minion can locally cache grain data instead of refreshing the data each time the grain is referenced. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set grains_cache to True. grains_cache: False grains_deep_merge New in version 2016.3.0. Default: False The grains can be merged, instead of overridden, using this option. This allows custom grains to defined different subvalues of a dictionary grain. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set grains_deep_merge to True. grains_deep_merge: False For example, with these custom grains functions: def custom1_k1(): return {'custom1': {'k1': 'v1'}} def custom1_k2(): return {'custom1': {'k2': 'v2'}} Without grains_deep_merge, the result would be: custom1: k1: v1 With grains_deep_merge, the result will be: custom1: k1: v1 k2: v2 grains_refresh_every Default: 0 The grains_refresh_every setting allows for a minion to periodically check its grains to see if they have changed and, if so, to inform the master of the new grains. This opera‐ tion is moderately expensive, therefore care should be taken not to set this value too low. Note: This value is expressed in minutes. A value of 10 minutes is a reasonable default. grains_refresh_every: 0 mine_enabled New in version 2015.8.10. Default: True Determines whether or not the salt minion should run scheduled mine updates. If this is set to False then the mine update function will not get added to the scheduler for the minion. mine_enabled: True mine_return_job New in version 2015.8.10. Default: False Determines whether or not scheduled mine updates should be accompanied by a job return for the job cache. mine_return_job: False mine_functions Default: Empty Designate which functions should be executed at mine_interval intervals on each minion. See this documentation on the Salt Mine for more information. Note these can be defined in the pillar for a minion as well. example minion configuration file mine_functions: test.ping: [] network.ip_addrs: interface: eth0 cidr: '10.0.0.0/8' mine_interval Default: 60 The number of minutes between mine updates. mine_interval: 60 sock_dir Default: /var/run/salt/minion The directory where Unix sockets will be kept. sock_dir: /var/run/salt/minion outputter_dirs Default: [] A list of additional directories to search for salt outputters in. outputter_dirs: [] backup_mode Default: '' Make backups of files replaced by file.managed and file.recurse state modules under cachedir in file_backup subdirectory preserving original paths. Refer to File State Back‐ ups documentation for more details. backup_mode: minion acceptance_wait_time Default: 10 The number of seconds to wait until attempting to re-authenticate with the master. acceptance_wait_time: 10 acceptance_wait_time_max Default: 0 The maximum number of seconds to wait until attempting to re-authenticate with the master. If set, the wait will increase by acceptance_wait_time seconds each iteration. acceptance_wait_time_max: 0 rejected_retry Default: False If the master rejects the minion's public key, retry instead of exiting. Rejected keys will be handled the same as waiting on acceptance. rejected_retry: False random_reauth_delay Default: 10 When the master key changes, the minion will try to re-auth itself to receive the new mas‐ ter key. In larger environments this can cause a syn-flood on the master because all min‐ ions try to re-auth immediately. To prevent this and have a minion wait for a random amount of time, use this optional parameter. The wait-time will be a random number of sec‐ onds between 0 and the defined value. random_reauth_delay: 60 master_tries New in version 2016.3.0. Default: 1 The number of attempts to connect to a master before giving up. Set this to -1 for unlim‐ ited attempts. This allows for a master to have downtime and the minion to reconnect to it later when it comes back up. In 'failover' mode, which is set in the master_type configu‐ ration, this value is the number of attempts for each set of masters. In this mode, it will cycle through the list of masters for each attempt. master_tries is different than auth_tries because auth_tries attempts to retry auth attempts with a single master. auth_tries is under the assumption that you can connect to the master but not gain authorization from it. master_tries will still cycle through all of the masters in a given try, so it is appropriate if you expect occasional downtime from the master(s). master_tries: 1 auth_tries New in version 2014.7.0. Default: 7 The number of attempts to authenticate to a master before giving up. Or, more technically, the number of consecutive SaltReqTimeoutErrors that are acceptable when trying to authen‐ ticate to the master. auth_tries: 7 auth_timeout New in version 2014.7.0. Default: 60 When waiting for a master to accept the minion's public key, salt will continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the timeout value, in seconds, for each individual attempt. After this timeout expires, the minion will wait for acceptance_wait_time seconds before trying again. Unless your master is under unusually heavy load, this should be left at the default. auth_timeout: 60 auth_safemode New in version 2014.7.0. Default: False If authentication fails due to SaltReqTimeoutError during a ping_interval, this setting, when set to True, will cause a sub-minion process to restart. auth_safemode: False ping_interval Default: 0 Instructs the minion to ping its master(s) every n number of minutes. Used primarily as a mitigation technique against minion disconnects. ping_interval: 0 random_startup_delay Default: 0 The maximum bound for an interval in which a minion will randomly sleep upon starting up prior to attempting to connect to a master. This can be used to splay connection attempts for cases where many minions starting up at once may place undue load on a master. For example, setting this to 5 will tell a minion to sleep for a value between 0 and 5 seconds. random_startup_delay: 5 recon_default Default: 1000 The interval in milliseconds that the socket should wait before trying to reconnect to the master (1000ms = 1 second). recon_default: 1000 recon_max Default: 10000 The maximum time a socket should wait. Each interval the time to wait is calculated by doubling the previous time. If recon_max is reached, it starts again at the recon_default. Short example: · reconnect 1: the socket will wait 'recon_default' milliseconds · reconnect 2: 'recon_default' * 2 · reconnect 3: ('recon_default' * 2) * 2 · reconnect 4: value from previous interval * 2 · reconnect 5: value from previous interval * 2 · reconnect x: if value >= recon_max, it starts again with recon_default recon_max: 10000 recon_randomize Default: True Generate a random wait time on minion start. The wait time will be a random value between recon_default and recon_default + recon_max. Having all minions reconnect with the same recon_default and recon_max value kind of defeats the purpose of being able to change these settings. If all minions have the same values and the setup is quite large (several thousand minions), they will still flood the master. The desired behavior is to have time-frame within all minions try to reconnect. recon_randomize: True loop_interval Default: 1 The loop_interval sets how long in seconds the minion will wait between evaluating the scheduler and running cleanup tasks. This defaults to 1 second on the minion scheduler. loop_interval: 1 pub_ret Default: True Some installations choose to start all job returns in a cache or a returner and forgo sending the results back to a master. In this workflow, jobs are most often executed with --async from the Salt CLI and then results are evaluated by examining job caches on the minions or any configured returners. WARNING: Setting this to False will disable returns back to the master. pub_ret: True return_retry_timer Default: 5 The default timeout for a minion return attempt. return_retry_timer: 5 return_retry_timer_max Default: 10 The maximum timeout for a minion return attempt. If non-zero the minion return retry time‐ out will be a random int between return_retry_timer and return_retry_timer_max return_retry_timer_max: 10 cache_sreqs Default: True The connection to the master ret_port is kept open. When set to False, the minion creates a new connection for every return to the master. cache_sreqs: True ipc_mode Default: ipc Windows platforms lack POSIX IPC and must rely on slower TCP based inter- process communi‐ cations. Set ipc_mode to tcp on such systems. ipc_mode: ipc tcp_pub_port Default: 4510 Publish port used when ipc_mode is set to tcp. tcp_pub_port: 4510 tcp_pull_port Default: 4511 Pull port used when ipc_mode is set to tcp. tcp_pull_port: 4511 transport Default: zeromq Changes the underlying transport layer. ZeroMQ is the recommended transport while addi‐ tional transport layers are under development. Supported values are zeromq, raet (experi‐ mental), and tcp (experimental). This setting has a significant impact on performance and should not be changed unless you know what you are doing! Transports are explained in Salt Transports. transport: zeromq syndic_finger Default: '' The key fingerprint of the higher-level master for the syndic to verify it is talking to the intended master. syndic_finger: 'ab:30:65:2a:d6:9e:20:4f:d8:b2:f3:a7:d4:65:50:10' proxy_host Default: '' The hostname used for HTTP proxy access. proxy_host: proxy.my-domain proxy_port Default: 0 The port number used for HTTP proxy access. proxy_port: 31337 proxy_username Default: '' The username used for HTTP proxy access. proxy_username: charon proxy_password Default: '' The password used for HTTP proxy access. proxy_password: obolus Minion Module Management disable_modules Default: [] (all modules are enabled by default) The event may occur in which the administrator desires that a minion should not be able to execute a certain module. The sys module is built into the minion and cannot be disabled. This setting can also tune the minion. Because all modules are loaded into system memory, disabling modules will lower the minion's memory footprint. Modules should be specified according to their file name on the system and not by their virtual name. For example, to disable cmd, use the string cmdmod which corresponds to salt.modules.cmdmod. disable_modules: - test - solr disable_returners Default: [] (all returners are enabled by default) If certain returners should be disabled, this is the place disable_returners: - mongo_return whitelist_modules Default: [] (Module whitelisting is disabled. Adding anything to the config option will cause only the listed modules to be enabled. Modules not in the list will not be loaded.) This option is the reverse of disable_modules. Note that this is a very large hammer and it can be quite difficult to keep the minion working the way you think it should since Salt uses many modules internally itself. At a bare minimum you need the following enabled or else the minion won't start. whitelist_modules: - cmdmod - test - config module_dirs Default: [] A list of extra directories to search for Salt modules module_dirs: - /var/lib/salt/modules returner_dirs Default: [] A list of extra directories to search for Salt returners returner_dirs: - /var/lib/salt/returners states_dirs Default: [] A list of extra directories to search for Salt states states_dirs: - /var/lib/salt/states grains_dirs Default: [] A list of extra directories to search for Salt grains grains_dirs: - /var/lib/salt/grains render_dirs Default: [] A list of extra directories to search for Salt renderers render_dirs: - /var/lib/salt/renderers utils_dirs Default: [] A list of extra directories to search for Salt utilities utils_dirs: - /var/lib/salt/utils cython_enable Default: False Set this value to true to enable auto-loading and compiling of .pyx modules, This setting requires that gcc and cython are installed on the minion. cython_enable: False enable_zip_modules New in version 2015.8.0. Default: False Set this value to true to enable loading of zip archives as extension modules. This allows for packing module code with specific dependencies to avoid conflicts and/or having to install specific modules' dependencies in system libraries. enable_zip_modules: False providers Default: (empty) A module provider can be statically overwritten or extended for the minion via the providers option. This can be done on an individual basis in an SLS file, or globally here in the minion config, like below. providers: service: systemd modules_max_memory Default: -1 Specify a max size (in bytes) for modules on import. This feature is currently only sup‐ ported on * nix operating systems and requires psutil. modules_max_memory: -1 extmod_whitelist/extmod_blacklist New in version 2017.7.0. By using this dictionary, the modules that are synced to the minion's extmod cache using saltutil.sync_* can be limited. If nothing is set to a specific type, then all modules are accepted. To block all modules of a specific type, whitelist an empty list. extmod_whitelist: modules: - custom_module engines: - custom_engine pillars: [] extmod_blacklist: modules: - specific_module Valid options: · beacons · clouds · sdb · modules · states · grains · renderers · returners · proxy · engines · output · utils · pillar Top File Settings These parameters only have an effect if running a masterless minion. state_top Default: top.sls The state system uses a "top" file to tell the minions what environment to use and what modules to use. The state_top file is defined relative to the root of the base environ‐ ment. state_top: top.sls state_top_saltenv This option has no default value. Set it to an environment name to ensure that only the top file from that environment is considered during a highstate. NOTE: Using this value does not change the merging strategy. For instance, if top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and state_top_saltenv is set to foo, then any sections for environments other than foo in the top file for the foo environment will be ignored. With state_top_saltenv set to base, all states from all environments in the base top file will be applied, while all other top files are ignored. The only way to set state_top_saltenv to something other than base and not have the other envi‐ ronments in the targeted top file ignored, would be to set top_file_merging_strategy to merge_all. state_top_saltenv: dev top_file_merging_strategy Changed in version 2016.11.0: A merge_all strategy has been added. Default: merge When no specific fileserver environment (a.k.a. saltenv) has been specified for a high‐ state, all environments' top files are inspected. This config option determines how the SLS targets in those top files are handled. When set to merge, the base environment's top file is evaluated first, followed by the other environments' top files. The first target expression (e.g. '*') for a given environ‐ ment is kept, and when the same target expression is used in a different top file evalu‐ ated later, it is ignored. Because base is evaluated first, it is authoritative. For example, if there is a target for '*' for the foo environment in both the base and foo environment's top files, the one in the foo environment would be ignored. The environments will be evaluated in no specific order (aside from base coming first). For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order. Note that, aside from the base environment's top file, any sections in top files that do not match that top file's environment will be ignored. So, for example, a section for the qa environment would be ignored if it appears in the dev environment's top file. To keep use cases like this from being ignored, use the merge_all strategy. When set to same, then for each environment, only that environment's top file is pro‐ cessed, with the others being ignored. For example, only the dev environment's top file will be processed for the dev environment, and any SLS targets defined for dev in the base environment's (or any other environment's) top file will be ignored. If an environment does not have a top file, then the top file from the default_top config parameter will be used as a fallback. When set to merge_all, then all states in all environments in all top files will be applied. The order in which individual SLS files will be executed will depend on the order in which the top files were evaluated, and the environments will be evaluated in no spe‐ cific order. For greater control over the order in which the environments are evaluated, use env_order. top_file_merging_strategy: same env_order Default: [] When top_file_merging_strategy is set to merge, and no environment is specified for a highstate, this config option allows for the order in which top files are evaluated to be explicitly defined. env_order: - base - dev - qa default_top Default: base When top_file_merging_strategy is set to same, and no environment is specified for a high‐ state (i.e. environment is not set for the minion), this config option specifies a fall‐ back environment in which to look for a top file if an environment lacks one. default_top: dev startup_states Default: '' States to run when the minion daemon starts. To enable, set startup_states to: · highstate: Execute state.highstate · sls: Read in the sls_list option and execute the named sls files · top: Read top_file option and execute based on that file on the Master startup_states: '' sls_list Default: [] List of states to run when the minion starts up if startup_states is set to sls. sls_list: - edit.vim - hyper top_file Default: '' Top file to execute if startup_states is set to top. top_file: '' State Management Settings renderer Default: yaml_jinja The default renderer used for local state executions renderer: yaml_jinja test Default: False Set all state calls to only test if they are going to actually make changes or just post what changes are going to be made. test: False state_verbose Default: True Controls the verbosity of state runs. By default, the results of all states are returned, but setting this value to False will cause salt to only display output for states that failed or states that have changes. state_verbose: True state_output Default: full The state_output setting changes if the output is the full multi line output for each changed state if set to 'full', but if set to 'terse' the output will be shortened to a single line. state_output: full state_output_diff Default: False The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them. state_output_diff: False autoload_dynamic_modules Default: True autoload_dynamic_modules turns on automatic loading of modules found in the environments on the master. This is turned on by default. To turn off auto-loading modules when states run, set this value to False. autoload_dynamic_modules: True Default: True clean_dynamic_modules keeps the dynamic modules on the minion in sync with the dynamic modules on the master. This means that if a dynamic module is not on the master it will be deleted from the minion. By default this is enabled and can be disabled by changing this value to False. clean_dynamic_modules: True NOTE: If extmod_whitelist is specified, modules which are not whitelisted will also be cleaned here. environment Normally the minion is not isolated to any single environment on the master when running states, but the environment can be isolated on the minion side by statically setting it. Remember that the recommended way to manage environments is to isolate via the top file. environment: dev snapper_states Default: False The snapper_states value is used to enable taking snapper snapshots before and after salt state runs. This allows for state runs to be rolled back. For snapper states to function properly snapper needs to be installed and enabled. snapper_states: True snapper_states_config Default: root Snapper can execute based on a snapper configuration. The configuration needs to be set up before snapper can use it. The default configuration is root, this default makes snapper run on SUSE systems using the default configuration set up at install time. snapper_states_config: root File Directory Settings file_client Default: remote The client defaults to looking on the master server for files, but can be directed to look on the minion by setting this parameter to local. file_client: remote use_master_when_local Default: False When using a local file_client, this parameter is used to allow the client to connect to a master for remote execution. use_master_when_local: False file_roots Default: base: - /srv/salt When using a local file_client, this parameter is used to setup the fileserver's environ‐ ments. This parameter operates identically to the master config parameter of the same name. file_roots: base: - /srv/salt dev: - /srv/salt/dev/services - /srv/salt/dev/states prod: - /srv/salt/prod/services - /srv/salt/prod/states fileserver_followsymlinks New in version 2014.1.0. Default: True By default, the file_server follows symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. Currently this only applies to the default roots fileserver_backend. fileserver_followsymlinks: True fileserver_ignoresymlinks New in version 2014.1.0. Default: False If you do not want symlinks to be treated as the files they are pointing to, set file‐ server_ignoresymlinks to True. By default this is set to False. When set to True, any detected symlink while listing files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion. fileserver_ignoresymlinks: False fileserver_limit_traversal New in version 2014.1.0. Default: False By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, set fileserver_limit_traversal to True. This might be useful for installations where a file root has a very large number of files and performance is impacted. fileserver_limit_traversal: False hash_type Default: sha256 The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on the local file‐ server. The default is sha256, but md5, sha1, sha224, sha384, and sha512 are also sup‐ ported. hash_type: sha256 Pillar Configuration pillar_roots Default: base: - /srv/pillar When using a local file_client, this parameter is used to setup the pillar environments. pillar_roots: base: - /srv/pillar dev: - /srv/pillar/dev prod: - /srv/pillar/prod on_demand_ext_pillar New in version 2016.3.6,2016.11.3,2017.7.0. Default: ['libvirt', 'virtkey'] When using a local file_client, this option controls which external pillars are permitted to be used on-demand using pillar.ext. on_demand_ext_pillar: - libvirt - virtkey - git WARNING: This will allow a masterless minion to request specific pillar data via pillar.ext, and may be considered a security risk. However, pillar data generated in this way will not affect the in-memory pillar data, so this risk is limited to instances in which states/modules/etc. (built-in or custom) rely upon pillar data generated by pillar.ext. decrypt_pillar New in version 2017.7.0. Default: [] A list of paths to be recursively decrypted during pillar compilation. decrypt_pillar: - 'foo:bar': gpg - 'lorem:ipsum:dolor' Entries in this list can be formatted either as a simple string, or as a key/value pair, with the key being the pillar location, and the value being the renderer to use for pillar decryption. If the former is used, the renderer specified by decrypt_pillar_default will be used. decrypt_pillar_delimiter New in version 2017.7.0. Default: : The delimiter used to distinguish nested data structures in the decrypt_pillar option. decrypt_pillar_delimiter: '|' decrypt_pillar: - 'foo|bar': gpg - 'lorem|ipsum|dolor' decrypt_pillar_default New in version 2017.7.0. Default: gpg The default renderer used for decryption, if one is not specified for a given pillar key in decrypt_pillar. decrypt_pillar_default: my_custom_renderer decrypt_pillar_renderers New in version 2017.7.0. Default: ['gpg'] List of renderers which are permitted to be used for pillar decryption. decrypt_pillar_renderers: - gpg - my_custom_renderer pillarenv Default: None Isolates the pillar environment on the minion side. This functions the same as the envi‐ ronment setting, but for pillar instead of states. pillarenv: dev pillarenv_from_saltenv New in version 2017.7.0. Default: False When set to True, the pillarenv value will assume the value of the effective saltenv when running states. This essentially makes salt '*' state.sls mysls saltenv=dev equivalent to salt '*' state.sls mysls saltenv=dev pillarenv=dev. If pillarenv is set, either in the minion config file or via the CLI, it will override this option. pillarenv_from_saltenv: True pillar_raise_on_missing New in version 2015.5.0. Default: False Set this option to True to force a KeyError to be raised whenever an attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set to False, the failed attempt returns an empty string. minion_pillar_cache New in version 2016.3.0. Default: False The minion can locally cache rendered pillar data under cachedir/pillar. This allows a temporarily disconnected minion to access previously cached pillar data by invoking salt-call with the --local and --pillar_root=:conf_minion:cachedir/pillar options. Before enabling this setting consider that the rendered pillar may contain security sensitive data. Appropriate access restrictions should be in place. By default the saved pillar data will be readable only by the user account running salt. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set minion_pillar_cache to True. minion_pillar_cache: False file_recv_max_size New in version 2014.7.0. Default: 100 Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. It will be interpreted as megabytes. file_recv_max_size: 100 Security Settings open_mode Default: False Open mode can be used to clean out the PKI key received from the Salt master, turn on open mode, restart the minion, then turn off open mode and restart the minion to clean the keys. open_mode: False master_finger Default: '' Fingerprint of the master public key to validate the identity of your Salt master before the initial key exchange. The master fingerprint can be found by running "salt-key -F mas‐ ter" on the Salt master. master_finger: 'ba:30:65:2a:d6:9e:20:4f:d8:b2:f3:a7:d4:65:11:13' keysize Default: 2048 The size of key that should be generated when creating new keys. keysize: 2048 permissive_pki_access Default: False Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group you've given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. permissive_pki_access: False verify_master_pubkey_sign Default: False Enables verification of the master-public-signature returned by the master in auth-replies. Please see the tutorial on how to configure this properly Multimaster-PKI with Failover Tutorial New in version 2014.7.0. verify_master_pubkey_sign: True If this is set to True, master_sign_pubkey must be also set to True in the master configu‐ ration file. master_sign_key_name Default: master_sign The filename without the .pub suffix of the public key that should be used for verifying the signature from the master. The file must be located in the minion's pki directory. New in version 2014.7.0. master_sign_key_name: <filename_without_suffix> always_verify_signature Default: False If verify_master_pubkey_sign is enabled, the signature is only verified if the public-key of the master changes. If the signature should always be verified, this can be set to True. New in version 2014.7.0. always_verify_signature: True cmd_blacklist_glob Default: [] If cmd_blacklist_glob is enabled then any shell command called over remote execution or via salt-call will be checked against the glob matches found in the cmd_blacklist_glob list and any matched shell command will be blocked. NOTE: This blacklist is only applied to direct executions made by the salt and salt-call com‐ mands. This does NOT blacklist commands called from states or shell commands executed from other modules. New in version 2016.11.0. cmd_blacklist_glob: - 'rm * ' - 'cat /etc/* ' cmd_whitelist_glob Default: [] If cmd_whitelist_glob is enabled then any shell command called over remote execution or via salt-call will be checked against the glob matches found in the cmd_whitelist_glob list and any shell command NOT found in the list will be blocked. If cmd_whitelist_glob is NOT SET, then all shell commands are permitted. NOTE: This whitelist is only applied to direct executions made by the salt and salt-call com‐ mands. This does NOT restrict commands called from states or shell commands executed from other modules. New in version 2016.11.0. cmd_whitelist_glob: - 'ls * ' - 'cat /etc/fstab' ssl New in version 2016.11.0. Default: None TLS/SSL connection options. This could be set to a dictionary containing arguments corre‐ sponding to python ssl.wrap_socket method. For details see Tornado and Python documenta‐ tion. Note: to set enum arguments values like cert_reqs and ssl_version use constant names with‐ out ssl module prefix: CERT_REQUIRED or PROTOCOL_SSLv23. ssl: keyfile: <path_to_keyfile> certfile: <path_to_certfile> ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2 Reactor Settings reactor Default: [] Defines a salt reactor. See the Reactor documentation for more information. reactor: [] reactor_refresh_interval Default: 60 The TTL for the cache of the reactor configuration. reactor_refresh_interval: 60 reactor_worker_threads Default: 10 The number of workers for the runner/wheel in the reactor. reactor_worker_hwm Default: 10000 The queue size for workers in the reactor. reactor_worker_hwm: 10000 Thread Settings multiprocessing Default: True If multiprocessing is enabled when a minion receives a publication a new process is spawned and the command is executed therein. Conversely, if multiprocessing is disabled the new publication will be run executed in a thread. multiprocessing: True Minion Logging Settings log_file Default: /var/log/salt/minion The minion log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network location. See also log_file. Examples: log_file: /var/log/salt/minion log_file: file:///dev/log log_file: udp://loghost:10514 log_level Default: warning The level of messages to send to the console. See also log_level. log_level: warning log_level_logfile Default: info The level of messages to send to the log file. See also log_level_logfile. When it is not set explicitly it will inherit the level set by log_level option. log_level_logfile: warning log_datefmt Default: %H:%M:%S The date and time format used in console log messages. See also log_datefmt. log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S' log_datefmt_logfile Default: %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S The date and time format used in log file messages. See also log_datefmt_logfile. log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' log_fmt_console Default: [%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s The format of the console logging messages. See also log_fmt_console. NOTE: Log colors are enabled in log_fmt_console rather than the color config since the log‐ ging system is loaded before the minion config. Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters: %(colorlevel)s %(colorname)s %(colorprocess)s %(colormsg)s Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, '[' and ']', in the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging. log_fmt_console: '%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s' log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' log_fmt_logfile Default: %(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s The format of the log file logging messages. See also log_fmt_logfile. log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' log_granular_levels Default: {} This can be used to control logging levels more specifically. See also log_granular_lev‐ els. zmq_monitor Default: False To diagnose issues with minions disconnecting or missing returns, ZeroMQ supports the use of monitor sockets to log connection events. This feature requires ZeroMQ 4.0 or higher. To enable ZeroMQ monitor sockets, set 'zmq_monitor' to 'True' and log at a debug level or higher. A sample log event is as follows: [DEBUG ] ZeroMQ event: {'endpoint': 'tcp://127.0.0.1:4505', 'event': 512, 'value': 27, 'description': 'EVENT_DISCONNECTED'} All events logged will include the string ZeroMQ event. A connection event should be logged as the minion starts up and initially connects to the master. If not, check for debug log level and that the necessary version of ZeroMQ is installed. tcp_authentication_retries Default: 5 The number of times to retry authenticating with the salt master when it comes back online. Zeromq does a lot to make sure when connections come back online that they reauthenticate. The tcp transport should try to connect with a new connection if the old one times out on reauthenticating. -1 for infinite tries. failhard Default: False Set the global failhard flag. This informs all states to stop running states at the moment a single state fails failhard: False Include Configuration default_include Default: minion.d/*.conf The minion can include configuration from other files. Per default the minion will auto‐ matically include all config files from minion.d/*.conf where minion.d is relative to the directory of the minion configuration file. NOTE: Salt creates files in the minion.d directory for its own use. These files are prefixed with an underscore. A common example of this is the _schedule.conf file. include Default: not defined The minion can include configuration from other files. To enable this, pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory the main minion configuration file lives in. Paths can make use of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this option then the minion will log a warning message. # Include files from a minion.d directory in the same # directory as the minion config file include: minion.d/*.conf # Include a single extra file into the configuration include: /etc/roles/webserver # Include several files and the minion.d directory include: - extra_config - minion.d/* - /etc/roles/webserver Keepalive Settings tcp_keepalive Default: True The tcp keepalive interval to set on TCP ports. This setting can be used to tune Salt con‐ nectivity issues in messy network environments with misbehaving firewalls. tcp_keepalive: True tcp_keepalive_cnt Default: -1 Sets the ZeroMQ TCP keepalive count. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects. tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1 tcp_keepalive_idle Default: 300 Sets ZeroMQ TCP keepalive idle. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects. tcp_keepalive_idle: 300 tcp_keepalive_intvl Default: -1 Sets ZeroMQ TCP keepalive interval. May be used to tune issues with minion disconnects. tcp_keepalive_intvl': -1 Frozen Build Update Settings These options control how salt.modules.saltutil.update() works with esky frozen apps. For more information look at https://github.com/cloudmatrix/esky/. update_url Default: False (Update feature is disabled) The url to use when looking for application updates. Esky depends on directory listings to search for new versions. A webserver running on your Master is a good starting point for most setups. update_url: 'http://salt.example.com/minion-updates' update_restart_services Default: [] (service restarting on update is disabled) A list of services to restart when the minion software is updated. This would typically just be a list containing the minion's service name, but you may have other services that need to go with it. update_restart_services: ['salt-minion'] winrepo_cache_expire_min New in version 2016.11.0. Default: 0 If set to a nonzero integer, then passing refresh=True to functions in the windows pkg module will not refresh the windows repo metadata if the age of the metadata is less than this value. The exception to this is pkg.refresh_db, which will always refresh the meta‐ data, regardless of age. winrepo_cache_expire_min: 1800 winrepo_cache_expire_max New in version 2016.11.0. Default: 21600 If the windows repo metadata is older than this value, and the metadata is needed by a function in the windows pkg module, the metadata will be refreshed. winrepo_cache_expire_max: 86400 Standalone Minion Windows Software Repo Settings IMPORTANT: To use these config options, the minion must be running in masterless mode (set file_client to local). winrepo_dir Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo to winrepo_dir. Also, this option did not have a default value until this version. Default: C:\salt\srv\salt\win\repo Location on the minion where the winrepo_remotes are checked out. winrepo_dir: 'D:\winrepo' winrepo_dir_ng New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added. Default: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng Location on the minion where the winrepo_remotes_ng are checked out for 2015.8.0 and later minions. winrepo_dir_ng: /srv/salt/win/repo-ng winrepo_source_dir Default: salt://win/repo-ng/ The source location for the winrepo sls files. winrepo_source_dir: salt://win/repo-ng/ winrepo_cachefile Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_repo_cachefile to winrepo_cachefile. Also, this option did not have a default value until this version. Default: winrepo.p Path relative to winrepo_dir where the winrepo cache should be created. winrepo_cachefile: winrepo.p winrepo_remotes Changed in version 2015.8.0: Renamed from win_gitrepos to winrepo_remotes. Also, this option did not have a default value until this version. New in version 2015.8.0. Default: ['https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git'] List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo winrepo_remotes: - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository: winrepo_remotes: - '<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git' Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo. winrepo_remotes_ng New in version 2015.8.0: A new ng repo was added. Default: ['https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git'] List of git repositories to checkout and include in the winrepo for 2015.8.0 and later minions. winrepo_remotes_ng: - https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git To specify a specific revision of the repository, prepend a commit ID to the URL of the repository: winrepo_remotes_ng: - '<commit_id> https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git' Replace <commit_id> with the SHA1 hash of a commit ID. Specifying a commit ID is useful in that it allows one to revert back to a previous version in the event that an error is introduced in the latest revision of the repo. Configuring the Salt Proxy Minion The Salt system is amazingly simple and easy to configure. The two components of the Salt system each have a respective configuration file. The salt-master is configured via the master configuration file, and the salt-proxy is configured via the proxy configuration file. SEE ALSO: example proxy minion configuration file The Salt Minion configuration is very simple. Typically, the only value that needs to be set is the master value so the proxy knows where to locate its master. By default, the salt-proxy configuration will be in /etc/salt/proxy. A notable exception is FreeBSD, where the configuration will be in /usr/local/etc/salt/proxy. Proxy-specific Configuration Options add_proxymodule_to_opts New in version 2015.8.2. Changed in version 2016.3.0. Default: False Add the proxymodule LazyLoader object to opts. add_proxymodule_to_opts: True proxy_merge_grains_in_module New in version 2016.3.0. Changed in version 2017.7.0. Default: True If a proxymodule has a function called grains, then call it during regular grains loading and merge the results with the proxy's grains dictionary. Otherwise it is assumed that the module calls the grains function in a custom way and returns the data elsewhere. proxy_merge_grains_in_module: False proxy_keep_alive New in version 2017.7.0. Default: True Whether the connection with the remote device should be restarted when dead. The proxy module must implement the alive function, otherwise the connection is considered alive. proxy_keep_alive: False proxy_keep_alive_interval New in version 2017.7.0. Default: 1 The frequency of keepalive checks, in minutes. It requires the proxy_keep_alive option to be enabled (and the proxy module to implement the alive function). proxy_keep_alive_interval: 5 proxy_always_alive New in version 2017.7.0. Default: True Wheter the proxy should maintain the connection with the remote device. Similarly to proxy_keep_alive, this option is very specific to the design of the proxy module. When proxy_always_alive is set to False, the connection with the remote device is not main‐ tained and has to be closed after every command. proxy_always_alive: False proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts New in version 2017.7.3. Default: False. Wheter the pillar data to be merged into the proxy configuration options. As multiple proxies can run on the same server, we may need different configuration options for each, while there's one single configuration file. The solution is merging the pillar data of each proxy minion into the opts. proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts: True proxy_deep_merge_pillar_in_opts New in version 2017.7.3. Default: False. Deep merge of pillar data into configuration opts. This option is evaluated only when proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts is enabled. proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts_strategy New in version 2017.7.3. Default: smart. The strategy used when merging pillar configuration into opts. This option is evaluated only when proxy_merge_pillar_in_opts is enabled. proxy_mines_pillar New in version 2017.7.3. Default: True. Allow enabling mine details using pillar data. This evaluates the mine configuration under the pillar, for the following regular minion options that are also equally available on the proxy minion: mine_interval, and mine_functions. Configuration file examples · Example master configuration file · Example minion configuration file · Example proxy minion configuration file Example master configuration file ##### Primary configuration settings ##### ########################################## # This configuration file is used to manage the behavior of the Salt Master. # Values that are commented out but have an empty line after the comment are # defaults that do not need to be set in the config. If there is no blank line # after the comment then the value is presented as an example and is not the # default. # Per default, the master will automatically include all config files # from master.d/*.conf (master.d is a directory in the same directory # as the main master config file). #default_include: master.d/*.conf # The address of the interface to bind to: #interface: 0.0.0.0 # Whether the master should listen for IPv6 connections. If this is set to True, # the interface option must be adjusted, too. (For example: "interface: '::'") #ipv6: False # The tcp port used by the publisher: #publish_port: 4505 # The user under which the salt master will run. Salt will update all # permissions to allow the specified user to run the master. The exception is # the job cache, which must be deleted if this user is changed. If the # modified files cause conflicts, set verify_env to False. #user: root # The port used by the communication interface. The ret (return) port is the # interface used for the file server, authentication, job returns, etc. #ret_port: 4506 # Specify the location of the daemon process ID file: #pidfile: /var/run/salt-master.pid # The root directory prepended to these options: pki_dir, cachedir, # sock_dir, log_file, autosign_file, autoreject_file, extension_modules, # key_logfile, pidfile: #root_dir: / # The path to the master's configuration file. #conf_file: /etc/salt/master # Directory used to store public key data: #pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/master # Key cache. Increases master speed for large numbers of accepted # keys. Available options: 'sched'. (Updates on a fixed schedule.) # Note that enabling this feature means that minions will not be # available to target for up to the length of the maintanence loop # which by default is 60s. #key_cache: '' # Directory to store job and cache data: # This directory may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly. # #cachedir: /var/cache/salt/master # Directory for custom modules. This directory can contain subdirectories for # each of Salt's module types such as "runners", "output", "wheel", "modules", # "states", "returners", "engines", "utils", etc. #extension_modules: /var/cache/salt/master/extmods # Directory for custom modules. This directory can contain subdirectories for # each of Salt's module types such as "runners", "output", "wheel", "modules", # "states", "returners", "engines", "utils", etc. # Like 'extension_modules' but can take an array of paths #module_dirs: [] # Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup: #verify_env: True # Set the number of hours to keep old job information in the job cache: #keep_jobs: 24 # The number of seconds to wait when the client is requesting information # about running jobs. #gather_job_timeout: 10 # Set the default timeout for the salt command and api. The default is 5 # seconds. #timeout: 5 # The loop_interval option controls the seconds for the master's maintenance # process check cycle. This process updates file server backends, cleans the # job cache and executes the scheduler. #loop_interval: 60 # Set the default outputter used by the salt command. The default is "nested". #output: nested # To set a list of additional directories to search for salt outputters, set the # outputter_dirs option. #outputter_dirs: [] # Set the default output file used by the salt command. Default is to output # to the CLI and not to a file. Functions the same way as the "--out-file" # CLI option, only sets this to a single file for all salt commands. #output_file: None # Return minions that timeout when running commands like test.ping #show_timeout: True # Tell the client to display the jid when a job is published. #show_jid: False # By default, output is colored. To disable colored output, set the color value # to False. #color: True # Do not strip off the colored output from nested results and state outputs # (true by default). # strip_colors: False # To display a summary of the number of minions targeted, the number of # minions returned, and the number of minions that did not return, set the # cli_summary value to True. (False by default.) # #cli_summary: False # Set the directory used to hold unix sockets: #sock_dir: /var/run/salt/master # The master can take a while to start up when lspci and/or dmidecode is used # to populate the grains for the master. Enable if you want to see GPU hardware # data for your master. # enable_gpu_grains: False # The master maintains a job cache. While this is a great addition, it can be # a burden on the master for larger deployments (over 5000 minions). # Disabling the job cache will make previously executed jobs unavailable to # the jobs system and is not generally recommended. #job_cache: True # Cache minion grains, pillar and mine data via the cache subsystem in the # cachedir or a database. #minion_data_cache: True # Cache subsystem module to use for minion data cache. #cache: localfs # Enables a fast in-memory cache booster and sets the expiration time. #memcache_expire_seconds: 0 # Set a memcache limit in items (bank + key) per cache storage (driver + driver_opts). #memcache_max_items: 1024 # Each time a cache storage got full cleanup all the expired items not just the oldest one ↲ . #memcache_full_cleanup: False # Enable collecting the memcache stats and log it on `debug` log level. #memcache_debug: False # Store all returns in the given returner. # Setting this option requires that any returner-specific configuration also # be set. See various returners in salt/returners for details on required # configuration values. (See also, event_return_queue below.) # #event_return: mysql # On busy systems, enabling event_returns can cause a considerable load on # the storage system for returners. Events can be queued on the master and # stored in a batched fashion using a single transaction for multiple events. # By default, events are not queued. #event_return_queue: 0 # Only return events matching tags in a whitelist, supports glob matches. #event_return_whitelist: # - salt/master/a_tag # - salt/run/*/ret # Store all event returns **except** the tags in a blacklist, supports globs. #event_return_blacklist: # - salt/master/not_this_tag # - salt/wheel/*/ret # Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of # memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the # master event bus. The value is expressed in bytes. #max_event_size: 1048576 # By default, the master AES key rotates every 24 hours. The next command # following a key rotation will trigger a key refresh from the minion which may # result in minions which do not respond to the first command after a key refresh. # # To tell the master to ping all minions immediately after an AES key refresh, set # ping_on_rotate to True. This should mitigate the issue where a minion does not # appear to initially respond after a key is rotated. # # Note that ping_on_rotate may cause high load on the master immediately after # the key rotation event as minions reconnect. Consider this carefully if this # salt master is managing a large number of minions. # # If disabled, it is recommended to handle this event by listening for the # 'aes_key_rotate' event with the 'key' tag and acting appropriately. # ping_on_rotate: False # By default, the master deletes its cache of minion data when the key for that # minion is removed. To preserve the cache after key deletion, set # 'preserve_minion_cache' to True. # # WARNING: This may have security implications if compromised minions auth with # a previous deleted minion ID. #preserve_minion_cache: False # Allow or deny minions from requesting their own key revocation #allow_minion_key_revoke: True # If max_minions is used in large installations, the master might experience # high-load situations because of having to check the number of connected # minions for every authentication. This cache provides the minion-ids of # all connected minions to all MWorker-processes and greatly improves the # performance of max_minions. # con_cache: False # The master can include configuration from other files. To enable this, # pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or # absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory # the main master configuration file lives in (this file). Paths can make use # of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this # option, then the master will log a warning message. # # Include a config file from some other path: # include: /etc/salt/extra_config # # Include config from several files and directories: # include: # - /etc/salt/extra_config ##### Large-scale tuning settings ##### ########################################## # Max open files # # Each minion connecting to the master uses AT LEAST one file descriptor, the # master subscription connection. If enough minions connect you might start # seeing on the console (and then salt-master crashes): # Too many open files (tcp_listener.cpp:335) # Aborted (core dumped) # # By default this value will be the one of `ulimit -Hn`, ie, the hard limit for # max open files. # # If you wish to set a different value than the default one, uncomment and # configure this setting. Remember that this value CANNOT be higher than the # hard limit. Raising the hard limit depends on your OS and/or distribution, # a good way to find the limit is to search the internet. For example: # raise max open files hard limit debian # #max_open_files: 100000 # The number of worker threads to start. These threads are used to manage # return calls made from minions to the master. If the master seems to be # running slowly, increase the number of threads. This setting can not be # set lower than 3. #worker_threads: 5 # Set the ZeroMQ high water marks # http://api.zeromq.org/3-2:zmq-setsockopt # The listen queue size / backlog #zmq_backlog: 1000 # The publisher interface ZeroMQPubServerChannel #pub_hwm: 1000 # These two ZMQ HWM settings, salt_event_pub_hwm and event_publisher_pub_hwm # are significant for masters with thousands of minions. When these are # insufficiently high it will manifest in random responses missing in the CLI # and even missing from the job cache. Masters that have fast CPUs and many # cores with appropriate worker_threads will not need these set as high. # On deployment with 8,000 minions, 2.4GHz CPUs, 24 cores, 32GiB memory has # these settings: # # salt_event_pub_hwm: 128000 # event_publisher_pub_hwm: 64000 # ZMQ high-water-mark for SaltEvent pub socket #salt_event_pub_hwm: 20000 # ZMQ high-water-mark for EventPublisher pub socket #event_publisher_pub_hwm: 10000 # The master may allocate memory per-event and not # reclaim it. # To set a high-water mark for memory allocation, use # ipc_write_buffer to set a high-water mark for message # buffering. # Value: In bytes. Set to 'dynamic' to have Salt select # a value for you. Default is disabled. # ipc_write_buffer: 'dynamic' ##### Security settings ##### ########################################## # Enable "open mode", this mode still maintains encryption, but turns off # authentication, this is only intended for highly secure environments or for # the situation where your keys end up in a bad state. If you run in open mode # you do so at your own risk! #open_mode: False # Enable auto_accept, this setting will automatically accept all incoming # public keys from the minions. Note that this is insecure. #auto_accept: False # The size of key that should be generated when creating new keys. #keysize: 2048 # Time in minutes that an incoming public key with a matching name found in # pki_dir/minion_autosign/keyid is automatically accepted. Expired autosign keys # are removed when the master checks the minion_autosign directory. # 0 equals no timeout # autosign_timeout: 120 # If the autosign_file is specified, incoming keys specified in the # autosign_file will be automatically accepted. This is insecure. Regular # expressions as well as globing lines are supported. #autosign_file: /etc/salt/autosign.conf # Works like autosign_file, but instead allows you to specify minion IDs for # which keys will automatically be rejected. Will override both membership in # the autosign_file and the auto_accept setting. #autoreject_file: /etc/salt/autoreject.conf # Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the # master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to # your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group # you've given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. If an autosign_file # is specified, enabling permissive_pki_access will allow group access to that # specific file. #permissive_pki_access: False # Allow users on the master access to execute specific commands on minions. # This setting should be treated with care since it opens up execution # capabilities to non root users. By default this capability is completely # disabled. #publisher_acl: # larry: # - test.ping # - network.* # # Blacklist any of the following users or modules # # This example would blacklist all non sudo users, including root from # running any commands. It would also blacklist any use of the "cmd" # module. This is completely disabled by default. # # # Check the list of configured users in client ACL against users on the # system and throw errors if they do not exist. #client_acl_verify: True # #publisher_acl_blacklist: # users: # - root # - '^(?!sudo_).*$' # all non sudo users # modules: # - cmd # Enforce publisher_acl & publisher_acl_blacklist when users have sudo # access to the salt command. # #sudo_acl: False # The external auth system uses the Salt auth modules to authenticate and # validate users to access areas of the Salt system. #external_auth: # pam: # fred: # - test.* # # Time (in seconds) for a newly generated token to live. Default: 12 hours #token_expire: 43200 # # Allow eauth users to specify the expiry time of the tokens they generate. # A boolean applies to all users or a dictionary of whitelisted eauth backends # and usernames may be given. # token_expire_user_override: # pam: # - fred # - tom # ldap: # - gary # #token_expire_user_override: False # Set to True to enable keeping the calculated user's auth list in the token # file. This is disabled by default and the auth list is calculated or requested # from the eauth driver each time. #keep_acl_in_token: False # Auth subsystem module to use to get authorized access list for a user. By default it's # the same module used for external authentication. #eauth_acl_module: django # Allow minions to push files to the master. This is disabled by default, for # security purposes. #file_recv: False # Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. # It will be interpreted as megabytes. Default: 100 #file_recv_max_size: 100 # Signature verification on messages published from the master. # This causes the master to cryptographically sign all messages published to its event # bus, and minions then verify that signature before acting on the message. # # This is False by default. # # Note that to facilitate interoperability with masters and minions that are different # versions, if sign_pub_messages is True but a message is received by a minion with # no signature, it will still be accepted, and a warning message will be logged. # Conversely, if sign_pub_messages is False, but a minion receives a signed # message it will be accepted, the signature will not be checked, and a warning message # will be logged. This behavior went away in Salt 2014.1.0 and these two situations # will cause minion to throw an exception and drop the message. # sign_pub_messages: False # Signature verification on messages published from minions # This requires that minions cryptographically sign the messages they # publish to the master. If minions are not signing, then log this information # at loglevel 'INFO' and drop the message without acting on it. # require_minion_sign_messages: False # The below will drop messages when their signatures do not validate. # Note that when this option is False but `require_minion_sign_messages` is True # minions MUST sign their messages but the validity of their signatures # is ignored. # These two config options exist so a Salt infrastructure can be moved # to signing minion messages gradually. # drop_messages_signature_fail: False # Use TLS/SSL encrypted connection between master and minion. # Can be set to a dictionary containing keyword arguments corresponding to Python's # 'ssl.wrap_socket' method. # Default is None. #ssl: # keyfile: <path_to_keyfile> # certfile: <path_to_certfile> # ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2 ##### Salt-SSH Configuration ##### ########################################## # Pass in an alternative location for the salt-ssh roster file #roster_file: /etc/salt/roster # Define locations for roster files so they can be chosen when using Salt API. # An administrator can place roster files into these locations. Then when # calling Salt API, parameter 'roster_file' should contain a relative path to # these locations. That is, "roster_file=/foo/roster" will be resolved as # "/etc/salt/roster.d/foo/roster" etc. This feature prevents passing insecure # custom rosters through the Salt API. # #rosters: # - /etc/salt/roster.d # - /opt/salt/some/more/rosters # The ssh password to log in with. #ssh_passwd: '' #The target system's ssh port number. #ssh_port: 22 # Comma-separated list of ports to scan. #ssh_scan_ports: 22 # Scanning socket timeout for salt-ssh. #ssh_scan_timeout: 0.01 # Boolean to run command via sudo. #ssh_sudo: False # Number of seconds to wait for a response when establishing an SSH connection. #ssh_timeout: 60 # The user to log in as. #ssh_user: root # The log file of the salt-ssh command: #ssh_log_file: /var/log/salt/ssh # Pass in minion option overrides that will be inserted into the SHIM for # salt-ssh calls. The local minion config is not used for salt-ssh. Can be # overridden on a per-minion basis in the roster (`minion_opts`) #ssh_minion_opts: # gpg_keydir: /root/gpg # Set this to True to default to using ~/.ssh/id_rsa for salt-ssh # authentication with minions #ssh_use_home_key: False # Set this to True to default salt-ssh to run with ``-o IdentitiesOnly=yes``. # This option is intended for situations where the ssh-agent offers many # different identities and allows ssh to ignore those identities and use the # only one specified in options. #ssh_identities_only: False # List-only nodegroups for salt-ssh. Each group must be formed as either a # comma-separated list, or a YAML list. This option is useful to group minions # into easy-to-target groups when using salt-ssh. These groups can then be # targeted with the normal -N argument to salt-ssh. #ssh_list_nodegroups: {} ##### Master Module Management ##### ########################################## # Manage how master side modules are loaded. # Add any additional locations to look for master runners: #runner_dirs: [] # Enable Cython for master side modules: #cython_enable: False ##### State System settings ##### ########################################## # The state system uses a "top" file to tell the minions what environment to # use and what modules to use. The state_top file is defined relative to the # root of the base environment as defined in "File Server settings" below. #state_top: top.sls # The master_tops option replaces the external_nodes option by creating # a plugable system for the generation of external top data. The external_nodes # option is deprecated by the master_tops option. # # To gain the capabilities of the classic external_nodes system, use the # following configuration: # master_tops: # ext_nodes: <Shell command which returns yaml> # #master_tops: {} # The external_nodes option allows Salt to gather data that would normally be # placed in a top file. The external_nodes option is the executable that will # return the ENC data. Remember that Salt will look for external nodes AND top # files and combine the results if both are enabled! #external_nodes: None # The renderer to use on the minions to render the state data #renderer: yaml_jinja # The Jinja renderer can strip extra carriage returns and whitespace # See http://jinja.pocoo.org/docs/api/#high-level-api # # If this is set to True the first newline after a Jinja block is removed # (block, not variable tag!). Defaults to False, corresponds to the Jinja # environment init variable "trim_blocks". #jinja_trim_blocks: False # # If this is set to True leading spaces and tabs are stripped from the start # of a line to a block. Defaults to False, corresponds to the Jinja # environment init variable "lstrip_blocks". #jinja_lstrip_blocks: False # The failhard option tells the minions to stop immediately after the first # failure detected in the state execution, defaults to False #failhard: False # The state_verbose and state_output settings can be used to change the way # state system data is printed to the display. By default all data is printed. # The state_verbose setting can be set to True or False, when set to False # all data that has a result of True and no changes will be suppressed. #state_verbose: True # The state_output setting changes if the output is the full multi line # output for each changed state if set to 'full', but if set to 'terse' # the output will be shortened to a single line. If set to 'mixed', the output # will be terse unless a state failed, in which case that output will be full. # If set to 'changes', the output will be full unless the state didn't change. #state_output: full # The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from # successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these # states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them. #state_output_diff: False # Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by # setting to 'True'. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically # aggregate just those types. # # state_aggregate: # - pkg # #state_aggregate: False # Send progress events as each function in a state run completes execution # by setting to 'True'. Progress events are in the format # 'salt/job/<JID>/prog/<MID>/<RUN NUM>'. #state_events: False ##### File Server settings ##### ########################################## # Salt runs a lightweight file server written in zeromq to deliver files to # minions. This file server is built into the master daemon and does not # require a dedicated port. # The file server works on environments passed to the master, each environment # can have multiple root directories, the subdirectories in the multiple file # roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be # reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file. # Example: # file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt/ # dev: # - /srv/salt/dev/services # - /srv/salt/dev/states # prod: # - /srv/salt/prod/services # - /srv/salt/prod/states # #file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt # # The master_roots setting configures a master-only copy of the file_roots dictionary, # used by the state compiler. #master_roots: /srv/salt-master # When using multiple environments, each with their own top file, the # default behaviour is an unordered merge. To prevent top files from # being merged together and instead to only use the top file from the # requested environment, set this value to 'same'. #top_file_merging_strategy: merge # To specify the order in which environments are merged, set the ordering # in the env_order option. Given a conflict, the last matching value will # win. #env_order: ['base', 'dev', 'prod'] # If top_file_merging_strategy is set to 'same' and an environment does not # contain a top file, the top file in the environment specified by default_top # will be used instead. #default_top: base # The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on # the master server. The default is sha256, but md5, sha1, sha224, sha384 and # sha512 are also supported. # # WARNING: While md5 and sha1 are also supported, do not use them due to the # high chance of possible collisions and thus security breach. # # Prior to changing this value, the master should be stopped and all Salt # caches should be cleared. #hash_type: sha256 # The buffer size in the file server can be adjusted here: #file_buffer_size: 1048576 # A regular expression (or a list of expressions) that will be matched # against the file path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. # This includes files affected by the file.recurse state. # For example, if you manage your custom modules and states in subversion # and don't want all the '.svn' folders and content synced to your minions, # you could set this to '/\.svn($|/)'. By default nothing is ignored. #file_ignore_regex: # - '/\.svn($|/)' # - '/\.git($|/)' # A file glob (or list of file globs) that will be matched against the file # path before syncing the modules and states to the minions. This is similar # to file_ignore_regex above, but works on globs instead of regex. By default # nothing is ignored. # file_ignore_glob: # - '*.pyc' # - '*/somefolder/*.bak' # - '*.swp' # File Server Backend # # Salt supports a modular fileserver backend system, this system allows # the salt master to link directly to third party systems to gather and # manage the files available to minions. Multiple backends can be # configured and will be searched for the requested file in the order in which # they are defined here. The default setting only enables the standard backend # "roots" which uses the "file_roots" option. #fileserver_backend: # - roots # # To use multiple backends list them in the order they are searched: #fileserver_backend: # - git # - roots # # Uncomment the line below if you do not want the file_server to follow # symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. This is set to True # by default. Currently this only applies to the default roots # fileserver_backend. #fileserver_followsymlinks: False # # Uncomment the line below if you do not want symlinks to be # treated as the files they are pointing to. By default this is set to # False. By uncommenting the line below, any detected symlink while listing # files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion. #fileserver_ignoresymlinks: True # # By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments # to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only # traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, # enable the option below. This might be useful for installations where a file root # has a very large number of files and performance is impacted. Default is False. # fileserver_limit_traversal: False # # The fileserver can fire events off every time the fileserver is updated, # these are disabled by default, but can be easily turned on by setting this # flag to True #fileserver_events: False # Git File Server Backend Configuration # # Optional parameter used to specify the provider to be used for gitfs. Must be # either pygit2 or gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried (in that # order), and the first one with a compatible version installed will be the # provider that is used. # #gitfs_provider: pygit2 # Along with gitfs_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. # gitfs_user: '' # Along with gitfs_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. # This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication. #gitfs_password: '' # By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. # This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. Enable this at your own risk. #gitfs_insecure_auth: False # Along with gitfs_privkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to # authenticate to SSH remotes. This parameter (or its per-remote counterpart) # is required for SSH remotes. #gitfs_pubkey: '' # Along with gitfs_pubkey (and optionally gitfs_passphrase), is used to # authenticate to SSH remotes. This parameter (or its per-remote counterpart) # is required for SSH remotes. #gitfs_privkey: '' # This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used to # authenticate is protected by a passphrase. #gitfs_passphrase: '' # When using the git fileserver backend at least one git remote needs to be # defined. The user running the salt master will need read access to the repo. # # The repos will be searched in order to find the file requested by a client # and the first repo to have the file will return it. # When using the git backend branches and tags are translated into salt # environments. # Note: file:// repos will be treated as a remote, so refs you want used must # exist in that repo as *local* refs. #gitfs_remotes: # - git://github.com/saltstack/salt-states.git # - file:///var/git/saltmaster # # The gitfs_ssl_verify option specifies whether to ignore ssl certificate # errors when contacting the gitfs backend. You might want to set this to # false if you're using a git backend that uses a self-signed certificate but # keep in mind that setting this flag to anything other than the default of True # is a security concern, you may want to try using the ssh transport. #gitfs_ssl_verify: True # # The gitfs_root option gives the ability to serve files from a subdirectory # within the repository. The path is defined relative to the root of the # repository and defaults to the repository root. #gitfs_root: somefolder/otherfolder # # The refspecs fetched by gitfs remotes #gitfs_refspecs: # - '+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*' # - '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' # # ##### Pillar settings ##### ########################################## # Salt Pillars allow for the building of global data that can be made selectively # available to different minions based on minion grain filtering. The Salt # Pillar is laid out in the same fashion as the file server, with environments, # a top file and sls files. However, pillar data does not need to be in the # highstate format, and is generally just key/value pairs. #pillar_roots: # base: # - /srv/pillar # #ext_pillar: # - hiera: /etc/hiera.yaml # - cmd_yaml: cat /etc/salt/yaml # A list of paths to be recursively decrypted during pillar compilation. # Entries in this list can be formatted either as a simple string, or as a # key/value pair, with the key being the pillar location, and the value being # the renderer to use for pillar decryption. If the former is used, the # renderer specified by decrypt_pillar_default will be used. #decrypt_pillar: # - 'foo:bar': gpg # - 'lorem:ipsum:dolor' # The delimiter used to distinguish nested data structures in the # decrypt_pillar option. #decrypt_pillar_delimiter: ':' # The default renderer used for decryption, if one is not specified for a given # pillar key in decrypt_pillar. #decrypt_pillar_default: gpg # List of renderers which are permitted to be used for pillar decryption. #decrypt_pillar_renderers: # - gpg # The ext_pillar_first option allows for external pillar sources to populate # before file system pillar. This allows for targeting file system pillar from # ext_pillar. #ext_pillar_first: False # The external pillars permitted to be used on-demand using pillar.ext #on_demand_ext_pillar: # - libvirt # - virtkey # The pillar_gitfs_ssl_verify option specifies whether to ignore ssl certificate # errors when contacting the pillar gitfs backend. You might want to set this to # false if you're using a git backend that uses a self-signed certificate but # keep in mind that setting this flag to anything other than the default of True # is a security concern, you may want to try using the ssh transport. #pillar_gitfs_ssl_verify: True # The pillar_opts option adds the master configuration file data to a dict in # the pillar called "master". This is used to set simple configurations in the # master config file that can then be used on minions. #pillar_opts: False # The pillar_safe_render_error option prevents the master from passing pillar # render errors to the minion. This is set on by default because the error could # contain templating data which would give that minion information it shouldn't # have, like a password! When set true the error message will only show: # Rendering SLS 'my.sls' failed. Please see master log for details. #pillar_safe_render_error: True # The pillar_source_merging_strategy option allows you to configure merging strategy # between different sources. It accepts five values: none, recurse, aggregate, overwrite, # or smart. None will not do any merging at all. Recurse will merge recursively mapping of ↲ data. # Aggregate instructs aggregation of elements between sources that use the #!yamlex render ↲ er. Overwrite # will overwrite elements according the order in which they are processed. This is # behavior of the 2014.1 branch and earlier. Smart guesses the best strategy based # on the "renderer" setting and is the default value. #pillar_source_merging_strategy: smart # Recursively merge lists by aggregating them instead of replacing them. #pillar_merge_lists: False # Set this option to True to force the pillarenv to be the same as the effective # saltenv when running states. If pillarenv is specified this option will be # ignored. #pillarenv_from_saltenv: False # Set this option to 'True' to force a 'KeyError' to be raised whenever an # attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set # to 'False', the failed attempt returns an empty string. Default is 'False'. #pillar_raise_on_missing: False # Git External Pillar (git_pillar) Configuration Options # # Specify the provider to be used for git_pillar. Must be either pygit2 or # gitpython. If unset, then both will be tried in that same order, and the # first one with a compatible version installed will be the provider that # is used. #git_pillar_provider: pygit2 # If the desired branch matches this value, and the environment is omitted # from the git_pillar configuration, then the environment for that git_pillar # remote will be base. #git_pillar_base: master # If the branch is omitted from a git_pillar remote, then this branch will # be used instead #git_pillar_branch: master # Environment to use for git_pillar remotes. This is normally derived from # the branch/tag (or from a per-remote env parameter), but if set this will # override the process of deriving the env from the branch/tag name. #git_pillar_env: '' # Path relative to the root of the repository where the git_pillar top file # and SLS files are located. #git_pillar_root: '' # Specifies whether or not to ignore SSL certificate errors when contacting # the remote repository. #git_pillar_ssl_verify: False # When set to False, if there is an update/checkout lock for a git_pillar # remote and the pid written to it is not running on the master, the lock # file will be automatically cleared and a new lock will be obtained. #git_pillar_global_lock: True # Git External Pillar Authentication Options # # Along with git_pillar_password, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. #git_pillar_user: '' # Along with git_pillar_user, is used to authenticate to HTTPS remotes. # This parameter is not required if the repository does not use authentication. #git_pillar_password: '' # By default, Salt will not authenticate to an HTTP (non-HTTPS) remote. # This parameter enables authentication over HTTP. #git_pillar_insecure_auth: False # Along with git_pillar_privkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), # is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. #git_pillar_pubkey: '' # Along with git_pillar_pubkey (and optionally git_pillar_passphrase), # is used to authenticate to SSH remotes. #git_pillar_privkey: '' # This parameter is optional, required only when the SSH key being used # to authenticate is protected by a passphrase. #git_pillar_passphrase: '' # The refspecs fetched by git_pillar remotes #git_pillar_refspecs: # - '+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*' # - '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' # A master can cache pillars locally to bypass the expense of having to render them # for each minion on every request. This feature should only be enabled in cases # where pillar rendering time is known to be unsatisfactory and any attendant security # concerns about storing pillars in a master cache have been addressed. # # When enabling this feature, be certain to read through the additional ``pillar_cache_*`` # configuration options to fully understand the tunable parameters and their implications. # # Note: setting ``pillar_cache: True`` has no effect on targeting Minions with Pillars. # See https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/targeting/pillar.html #pillar_cache: False # If and only if a master has set ``pillar_cache: True``, the cache TTL controls the amoun ↲ t # of time, in seconds, before the cache is considered invalid by a master and a fresh # pillar is recompiled and stored. #pillar_cache_ttl: 3600 # If and only if a master has set `pillar_cache: True`, one of several storage providers # can be utililzed. # # `disk`: The default storage backend. This caches rendered pillars to the master cache. # Rendered pillars are serialized and deserialized as msgpack structures for speed ↲ . # Note that pillars are stored UNENCRYPTED. Ensure that the master cache # has permissions set appropriately. (Same defaults are provided.) # # memory: [EXPERIMENTAL] An optional backend for pillar caches which uses a pure-Python # in-memory data structure for maximal performance. There are several caveats, # however. First, because each master worker contains its own in-memory cache, # there is no guarantee of cache consistency between minion requests. This # works best in situations where the pillar rarely if ever changes. Secondly, # and perhaps more importantly, this means that unencrypted pillars will # be accessible to any process which can examine the memory of the ``salt-master`` ↲ ! # This may represent a substantial security risk. # #pillar_cache_backend: disk ###### Reactor Settings ##### ########################################### # Define a salt reactor. See https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/reactor/ #reactor: [] #Set the TTL for the cache of the reactor configuration. #reactor_refresh_interval: 60 #Configure the number of workers for the runner/wheel in the reactor. #reactor_worker_threads: 10 #Define the queue size for workers in the reactor. #reactor_worker_hwm: 10000 ##### Syndic settings ##### ########################################## # The Salt syndic is used to pass commands through a master from a higher # master. Using the syndic is simple. If this is a master that will have # syndic servers(s) below it, then set the "order_masters" setting to True. # # If this is a master that will be running a syndic daemon for passthrough, then # the "syndic_master" setting needs to be set to the location of the master server # to receive commands from. # Set the order_masters setting to True if this master will command lower # masters' syndic interfaces. #order_masters: False # If this master will be running a salt syndic daemon, syndic_master tells # this master where to receive commands from. #syndic_master: masterofmasters # This is the 'ret_port' of the MasterOfMaster: #syndic_master_port: 4506 # PID file of the syndic daemon: #syndic_pidfile: /var/run/salt-syndic.pid # The log file of the salt-syndic daemon: #syndic_log_file: /var/log/salt/syndic # The behaviour of the multi-syndic when connection to a master of masters failed. # Can specify ``random`` (default) or ``ordered``. If set to ``random``, masters # will be iterated in random order. If ``ordered`` is specified, the configured # order will be used. #syndic_failover: random # The number of seconds for the salt client to wait for additional syndics to # check in with their lists of expected minions before giving up. #syndic_wait: 5 ##### Peer Publish settings ##### ########################################## # Salt minions can send commands to other minions, but only if the minion is # allowed to. By default "Peer Publication" is disabled, and when enabled it # is enabled for specific minions and specific commands. This allows secure # compartmentalization of commands based on individual minions. # The configuration uses regular expressions to match minions and then a list # of regular expressions to match functions. The following will allow the # minion authenticated as foo.example.com to execute functions from the test # and pkg modules. #peer: # foo.example.com: # - test.* # - pkg.* # # This will allow all minions to execute all commands: #peer: # .*: # - .* # # This is not recommended, since it would allow anyone who gets root on any # single minion to instantly have root on all of the minions! # Minions can also be allowed to execute runners from the salt master. # Since executing a runner from the minion could be considered a security risk, # it needs to be enabled. This setting functions just like the peer setting # except that it opens up runners instead of module functions. # # All peer runner support is turned off by default and must be enabled before # using. This will enable all peer runners for all minions: #peer_run: # .*: # - .* # # To enable just the manage.up runner for the minion foo.example.com: #peer_run: # foo.example.com: # - manage.up # # ##### Mine settings ##### ##################################### # Restrict mine.get access from minions. By default any minion has a full access # to get all mine data from master cache. In acl definion below, only pcre matches # are allowed. # mine_get: # .*: # - .* # # The example below enables minion foo.example.com to get 'network.interfaces' mine # data only, minions web* to get all network.* and disk.* mine data and all other # minions won't get any mine data. # mine_get: # foo.example.com: # - network.interfaces # web.*: # - network.* # - disk.* ##### Logging settings ##### ########################################## # The location of the master log file # The master log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network # location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.: # ``file:///dev/log``), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The URI # format is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility> #log_file: /var/log/salt/master #log_file: file:///dev/log #log_file: udp://loghost:10514 #log_file: /var/log/salt/master #key_logfile: /var/log/salt/key # The level of messages to send to the console. # One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'. # # The following log levels are considered INSECURE and may log sensitive data: # ['garbage', 'trace', 'debug'] # #log_level: warning # The level of messages to send to the log file. # One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'. # If using 'log_granular_levels' this must be set to the highest desired level. #log_level_logfile: warning # The date and time format used in log messages. Allowed date/time formatting # can be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/time.html#time.strftime #log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S' #log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' # The format of the console logging messages. Allowed formatting options can # be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/logging.html#logrecord-attributes # # Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters: # # %(colorlevel)s # %(colorname)s # %(colorprocess)s # %(colormsg)s # # Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, '[' and ']', in # the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as # well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging. # #log_fmt_console: '%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s' #log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' # #log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' # This can be used to control logging levels more specificically. This # example sets the main salt library at the 'warning' level, but sets # 'salt.modules' to log at the 'debug' level: # log_granular_levels: # 'salt': 'warning' # 'salt.modules': 'debug' # #log_granular_levels: {} ##### Node Groups ###### ########################################## # Node groups allow for logical groupings of minion nodes. A group consists of # a group name and a compound target. Nodgroups can reference other nodegroups # with 'N@' classifier. Ensure that you do not have circular references. # #nodegroups: # group1: '@foo.domain.com,bar.domain.com,baz.domain.com or bl*.domain.com' # group2: 'G@os:Debian and foo.domain.com' # group3: 'G@os:Debian and N@group1' # group4: # - 'G@foo:bar' # - 'or' # - 'G@foo:baz' ##### Range Cluster settings ##### ########################################## # The range server (and optional port) that serves your cluster information # https://github.com/ytoolshed/range/wiki/%22yamlfile%22-module-file-spec # #range_server: range:80 ##### Windows Software Repo settings ##### ########################################### # Location of the repo on the master: #winrepo_dir_ng: '/srv/salt/win/repo-ng' # # List of git repositories to include with the local repo: #winrepo_remotes_ng: # - 'https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git' ##### Windows Software Repo settings - Pre 2015.8 ##### ######################################################## # Legacy repo settings for pre-2015.8 Windows minions. # # Location of the repo on the master: #winrepo_dir: '/srv/salt/win/repo' # # Location of the master's repo cache file: #winrepo_mastercachefile: '/srv/salt/win/repo/winrepo.p' # # List of git repositories to include with the local repo: #winrepo_remotes: # - 'https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git' # The refspecs fetched by winrepo remotes #winrepo_refspecs: # - '+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*' # - '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' # ##### Returner settings ###### ############################################ # Which returner(s) will be used for minion's result: #return: mysql ###### Miscellaneous settings ###### ############################################ # Default match type for filtering events tags: startswith, endswith, find, regex, fnmatch #event_match_type: startswith # Save runner returns to the job cache #runner_returns: True # Permanently include any available Python 3rd party modules into thin and minimal Salt # when they are generated for Salt-SSH or other purposes. # The modules should be named by the names they are actually imported inside the Python. # The value of the parameters can be either one module or a comma separated list of them. #thin_extra_mods: foo,bar #min_extra_mods: foo,bar,baz ###### Keepalive settings ###### ############################################ # Warning: Failure to set TCP keepalives on the salt-master can result in # not detecting the loss of a minion when the connection is lost or when # it's host has been terminated without first closing the socket. # Salt's Presence System depends on this connection status to know if a minion # is "present". # ZeroMQ now includes support for configuring SO_KEEPALIVE if supported by # the OS. If connections between the minion and the master pass through # a state tracking device such as a firewall or VPN gateway, there is # the risk that it could tear down the connection the master and minion # without informing either party that their connection has been taken away. # Enabling TCP Keepalives prevents this from happening. # Overall state of TCP Keepalives, enable (1 or True), disable (0 or False) # or leave to the OS defaults (-1), on Linux, typically disabled. Default True, enabled. #tcp_keepalive: True # How long before the first keepalive should be sent in seconds. Default 300 # to send the first keepalive after 5 minutes, OS default (-1) is typically 7200 seconds # on Linux see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. #tcp_keepalive_idle: 300 # How many lost probes are needed to consider the connection lost. Default -1 # to use OS defaults, typically 9 on Linux, see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. #tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1 # How often, in seconds, to send keepalives after the first one. Default -1 to # use OS defaults, typically 75 seconds on Linux, see # /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. #tcp_keepalive_intvl: -1 Example minion configuration file ##### Primary configuration settings ##### ########################################## # This configuration file is used to manage the behavior of the Salt Minion. # With the exception of the location of the Salt Master Server, values that are # commented out but have an empty line after the comment are defaults that need # not be set in the config. If there is no blank line after the comment, the # value is presented as an example and is not the default. # Per default the minion will automatically include all config files # from minion.d/*.conf (minion.d is a directory in the same directory # as the main minion config file). #default_include: minion.d/*.conf # Set the location of the salt master server. If the master server cannot be # resolved, then the minion will fail to start. #master: salt # Set http proxy information for the minion when doing requests #proxy_host: #proxy_port: #proxy_username: #proxy_password: # If multiple masters are specified in the 'master' setting, the default behavior # is to always try to connect to them in the order they are listed. If random_master is # set to True, the order will be randomized instead. This can be helpful in distributing # the load of many minions executing salt-call requests, for example, from a cron job. # If only one master is listed, this setting is ignored and a warning will be logged. # NOTE: If master_type is set to failover, use master_shuffle instead. #random_master: False # Use if master_type is set to failover. #master_shuffle: False # Minions can connect to multiple masters simultaneously (all masters # are "hot"), or can be configured to failover if a master becomes # unavailable. Multiple hot masters are configured by setting this # value to "str". Failover masters can be requested by setting # to "failover". MAKE SURE TO SET master_alive_interval if you are # using failover. # Setting master_type to 'disable' let's you have a running minion (with engines and # beacons) without a master connection # master_type: str # Poll interval in seconds for checking if the master is still there. Only # respected if master_type above is "failover". To disable the interval entirely, # set the value to -1. (This may be necessary on machines which have high numbers # of TCP connections, such as load balancers.) # master_alive_interval: 30 # If the minion is in multi-master mode and the master_type configuration option # is set to "failover", this setting can be set to "True" to force the minion # to fail back to the first master in the list if the first master is back online. #master_failback: False # If the minion is in multi-master mode, the "master_type" configuration is set to # "failover", and the "master_failback" option is enabled, the master failback # interval can be set to ping the top master with this interval, in seconds. #master_failback_interval: 0 # Set whether the minion should connect to the master via IPv6: #ipv6: False # Set the number of seconds to wait before attempting to resolve # the master hostname if name resolution fails. Defaults to 30 seconds. # Set to zero if the minion should shutdown and not retry. # retry_dns: 30 # Set the port used by the master reply and authentication server. #master_port: 4506 # The user to run salt. #user: root # The user to run salt remote execution commands as via sudo. If this option is # enabled then sudo will be used to change the active user executing the remote # command. If enabled the user will need to be allowed access via the sudoers # file for the user that the salt minion is configured to run as. The most # common option would be to use the root user. If this option is set the user # option should also be set to a non-root user. If migrating from a root minion # to a non root minion the minion cache should be cleared and the minion pki # directory will need to be changed to the ownership of the new user. #sudo_user: root # Specify the location of the daemon process ID file. #pidfile: /var/run/salt-minion.pid # The root directory prepended to these options: pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, # sock_dir, pidfile. #root_dir: / # The path to the minion's configuration file. #conf_file: /etc/salt/minion # The directory to store the pki information in #pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/minion # Explicitly declare the id for this minion to use, if left commented the id # will be the hostname as returned by the python call: socket.getfqdn() # Since salt uses detached ids it is possible to run multiple minions on the # same machine but with different ids, this can be useful for salt compute # clusters. #id: # Cache the minion id to a file when the minion's id is not statically defined # in the minion config. Defaults to "True". This setting prevents potential # problems when automatic minion id resolution changes, which can cause the # minion to lose connection with the master. To turn off minion id caching, # set this config to ``False``. #minion_id_caching: True # Append a domain to a hostname in the event that it does not exist. This is # useful for systems where socket.getfqdn() does not actually result in a # FQDN (for instance, Solaris). #append_domain: # Custom static grains for this minion can be specified here and used in SLS # files just like all other grains. This example sets 4 custom grains, with # the 'roles' grain having two values that can be matched against. #grains: # roles: # - webserver # - memcache # deployment: datacenter4 # cabinet: 13 # cab_u: 14-15 # # Where cache data goes. # This data may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly. #cachedir: /var/cache/salt/minion # Append minion_id to these directories. Helps with # multiple proxies and minions running on the same machine. # Allowed elements in the list: pki_dir, cachedir, extension_modules # Normally not needed unless running several proxies and/or minions on the same machine # Defaults to ['cachedir'] for proxies, [] (empty list) for regular minions #append_minionid_config_dirs: # Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup. #verify_env: True # The minion can locally cache the return data from jobs sent to it, this # can be a good way to keep track of jobs the minion has executed # (on the minion side). By default this feature is disabled, to enable, set # cache_jobs to True. #cache_jobs: False # Set the directory used to hold unix sockets. #sock_dir: /var/run/salt/minion # Set the default outputter used by the salt-call command. The default is # "nested". #output: nested # To set a list of additional directories to search for salt outputters, set the # outputter_dirs option. #outputter_dirs: [] # By default output is colored. To disable colored output, set the color value # to False. #color: True # Do not strip off the colored output from nested results and state outputs # (true by default). # strip_colors: False # Backup files that are replaced by file.managed and file.recurse under # 'cachedir'/file_backup relative to their original location and appended # with a timestamp. The only valid setting is "minion". Disabled by default. # # Alternatively this can be specified for each file in state files: # /etc/ssh/sshd_config: # file.managed: # - source: salt://ssh/sshd_config # - backup: minion # #backup_mode: minion # When waiting for a master to accept the minion's public key, salt will # continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the time, in # seconds, between those reconnection attempts. #acceptance_wait_time: 10 # If this is nonzero, the time between reconnection attempts will increase by # acceptance_wait_time seconds per iteration, up to this maximum. If this is # set to zero, the time between reconnection attempts will stay constant. #acceptance_wait_time_max: 0 # If the master rejects the minion's public key, retry instead of exiting. # Rejected keys will be handled the same as waiting on acceptance. #rejected_retry: False # When the master key changes, the minion will try to re-auth itself to receive # the new master key. In larger environments this can cause a SYN flood on the # master because all minions try to re-auth immediately. To prevent this and # have a minion wait for a random amount of time, use this optional parameter. # The wait-time will be a random number of seconds between 0 and the defined value. #random_reauth_delay: 60 # To avoid overloading a master when many minions startup at once, a randomized # delay may be set to tell the minions to wait before connecting to the master. # This value is the number of seconds to choose from for a random number. For # example, setting this value to 60 will choose a random number of seconds to delay # on startup between zero seconds and sixty seconds. Setting to '0' will disable # this feature. #random_startup_delay: 0 # When waiting for a master to accept the minion's public key, salt will # continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the timeout value, # in seconds, for each individual attempt. After this timeout expires, the minion # will wait for acceptance_wait_time seconds before trying again. Unless your master # is under unusually heavy load, this should be left at the default. #auth_timeout: 60 # Number of consecutive SaltReqTimeoutError that are acceptable when trying to # authenticate. #auth_tries: 7 # The number of attempts to connect to a master before giving up. # Set this to -1 for unlimited attempts. This allows for a master to have # downtime and the minion to reconnect to it later when it comes back up. # In 'failover' mode, it is the number of attempts for each set of masters. # In this mode, it will cycle through the list of masters for each attempt. # # This is different than auth_tries because auth_tries attempts to # retry auth attempts with a single master. auth_tries is under the # assumption that you can connect to the master but not gain # authorization from it. master_tries will still cycle through all # the masters in a given try, so it is appropriate if you expect # occasional downtime from the master(s). #master_tries: 1 # If authentication fails due to SaltReqTimeoutError during a ping_interval, # cause sub minion process to restart. #auth_safemode: False # Ping Master to ensure connection is alive (minutes). #ping_interval: 0 # To auto recover minions if master changes IP address (DDNS) # auth_tries: 10 # auth_safemode: False # ping_interval: 2 # # Minions won't know master is missing until a ping fails. After the ping fail, # the minion will attempt authentication and likely fails out and cause a restart. # When the minion restarts it will resolve the masters IP and attempt to reconnect. # If you don't have any problems with syn-floods, don't bother with the # three recon_* settings described below, just leave the defaults! # # The ZeroMQ pull-socket that binds to the masters publishing interface tries # to reconnect immediately, if the socket is disconnected (for example if # the master processes are restarted). In large setups this will have all # minions reconnect immediately which might flood the master (the ZeroMQ-default # is usually a 100ms delay). To prevent this, these three recon_* settings # can be used. # recon_default: the interval in milliseconds that the socket should wait before # trying to reconnect to the master (1000ms = 1 second) # # recon_max: the maximum time a socket should wait. each interval the time to wait # is calculated by doubling the previous time. if recon_max is reached, # it starts again at recon_default. Short example: # # reconnect 1: the socket will wait 'recon_default' milliseconds # reconnect 2: 'recon_default' * 2 # reconnect 3: ('recon_default' * 2) * 2 # reconnect 4: value from previous interval * 2 # reconnect 5: value from previous interval * 2 # reconnect x: if value >= recon_max, it starts again with recon_default # # recon_randomize: generate a random wait time on minion start. The wait time will # be a random value between recon_default and recon_default + # recon_max. Having all minions reconnect with the same recon_default # and recon_max value kind of defeats the purpose of being able to # change these settings. If all minions have the same values and your # setup is quite large (several thousand minions), they will still # flood the master. The desired behavior is to have timeframe within # all minions try to reconnect. # # Example on how to use these settings. The goal: have all minions reconnect within a # 60 second timeframe on a disconnect. # recon_default: 1000 # recon_max: 59000 # recon_randomize: True # # Each minion will have a randomized reconnect value between 'recon_default' # and 'recon_default + recon_max', which in this example means between 1000ms # 60000ms (or between 1 and 60 seconds). The generated random-value will be # doubled after each attempt to reconnect. Lets say the generated random # value is 11 seconds (or 11000ms). # reconnect 1: wait 11 seconds # reconnect 2: wait 22 seconds # reconnect 3: wait 33 seconds # reconnect 4: wait 44 seconds # reconnect 5: wait 55 seconds # reconnect 6: wait time is bigger than 60 seconds (recon_default + recon_max) # reconnect 7: wait 11 seconds # reconnect 8: wait 22 seconds # reconnect 9: wait 33 seconds # reconnect x: etc. # # In a setup with ~6000 thousand hosts these settings would average the reconnects # to about 100 per second and all hosts would be reconnected within 60 seconds. # recon_default: 100 # recon_max: 5000 # recon_randomize: False # # # The loop_interval sets how long in seconds the minion will wait between # evaluating the scheduler and running cleanup tasks. This defaults to 1 # second on the minion scheduler. #loop_interval: 1 # Some installations choose to start all job returns in a cache or a returner # and forgo sending the results back to a master. In this workflow, jobs # are most often executed with --async from the Salt CLI and then results # are evaluated by examining job caches on the minions or any configured returners. # WARNING: Setting this to False will **disable** returns back to the master. #pub_ret: True # The grains can be merged, instead of overridden, using this option. # This allows custom grains to defined different subvalues of a dictionary # grain. By default this feature is disabled, to enable set grains_deep_merge # to ``True``. #grains_deep_merge: False # The grains_refresh_every setting allows for a minion to periodically check # its grains to see if they have changed and, if so, to inform the master # of the new grains. This operation is moderately expensive, therefore # care should be taken not to set this value too low. # # Note: This value is expressed in __minutes__! # # A value of 10 minutes is a reasonable default. # # If the value is set to zero, this check is disabled. #grains_refresh_every: 1 # Cache grains on the minion. Default is False. #grains_cache: False # Cache rendered pillar data on the minion. Default is False. # This may cause 'cachedir'/pillar to contain sensitive data that should be # protected accordingly. #minion_pillar_cache: False # Grains cache expiration, in seconds. If the cache file is older than this # number of seconds then the grains cache will be dumped and fully re-populated # with fresh data. Defaults to 5 minutes. Will have no effect if 'grains_cache' # is not enabled. # grains_cache_expiration: 300 # Determines whether or not the salt minion should run scheduled mine updates. # Defaults to "True". Set to "False" to disable the scheduled mine updates # (this essentially just does not add the mine update function to the minion's # scheduler). #mine_enabled: True # Determines whether or not scheduled mine updates should be accompanied by a job # return for the job cache. Defaults to "False". Set to "True" to include job # returns in the job cache for mine updates. #mine_return_job: False # Example functions that can be run via the mine facility # NO mine functions are established by default. # Note these can be defined in the minion's pillar as well. #mine_functions: # test.ping: [] # network.ip_addrs: # interface: eth0 # cidr: '10.0.0.0/8' # The number of minutes between mine updates. #mine_interval: 60 # Windows platforms lack posix IPC and must rely on slower TCP based inter- # process communications. Set ipc_mode to 'tcp' on such systems #ipc_mode: ipc # Overwrite the default tcp ports used by the minion when in tcp mode #tcp_pub_port: 4510 #tcp_pull_port: 4511 # Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of # memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the # minion event bus. The value is expressed in bytes. #max_event_size: 1048576 # To detect failed master(s) and fire events on connect/disconnect, set # master_alive_interval to the number of seconds to poll the masters for # connection events. # #master_alive_interval: 30 # The minion can include configuration from other files. To enable this, # pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or # absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory # the main minion configuration file lives in (this file). Paths can make use # of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this # option then the minion will log a warning message. # # Include a config file from some other path: # include: /etc/salt/extra_config # # Include config from several files and directories: #include: # - /etc/salt/extra_config # - /etc/roles/webserver # The syndic minion can verify that it is talking to the correct master via the # key fingerprint of the higher-level master with the "syndic_finger" config. #syndic_finger: '' # # # ##### Minion module management ##### ########################################## # Disable specific modules. This allows the admin to limit the level of # access the master has to the minion. The default here is the empty list, # below is an example of how this needs to be formatted in the config file #disable_modules: # - cmdmod # - test #disable_returners: [] # This is the reverse of disable_modules. The default, like disable_modules, is the empty ↲ list, # but if this option is set to *anything* then *only* those modules will load. # Note that this is a very large hammer and it can be quite difficult to keep the minion w ↲ orking # the way you think it should since Salt uses many modules internally itself. At a bare m ↲ inimum # you need the following enabled or else the minion won't start. #whitelist_modules: # - cmdmod # - test # - config # Modules can be loaded from arbitrary paths. This enables the easy deployment # of third party modules. Modules for returners and minions can be loaded. # Specify a list of extra directories to search for minion modules and # returners. These paths must be fully qualified! #module_dirs: [] #returner_dirs: [] #states_dirs: [] #render_dirs: [] #utils_dirs: [] # # A module provider can be statically overwritten or extended for the minion # via the providers option, in this case the default module will be # overwritten by the specified module. In this example the pkg module will # be provided by the yumpkg5 module instead of the system default. #providers: # pkg: yumpkg5 # # Enable Cython modules searching and loading. (Default: False) #cython_enable: False # # Specify a max size (in bytes) for modules on import. This feature is currently # only supported on *nix operating systems and requires psutil. # modules_max_memory: -1 ##### State Management Settings ##### ########################################### # The state management system executes all of the state templates on the minion # to enable more granular control of system state management. The type of # template and serialization used for state management needs to be configured # on the minion, the default renderer is yaml_jinja. This is a yaml file # rendered from a jinja template, the available options are: # yaml_jinja # yaml_mako # yaml_wempy # json_jinja # json_mako # json_wempy # #renderer: yaml_jinja # # The failhard option tells the minions to stop immediately after the first # failure detected in the state execution. Defaults to False. #failhard: False # # Reload the modules prior to a highstate run. #autoload_dynamic_modules: True # # clean_dynamic_modules keeps the dynamic modules on the minion in sync with # the dynamic modules on the master, this means that if a dynamic module is # not on the master it will be deleted from the minion. By default, this is # enabled and can be disabled by changing this value to False. #clean_dynamic_modules: True # # Normally, the minion is not isolated to any single environment on the master # when running states, but the environment can be isolated on the minion side # by statically setting it. Remember that the recommended way to manage # environments is to isolate via the top file. #environment: None # # Isolates the pillar environment on the minion side. This functions the same # as the environment setting, but for pillar instead of states. #pillarenv: None # # Set this option to True to force the pillarenv to be the same as the # effective saltenv when running states. Note that if pillarenv is specified, # this option will be ignored. #pillarenv_from_saltenv: False # # Set this option to 'True' to force a 'KeyError' to be raised whenever an # attempt to retrieve a named value from pillar fails. When this option is set # to 'False', the failed attempt returns an empty string. Default is 'False'. #pillar_raise_on_missing: False # # If using the local file directory, then the state top file name needs to be # defined, by default this is top.sls. #state_top: top.sls # # Run states when the minion daemon starts. To enable, set startup_states to: # 'highstate' -- Execute state.highstate # 'sls' -- Read in the sls_list option and execute the named sls files # 'top' -- Read top_file option and execute based on that file on the Master #startup_states: '' # # List of states to run when the minion starts up if startup_states is 'sls': #sls_list: # - edit.vim # - hyper # # Top file to execute if startup_states is 'top': #top_file: '' # Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by # setting to True. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically # aggregate just those types. # # state_aggregate: # - pkg # #state_aggregate: False ##### File Directory Settings ##### ########################################## # The Salt Minion can redirect all file server operations to a local directory, # this allows for the same state tree that is on the master to be used if # copied completely onto the minion. This is a literal copy of the settings on # the master but used to reference a local directory on the minion. # Set the file client. The client defaults to looking on the master server for # files, but can be directed to look at the local file directory setting # defined below by setting it to "local". Setting a local file_client runs the # minion in masterless mode. #file_client: remote # The file directory works on environments passed to the minion, each environment # can have multiple root directories, the subdirectories in the multiple file # roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be # reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file. # Example: # file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt/ # dev: # - /srv/salt/dev/services # - /srv/salt/dev/states # prod: # - /srv/salt/prod/services # - /srv/salt/prod/states # #file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt # Uncomment the line below if you do not want the file_server to follow # symlinks when walking the filesystem tree. This is set to True # by default. Currently this only applies to the default roots # fileserver_backend. #fileserver_followsymlinks: False # # Uncomment the line below if you do not want symlinks to be # treated as the files they are pointing to. By default this is set to # False. By uncommenting the line below, any detected symlink while listing # files on the Master will not be returned to the Minion. #fileserver_ignoresymlinks: True # # By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments # to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only # traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, # enable the option below. This might be useful for installations where a file root # has a very large number of files and performance is negatively impacted. Default # is False. #fileserver_limit_traversal: False # The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file on # the local fileserver. The default is sha256, but md5, sha1, sha224, sha384 # and sha512 are also supported. # # WARNING: While md5 and sha1 are also supported, do not use them due to the # high chance of possible collisions and thus security breach. # # Warning: Prior to changing this value, the minion should be stopped and all # Salt caches should be cleared. #hash_type: sha256 # The Salt pillar is searched for locally if file_client is set to local. If # this is the case, and pillar data is defined, then the pillar_roots need to # also be configured on the minion: #pillar_roots: # base: # - /srv/pillar # Set a hard-limit on the size of the files that can be pushed to the master. # It will be interpreted as megabytes. Default: 100 #file_recv_max_size: 100 # # ###### Security settings ##### ########################################### # Enable "open mode", this mode still maintains encryption, but turns off # authentication, this is only intended for highly secure environments or for # the situation where your keys end up in a bad state. If you run in open mode # you do so at your own risk! #open_mode: False # The size of key that should be generated when creating new keys. #keysize: 2048 # Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the # master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to # your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group # you've given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. #permissive_pki_access: False # The state_verbose and state_output settings can be used to change the way # state system data is printed to the display. By default all data is printed. # The state_verbose setting can be set to True or False, when set to False # all data that has a result of True and no changes will be suppressed. #state_verbose: True # The state_output setting changes if the output is the full multi line # output for each changed state if set to 'full', but if set to 'terse' # the output will be shortened to a single line. #state_output: full # The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from # successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these # states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them. #state_output_diff: False # The state_output_profile setting changes whether profile information # will be shown for each state run. #state_output_profile: True # Fingerprint of the master public key to validate the identity of your Salt master # before the initial key exchange. The master fingerprint can be found by running # "salt-key -f master.pub" on the Salt master. #master_finger: '' # Use TLS/SSL encrypted connection between master and minion. # Can be set to a dictionary containing keyword arguments corresponding to Python's # 'ssl.wrap_socket' method. # Default is None. #ssl: # keyfile: <path_to_keyfile> # certfile: <path_to_certfile> # ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2 ###### Reactor Settings ##### ########################################### # Define a salt reactor. See https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/reactor/ #reactor: [] #Set the TTL for the cache of the reactor configuration. #reactor_refresh_interval: 60 #Configure the number of workers for the runner/wheel in the reactor. #reactor_worker_threads: 10 #Define the queue size for workers in the reactor. #reactor_worker_hwm: 10000 ###### Thread settings ##### ########################################### # Disable multiprocessing support, by default when a minion receives a # publication a new process is spawned and the command is executed therein. # # WARNING: Disabling multiprocessing may result in substantial slowdowns # when processing large pillars. See https://github.com/saltstack/salt/issues/38758 # for a full explanation. #multiprocessing: True ##### Logging settings ##### ########################################## # The location of the minion log file # The minion log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network # location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.: # ``file:///dev/log``), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The URI # format is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility> #log_file: /var/log/salt/minion #log_file: file:///dev/log #log_file: udp://loghost:10514 # #log_file: /var/log/salt/minion #key_logfile: /var/log/salt/key # The level of messages to send to the console. # One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'. # # The following log levels are considered INSECURE and may log sensitive data: # ['garbage', 'trace', 'debug'] # # Default: 'warning' #log_level: warning # The level of messages to send to the log file. # One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'. # If using 'log_granular_levels' this must be set to the highest desired level. # Default: 'warning' #log_level_logfile: # The date and time format used in log messages. Allowed date/time formatting # can be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/time.html#time.strftime #log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S' #log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' # The format of the console logging messages. Allowed formatting options can # be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/logging.html#logrecord-attributes # # Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters: # # %(colorlevel)s # %(colorname)s # %(colorprocess)s # %(colormsg)s # # Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, '[' and ']', in # the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as # well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging. # #log_fmt_console: '%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s' #log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' # #log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' # This can be used to control logging levels more specificically. This # example sets the main salt library at the 'warning' level, but sets # 'salt.modules' to log at the 'debug' level: # log_granular_levels: # 'salt': 'warning' # 'salt.modules': 'debug' # #log_granular_levels: {} # To diagnose issues with minions disconnecting or missing returns, ZeroMQ # supports the use of monitor sockets to log connection events. This # feature requires ZeroMQ 4.0 or higher. # # To enable ZeroMQ monitor sockets, set 'zmq_monitor' to 'True' and log at a # debug level or higher. # # A sample log event is as follows: # # [DEBUG ] ZeroMQ event: {'endpoint': 'tcp://127.0.0.1:4505', 'event': 512, # 'value': 27, 'description': 'EVENT_DISCONNECTED'} # # All events logged will include the string 'ZeroMQ event'. A connection event # should be logged as the minion starts up and initially connects to the # master. If not, check for debug log level and that the necessary version of # ZeroMQ is installed. # #zmq_monitor: False # Number of times to try to authenticate with the salt master when reconnecting # to the master #tcp_authentication_retries: 5 ###### Module configuration ##### ########################################### # Salt allows for modules to be passed arbitrary configuration data, any data # passed here in valid yaml format will be passed on to the salt minion modules # for use. It is STRONGLY recommended that a naming convention be used in which # the module name is followed by a . and then the value. Also, all top level # data must be applied via the yaml dict construct, some examples: # # You can specify that all modules should run in test mode: #test: True # # A simple value for the test module: #test.foo: foo # # A list for the test module: #test.bar: [baz,quo] # # A dict for the test module: #test.baz: {spam: sausage, cheese: bread} # # ###### Update settings ###### ########################################### # Using the features in Esky, a salt minion can both run as a frozen app and # be updated on the fly. These options control how the update process # (saltutil.update()) behaves. # # The url for finding and downloading updates. Disabled by default. #update_url: False # # The list of services to restart after a successful update. Empty by default. #update_restart_services: [] ###### Keepalive settings ###### ############################################ # ZeroMQ now includes support for configuring SO_KEEPALIVE if supported by # the OS. If connections between the minion and the master pass through # a state tracking device such as a firewall or VPN gateway, there is # the risk that it could tear down the connection the master and minion # without informing either party that their connection has been taken away. # Enabling TCP Keepalives prevents this from happening. # Overall state of TCP Keepalives, enable (1 or True), disable (0 or False) # or leave to the OS defaults (-1), on Linux, typically disabled. Default True, enabled. #tcp_keepalive: True # How long before the first keepalive should be sent in seconds. Default 300 # to send the first keepalive after 5 minutes, OS default (-1) is typically 7200 seconds # on Linux see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. #tcp_keepalive_idle: 300 # How many lost probes are needed to consider the connection lost. Default -1 # to use OS defaults, typically 9 on Linux, see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. #tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1 # How often, in seconds, to send keepalives after the first one. Default -1 to # use OS defaults, typically 75 seconds on Linux, see # /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. #tcp_keepalive_intvl: -1 ###### Windows Software settings ###### ############################################ # Location of the repository cache file on the master: #win_repo_cachefile: 'salt://win/repo/winrepo.p' ###### Returner settings ###### ############################################ # Default Minion returners. Can be a comma delimited string or a list: # #return: mysql # #return: mysql,slack,redis # #return: # - mysql # - hipchat # - slack ###### Miscellaneous settings ###### ############################################ # Default match type for filtering events tags: startswith, endswith, find, regex, fnmatch #event_match_type: startswith Example proxy minion configuration file ##### Primary configuration settings ##### ########################################## # This configuration file is used to manage the behavior of all Salt Proxy # Minions on this host. # With the exception of the location of the Salt Master Server, values that are # commented out but have an empty line after the comment are defaults that need # not be set in the config. If there is no blank line after the comment, the # value is presented as an example and is not the default. # Per default the minion will automatically include all config files # from minion.d/*.conf (minion.d is a directory in the same directory # as the main minion config file). #default_include: minion.d/*.conf # Backwards compatibility option for proxymodules created before 2015.8.2 # This setting will default to 'False' in the 2016.3.0 release # Setting this to True adds proxymodules to the __opts__ dictionary. # This breaks several Salt features (basically anything that serializes # __opts__ over the wire) but retains backwards compatibility. #add_proxymodule_to_opts: True # Set the location of the salt master server. If the master server cannot be # resolved, then the minion will fail to start. #master: salt # If a proxymodule has a function called 'grains', then call it during # regular grains loading and merge the results with the proxy's grains # dictionary. Otherwise it is assumed that the module calls the grains # function in a custom way and returns the data elsewhere # # Default to False for 2016.3 and 2016.11. Switch to True for 2017.7.0. # proxy_merge_grains_in_module: True # If a proxymodule has a function called 'alive' returning a boolean # flag reflecting the state of the connection with the remove device, # when this option is set as True, a scheduled job on the proxy will # try restarting the connection. The polling frequency depends on the # next option, 'proxy_keep_alive_interval'. Added in 2017.7.0. # proxy_keep_alive: True # The polling interval (in minutes) to check if the underlying connection # with the remote device is still alive. This option requires # 'proxy_keep_alive' to be configured as True and the proxymodule to # implement the 'alive' function. Added in 2017.7.0. # proxy_keep_alive_interval: 1 # By default, any proxy opens the connection with the remote device when # initialized. Some proxymodules allow through this option to open/close # the session per command. This requires the proxymodule to have this # capability. Please consult the documentation to see if the proxy type # used can be that flexible. Added in 2017.7.0. # proxy_always_alive: True # If multiple masters are specified in the 'master' setting, the default behavior # is to always try to connect to them in the order they are listed. If random_master is # set to True, the order will be randomized instead. This can be helpful in distributing # the load of many minions executing salt-call requests, for example, from a cron job. # If only one master is listed, this setting is ignored and a warning will be logged. #random_master: False # Minions can connect to multiple masters simultaneously (all masters # are "hot"), or can be configured to failover if a master becomes # unavailable. Multiple hot masters are configured by setting this # value to "str". Failover masters can be requested by setting # to "failover". MAKE SURE TO SET master_alive_interval if you are # using failover. # master_type: str # Poll interval in seconds for checking if the master is still there. Only # respected if master_type above is "failover". # master_alive_interval: 30 # Set whether the minion should connect to the master via IPv6: #ipv6: False # Set the number of seconds to wait before attempting to resolve # the master hostname if name resolution fails. Defaults to 30 seconds. # Set to zero if the minion should shutdown and not retry. # retry_dns: 30 # Set the port used by the master reply and authentication server. #master_port: 4506 # The user to run salt. #user: root # Setting sudo_user will cause salt to run all execution modules under an sudo # to the user given in sudo_user. The user under which the salt minion process # itself runs will still be that provided in the user config above, but all # execution modules run by the minion will be rerouted through sudo. #sudo_user: saltdev # Specify the location of the daemon process ID file. #pidfile: /var/run/salt-minion.pid # The root directory prepended to these options: pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, # sock_dir, pidfile. #root_dir: / # The directory to store the pki information in #pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/minion # Where cache data goes. # This data may contain sensitive data and should be protected accordingly. #cachedir: /var/cache/salt/minion # Append minion_id to these directories. Helps with # multiple proxies and minions running on the same machine. # Allowed elements in the list: pki_dir, cachedir, extension_modules # Normally not needed unless running several proxies and/or minions on the same machine # Defaults to ['cachedir'] for proxies, [] (empty list) for regular minions # append_minionid_config_dirs: # - cachedir # Verify and set permissions on configuration directories at startup. #verify_env: True # The minion can locally cache the return data from jobs sent to it, this # can be a good way to keep track of jobs the minion has executed # (on the minion side). By default this feature is disabled, to enable, set # cache_jobs to True. #cache_jobs: False # Set the directory used to hold unix sockets. #sock_dir: /var/run/salt/minion # Set the default outputter used by the salt-call command. The default is # "nested". #output: nested # # By default output is colored. To disable colored output, set the color value # to False. #color: True # Do not strip off the colored output from nested results and state outputs # (true by default). # strip_colors: False # Backup files that are replaced by file.managed and file.recurse under # 'cachedir'/file_backup relative to their original location and appended # with a timestamp. The only valid setting is "minion". Disabled by default. # # Alternatively this can be specified for each file in state files: # /etc/ssh/sshd_config: # file.managed: # - source: salt://ssh/sshd_config # - backup: minion # #backup_mode: minion # When waiting for a master to accept the minion's public key, salt will # continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the time, in # seconds, between those reconnection attempts. #acceptance_wait_time: 10 # If this is nonzero, the time between reconnection attempts will increase by # acceptance_wait_time seconds per iteration, up to this maximum. If this is # set to zero, the time between reconnection attempts will stay constant. #acceptance_wait_time_max: 0 # If the master rejects the minion's public key, retry instead of exiting. # Rejected keys will be handled the same as waiting on acceptance. #rejected_retry: False # When the master key changes, the minion will try to re-auth itself to receive # the new master key. In larger environments this can cause a SYN flood on the # master because all minions try to re-auth immediately. To prevent this and # have a minion wait for a random amount of time, use this optional parameter. # The wait-time will be a random number of seconds between 0 and the defined value. #random_reauth_delay: 60 # When waiting for a master to accept the minion's public key, salt will # continuously attempt to reconnect until successful. This is the timeout value, # in seconds, for each individual attempt. After this timeout expires, the minion # will wait for acceptance_wait_time seconds before trying again. Unless your master # is under unusually heavy load, this should be left at the default. #auth_timeout: 60 # Number of consecutive SaltReqTimeoutError that are acceptable when trying to # authenticate. #auth_tries: 7 # If authentication fails due to SaltReqTimeoutError during a ping_interval, # cause sub minion process to restart. #auth_safemode: False # Ping Master to ensure connection is alive (minutes). #ping_interval: 0 # To auto recover minions if master changes IP address (DDNS) # auth_tries: 10 # auth_safemode: False # ping_interval: 90 # # Minions won't know master is missing until a ping fails. After the ping fail, # the minion will attempt authentication and likely fails out and cause a restart. # When the minion restarts it will resolve the masters IP and attempt to reconnect. # If you don't have any problems with syn-floods, don't bother with the # three recon_* settings described below, just leave the defaults! # # The ZeroMQ pull-socket that binds to the masters publishing interface tries # to reconnect immediately, if the socket is disconnected (for example if # the master processes are restarted). In large setups this will have all # minions reconnect immediately which might flood the master (the ZeroMQ-default # is usually a 100ms delay). To prevent this, these three recon_* settings # can be used. # recon_default: the interval in milliseconds that the socket should wait before # trying to reconnect to the master (1000ms = 1 second) # # recon_max: the maximum time a socket should wait. each interval the time to wait # is calculated by doubling the previous time. if recon_max is reached, # it starts again at recon_default. Short example: # # reconnect 1: the socket will wait 'recon_default' milliseconds # reconnect 2: 'recon_default' * 2 # reconnect 3: ('recon_default' * 2) * 2 # reconnect 4: value from previous interval * 2 # reconnect 5: value from previous interval * 2 # reconnect x: if value >= recon_max, it starts again with recon_default # # recon_randomize: generate a random wait time on minion start. The wait time will # be a random value between recon_default and recon_default + # recon_max. Having all minions reconnect with the same recon_default # and recon_max value kind of defeats the purpose of being able to # change these settings. If all minions have the same values and your # setup is quite large (several thousand minions), they will still # flood the master. The desired behavior is to have timeframe within # all minions try to reconnect. # # Example on how to use these settings. The goal: have all minions reconnect within a # 60 second timeframe on a disconnect. # recon_default: 1000 # recon_max: 59000 # recon_randomize: True # # Each minion will have a randomized reconnect value between 'recon_default' # and 'recon_default + recon_max', which in this example means between 1000ms # 60000ms (or between 1 and 60 seconds). The generated random-value will be # doubled after each attempt to reconnect. Lets say the generated random # value is 11 seconds (or 11000ms). # reconnect 1: wait 11 seconds # reconnect 2: wait 22 seconds # reconnect 3: wait 33 seconds # reconnect 4: wait 44 seconds # reconnect 5: wait 55 seconds # reconnect 6: wait time is bigger than 60 seconds (recon_default + recon_max) # reconnect 7: wait 11 seconds # reconnect 8: wait 22 seconds # reconnect 9: wait 33 seconds # reconnect x: etc. # # In a setup with ~6000 thousand hosts these settings would average the reconnects # to about 100 per second and all hosts would be reconnected within 60 seconds. # recon_default: 100 # recon_max: 5000 # recon_randomize: False # # # The loop_interval sets how long in seconds the minion will wait between # evaluating the scheduler and running cleanup tasks. This defaults to a # sane 60 seconds, but if the minion scheduler needs to be evaluated more # often lower this value #loop_interval: 60 # The grains_refresh_every setting allows for a minion to periodically check # its grains to see if they have changed and, if so, to inform the master # of the new grains. This operation is moderately expensive, therefore # care should be taken not to set this value too low. # # Note: This value is expressed in __minutes__! # # A value of 10 minutes is a reasonable default. # # If the value is set to zero, this check is disabled. #grains_refresh_every: 1 # Cache grains on the minion. Default is False. #grains_cache: False # Grains cache expiration, in seconds. If the cache file is older than this # number of seconds then the grains cache will be dumped and fully re-populated # with fresh data. Defaults to 5 minutes. Will have no effect if 'grains_cache' # is not enabled. # grains_cache_expiration: 300 # Windows platforms lack posix IPC and must rely on slower TCP based inter- # process communications. Set ipc_mode to 'tcp' on such systems #ipc_mode: ipc # Overwrite the default tcp ports used by the minion when in tcp mode #tcp_pub_port: 4510 #tcp_pull_port: 4511 # Passing very large events can cause the minion to consume large amounts of # memory. This value tunes the maximum size of a message allowed onto the # minion event bus. The value is expressed in bytes. #max_event_size: 1048576 # To detect failed master(s) and fire events on connect/disconnect, set # master_alive_interval to the number of seconds to poll the masters for # connection events. # #master_alive_interval: 30 # The minion can include configuration from other files. To enable this, # pass a list of paths to this option. The paths can be either relative or # absolute; if relative, they are considered to be relative to the directory # the main minion configuration file lives in (this file). Paths can make use # of shell-style globbing. If no files are matched by a path passed to this # option then the minion will log a warning message. # # Include a config file from some other path: # include: /etc/salt/extra_config # # Include config from several files and directories: #include: # - /etc/salt/extra_config # - /etc/roles/webserver # # # ##### Minion module management ##### ########################################## # Disable specific modules. This allows the admin to limit the level of # access the master has to the minion. #disable_modules: [cmd,test] #disable_returners: [] # # Modules can be loaded from arbitrary paths. This enables the easy deployment # of third party modules. Modules for returners and minions can be loaded. # Specify a list of extra directories to search for minion modules and # returners. These paths must be fully qualified! #module_dirs: [] #returner_dirs: [] #states_dirs: [] #render_dirs: [] #utils_dirs: [] # # A module provider can be statically overwritten or extended for the minion # via the providers option, in this case the default module will be # overwritten by the specified module. In this example the pkg module will # be provided by the yumpkg5 module instead of the system default. #providers: # pkg: yumpkg5 # # Enable Cython modules searching and loading. (Default: False) #cython_enable: False # # Specify a max size (in bytes) for modules on import. This feature is currently # only supported on *nix operating systems and requires psutil. # modules_max_memory: -1 ##### State Management Settings ##### ########################################### # The state management system executes all of the state templates on the minion # to enable more granular control of system state management. The type of # template and serialization used for state management needs to be configured # on the minion, the default renderer is yaml_jinja. This is a yaml file # rendered from a jinja template, the available options are: # yaml_jinja # yaml_mako # yaml_wempy # json_jinja # json_mako # json_wempy # #renderer: yaml_jinja # # The failhard option tells the minions to stop immediately after the first # failure detected in the state execution. Defaults to False. #failhard: False # # Reload the modules prior to a highstate run. #autoload_dynamic_modules: True # # clean_dynamic_modules keeps the dynamic modules on the minion in sync with # the dynamic modules on the master, this means that if a dynamic module is # not on the master it will be deleted from the minion. By default, this is # enabled and can be disabled by changing this value to False. #clean_dynamic_modules: True # # Normally, the minion is not isolated to any single environment on the master # when running states, but the environment can be isolated on the minion side # by statically setting it. Remember that the recommended way to manage # environments is to isolate via the top file. #environment: None # # If using the local file directory, then the state top file name needs to be # defined, by default this is top.sls. #state_top: top.sls # # Run states when the minion daemon starts. To enable, set startup_states to: # 'highstate' -- Execute state.highstate # 'sls' -- Read in the sls_list option and execute the named sls files # 'top' -- Read top_file option and execute based on that file on the Master #startup_states: '' # # List of states to run when the minion starts up if startup_states is 'sls': #sls_list: # - edit.vim # - hyper # # Top file to execute if startup_states is 'top': #top_file: '' # Automatically aggregate all states that have support for mod_aggregate by # setting to True. Or pass a list of state module names to automatically # aggregate just those types. # # state_aggregate: # - pkg # #state_aggregate: False ##### File Directory Settings ##### ########################################## # The Salt Minion can redirect all file server operations to a local directory, # this allows for the same state tree that is on the master to be used if # copied completely onto the minion. This is a literal copy of the settings on # the master but used to reference a local directory on the minion. # Set the file client. The client defaults to looking on the master server for # files, but can be directed to look at the local file directory setting # defined below by setting it to "local". Setting a local file_client runs the # minion in masterless mode. #file_client: remote # The file directory works on environments passed to the minion, each environment # can have multiple root directories, the subdirectories in the multiple file # roots cannot match, otherwise the downloaded files will not be able to be # reliably ensured. A base environment is required to house the top file. # Example: # file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt/ # dev: # - /srv/salt/dev/services # - /srv/salt/dev/states # prod: # - /srv/salt/prod/services # - /srv/salt/prod/states # #file_roots: # base: # - /srv/salt # By default, the Salt fileserver recurses fully into all defined environments # to attempt to find files. To limit this behavior so that the fileserver only # traverses directories with SLS files and special Salt directories like _modules, # enable the option below. This might be useful for installations where a file root # has a very large number of files and performance is negatively impacted. Default # is False. #fileserver_limit_traversal: False # The hash_type is the hash to use when discovering the hash of a file in # the local fileserver. The default is sha256 but sha224, sha384 and sha512 # are also supported. # # WARNING: While md5 and sha1 are also supported, do not use it due to the high chance # of possible collisions and thus security breach. # # WARNING: While md5 is also supported, do not use it due to the high chance # of possible collisions and thus security breach. # # Warning: Prior to changing this value, the minion should be stopped and all # Salt caches should be cleared. #hash_type: sha256 # The Salt pillar is searched for locally if file_client is set to local. If # this is the case, and pillar data is defined, then the pillar_roots need to # also be configured on the minion: #pillar_roots: # base: # - /srv/pillar # # ###### Security settings ##### ########################################### # Enable "open mode", this mode still maintains encryption, but turns off # authentication, this is only intended for highly secure environments or for # the situation where your keys end up in a bad state. If you run in open mode # you do so at your own risk! #open_mode: False # Enable permissive access to the salt keys. This allows you to run the # master or minion as root, but have a non-root group be given access to # your pki_dir. To make the access explicit, root must belong to the group # you've given access to. This is potentially quite insecure. #permissive_pki_access: False # The state_verbose and state_output settings can be used to change the way # state system data is printed to the display. By default all data is printed. # The state_verbose setting can be set to True or False, when set to False # all data that has a result of True and no changes will be suppressed. #state_verbose: True # The state_output setting changes if the output is the full multi line # output for each changed state if set to 'full', but if set to 'terse' # the output will be shortened to a single line. #state_output: full # The state_output_diff setting changes whether or not the output from # successful states is returned. Useful when even the terse output of these # states is cluttering the logs. Set it to True to ignore them. #state_output_diff: False # The state_output_profile setting changes whether profile information # will be shown for each state run. #state_output_profile: True # Fingerprint of the master public key to validate the identity of your Salt master # before the initial key exchange. The master fingerprint can be found by running # "salt-key -F master" on the Salt master. #master_finger: '' ###### Thread settings ##### ########################################### # Disable multiprocessing support, by default when a minion receives a # publication a new process is spawned and the command is executed therein. #multiprocessing: True ##### Logging settings ##### ########################################## # The location of the minion log file # The minion log can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network # location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.: # ``file:///dev/log``), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The URI # format is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility> #log_file: /var/log/salt/minion #log_file: file:///dev/log #log_file: udp://loghost:10514 # #log_file: /var/log/salt/minion #key_logfile: /var/log/salt/key # The level of messages to send to the console. # One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'. # # The following log levels are considered INSECURE and may log sensitive data: # ['garbage', 'trace', 'debug'] # # Default: 'warning' #log_level: warning # The level of messages to send to the log file. # One of 'garbage', 'trace', 'debug', info', 'warning', 'error', 'critical'. # If using 'log_granular_levels' this must be set to the highest desired level. # Default: 'warning' #log_level_logfile: # The date and time format used in log messages. Allowed date/time formatting # can be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/time.html#time.strftime #log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S' #log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' # The format of the console logging messages. Allowed formatting options can # be seen here: http://docs.python.org/library/logging.html#logrecord-attributes # # Console log colors are specified by these additional formatters: # # %(colorlevel)s # %(colorname)s # %(colorprocess)s # %(colormsg)s # # Since it is desirable to include the surrounding brackets, '[' and ']', in # the coloring of the messages, these color formatters also include padding as # well. Color LogRecord attributes are only available for console logging. # #log_fmt_console: '%(colorlevel)s %(colormsg)s' #log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' # #log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' # This can be used to control logging levels more specificically. This # example sets the main salt library at the 'warning' level, but sets # 'salt.modules' to log at the 'debug' level: # log_granular_levels: # 'salt': 'warning' # 'salt.modules': 'debug' # #log_granular_levels: {} # To diagnose issues with minions disconnecting or missing returns, ZeroMQ # supports the use of monitor sockets # to log connection events. This # feature requires ZeroMQ 4.0 or higher. # # To enable ZeroMQ monitor sockets, set 'zmq_monitor' to 'True' and log at a # debug level or higher. # # A sample log event is as follows: # # [DEBUG ] ZeroMQ event: {'endpoint': 'tcp://127.0.0.1:4505', 'event': 512, # 'value': 27, 'description': 'EVENT_DISCONNECTED'} # # All events logged will include the string 'ZeroMQ event'. A connection event # should be logged on the as the minion starts up and initially connects to the # master. If not, check for debug log level and that the necessary version of # ZeroMQ is installed. # #zmq_monitor: False ###### Module configuration ##### ########################################### # Salt allows for modules to be passed arbitrary configuration data, any data # passed here in valid yaml format will be passed on to the salt minion modules # for use. It is STRONGLY recommended that a naming convention be used in which # the module name is followed by a . and then the value. Also, all top level # data must be applied via the yaml dict construct, some examples: # # You can specify that all modules should run in test mode: #test: True # # A simple value for the test module: #test.foo: foo # # A list for the test module: #test.bar: [baz,quo] # # A dict for the test module: #test.baz: {spam: sausage, cheese: bread} # # ###### Update settings ###### ########################################### # Using the features in Esky, a salt minion can both run as a frozen app and # be updated on the fly. These options control how the update process # (saltutil.update()) behaves. # # The url for finding and downloading updates. Disabled by default. #update_url: False # # The list of services to restart after a successful update. Empty by default. #update_restart_services: [] ###### Keepalive settings ###### ############################################ # ZeroMQ now includes support for configuring SO_KEEPALIVE if supported by # the OS. If connections between the minion and the master pass through # a state tracking device such as a firewall or VPN gateway, there is # the risk that it could tear down the connection the master and minion # without informing either party that their connection has been taken away. # Enabling TCP Keepalives prevents this from happening. # Overall state of TCP Keepalives, enable (1 or True), disable (0 or False) # or leave to the OS defaults (-1), on Linux, typically disabled. Default True, enabled. #tcp_keepalive: True # How long before the first keepalive should be sent in seconds. Default 300 # to send the first keepalive after 5 minutes, OS default (-1) is typically 7200 seconds # on Linux see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. #tcp_keepalive_idle: 300 # How many lost probes are needed to consider the connection lost. Default -1 # to use OS defaults, typically 9 on Linux, see /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. #tcp_keepalive_cnt: -1 # How often, in seconds, to send keepalives after the first one. Default -1 to # use OS defaults, typically 75 seconds on Linux, see # /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. #tcp_keepalive_intvl: -1 ###### Windows Software settings ###### ############################################ # Location of the repository cache file on the master: #win_repo_cachefile: 'salt://win/repo/winrepo.p' ###### Returner settings ###### ############################################ # Which returner(s) will be used for minion's result: #return: mysql Minion Blackout Configuration New in version 2016.3.0. Salt supports minion blackouts. When a minion is in blackout mode, all remote execution commands are disabled. This allows production minions to be put "on hold", eliminating the risk of an untimely configuration change. Minion blackouts are configured via a special pillar key, minion_blackout. If this key is set to True, then the minion will reject all incoming commands, except for saltutil.refresh_pillar. (The exception is important, so minions can be brought out of blackout mode) Salt also supports an explicit whitelist of additional functions that will be allowed dur‐ ing blackout. This is configured with the special pillar key minion_blackout_whitelist, which is formed as a list: minion_blackout_whitelist: - test.ping - pillar.get Access Control System New in version 0.10.4. Salt maintains a standard system used to open granular control to non administrative users to execute Salt commands. The access control system has been applied to all systems used to configure access to non administrative control interfaces in Salt. These interfaces include, the peer system, the external auth system and the publisher acl system. The access control system mandated a standard configuration syntax used in all of the three aforementioned systems. While this adds functionality to the configuration in 0.10.4, it does not negate the old configuration. Now specific functions can be opened up to specific minions from specific users in the case of external auth and publisher ACLs, and for specific minions in the case of the peer system. Publisher ACL system The salt publisher ACL system is a means to allow system users other than root to have access to execute select salt commands on minions from the master. The publisher ACL system is configured in the master configuration file via the pub‐ lisher_acl configuration option. Under the publisher_acl configuration option the users open to send commands are specified and then a list of regular expressions which specify the minion functions which will be made available to specified user. This configuration is much like the peer configuration: publisher_acl: # Allow thatch to execute anything. thatch: - .* # Allow fred to use test and pkg, but only on "web*" minions. fred: - web*: - test.* - pkg.* # Allow managers to use saltutil module functions manager_.*: - saltutil.* Permission Issues Directories required for publisher_acl must be modified to be readable by the users speci‐ fied: chmod 755 /var/cache/salt /var/cache/salt/master /var/cache/salt/master/jobs /var/run/salt ↲ /var/run/salt/master NOTE: In addition to the changes above you will also need to modify the permissions of /var/log/salt and the existing log file to be writable by the user(s) which will be running the commands. If you do not wish to do this then you must disable logging or Salt will generate errors as it cannot write to the logs as the system users. If you are upgrading from earlier versions of salt you must also remove any existing user keys and re-start the Salt master: rm /var/cache/salt/.*key service salt-master restart Whitelist and Blacklist Salt's authentication systems can be configured by specifying what is allowed using a whitelist, or by specifying what is disallowed using a blacklist. If you specify a whitelist, only specified operations are allowed. If you specify a blacklist, all opera‐ tions are allowed except those that are blacklisted. See publisher_acl and publisher_acl_blacklist. External Authentication System Salt's External Authentication System (eAuth) allows for Salt to pass through command authorization to any external authentication system, such as PAM or LDAP. NOTE: eAuth using the PAM external auth system requires salt-master to be run as root as this system needs root access to check authentication. External Authentication System Configuration The external authentication system allows for specific users to be granted access to exe‐ cute specific functions on specific minions. Access is configured in the master configura‐ tion file and uses the access control system: external_auth: pam: thatch: - 'web*': - test.* - network.* steve: - .* The above configuration allows the user thatch to execute functions in the test and net‐ work modules on the minions that match the web* target. User steve is given unrestricted access to minion commands. Salt respects the current PAM configuration in place, and uses the 'login' service to authenticate. NOTE: The PAM module does not allow authenticating as root. NOTE: state.sls and state.highstate will return "Failed to authenticate!" if the request timeout is reached. Use -t flag to increase the timeout To allow access to wheel modules or runner modules the following @ syntax must be used: external_auth: pam: thatch: - '@wheel' # to allow access to all wheel modules - '@runner' # to allow access to all runner modules - '@jobs' # to allow access to the jobs runner and/or wheel module NOTE: The runner/wheel markup is different, since there are no minions to scope the acl to. NOTE: Globs will not match wheel or runners! They must be explicitly allowed with @wheel or @runner. WARNING: All users that have external authentication privileges are allowed to run saltutil.findjob. Be aware that this could inadvertently expose some data such as min‐ ion IDs. Matching syntax The structure of the external_auth dictionary can take the following shapes. Function matches are regular expressions; minion matches are compound targets. By user: external_auth: <eauth backend>: <user or group%>: - <regex to match function> By user, by minion: external_auth: <eauth backend>: <user or group%>: <minion compound target>: - <regex to match function> Groups To apply permissions to a group of users in an external authentication system, append a % to the ID: external_auth: pam: admins%: - '*': - 'pkg.*' Limiting by function arguments Positional arguments or keyword arguments to functions can also be whitelisted. New in version 2016.3.0. external_auth: pam: my_user: - '*': - 'my_mod.*': args: - 'a.*' - 'b.*' kwargs: 'kwa': 'kwa.*' 'kwb': 'kwb' The rules: 1. The arguments values are matched as regexp. 2. If arguments restrictions are specified the only matched are allowed. 3. If an argument isn't specified any value is allowed. 4. To skip an arg use "everything" regexp .*. I.e. if arg0 and arg2 should be limited but arg1 and other arguments could have any value use: args: - 'value0' - '.*' - 'value2' Usage The external authentication system can then be used from the command-line by any user on the same system as the master with the -a option: $ salt -a pam web\* test.ping The system will ask the user for the credentials required by the authentication system and then publish the command. Tokens With external authentication alone, the authentication credentials will be required with every call to Salt. This can be alleviated with Salt tokens. Tokens are short term authorizations and can be easily created by just adding a -T option when authenticating: $ salt -T -a pam web\* test.ping Now a token will be created that has an expiration of 12 hours (by default). This token is stored in a file named salt_token in the active user's home directory. Once the token is created, it is sent with all subsequent communications. User authenti‐ cation does not need to be entered again until the token expires. Token expiration time can be set in the Salt master config file. LDAP and Active Directory NOTE: LDAP usage requires that you have installed python-ldap. Salt supports both user and group authentication for LDAP (and Active Directory accessed via its LDAP interface) OpenLDAP and similar systems LDAP configuration happens in the Salt master configuration file. Server configuration values and their defaults: # Server to auth against auth.ldap.server: localhost # Port to connect via auth.ldap.port: 389 # Use TLS when connecting auth.ldap.tls: False # LDAP scope level, almost always 2 auth.ldap.scope: 2 # Server specified in URI format auth.ldap.uri: '' # Overrides .ldap.server, .ldap.port, .ldap.tls above # Verify server's TLS certificate auth.ldap.no_verify: False # Bind to LDAP anonymously to determine group membership # Active Directory does not allow anonymous binds without special configuration # In addition, if auth.ldap.anonymous is True, empty bind passwords are not permitted. auth.ldap.anonymous: False # FOR TESTING ONLY, this is a VERY insecure setting. # If this is True, the LDAP bind password will be ignored and # access will be determined by group membership alone with # the group memberships being retrieved via anonymous bind auth.ldap.auth_by_group_membership_only: False # Require authenticating user to be part of this Organizational Unit # This can be blank if your LDAP schema does not use this kind of OU auth.ldap.groupou: 'Groups' # Object Class for groups. An LDAP search will be done to find all groups of this # class to which the authenticating user belongs. auth.ldap.groupclass: 'posixGroup' # Unique ID attribute name for the user auth.ldap.accountattributename: 'memberUid' # These are only for Active Directory auth.ldap.activedirectory: False auth.ldap.persontype: 'person' auth.ldap.minion_stripdomains: [] # Redhat Identity Policy Audit auth.ldap.freeipa: False Authenticating to the LDAP Server There are two phases to LDAP authentication. First, Salt authenticates to search for a users' Distinguished Name and group membership. The user it authenticates as in this phase is often a special LDAP system user with read-only access to the LDAP directory. After Salt searches the directory to determine the actual user's DN and groups, it re-authenticates as the user running the Salt commands. If you are already aware of the structure of your DNs and permissions in your LDAP store are set such that users can look up their own group memberships, then the first and second users can be the same. To tell Salt this is the case, omit the auth.ldap.bindpw parame‐ ter. Note this is not the same thing as using an anonymous bind. Most LDAP servers will not permit anonymous bind, and as mentioned above, if auth.ldap.anonymous is False you cannot use an empty password. You can template the binddn like this: auth.ldap.basedn: dc=saltstack,dc=com auth.ldap.binddn: uid={{ username }},cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=saltstack,dc=com Salt will use the password entered on the salt command line in place of the bindpw. To use two separate users, specify the LDAP lookup user in the binddn directive, and include a bindpw like so auth.ldap.binddn: uid=ldaplookup,cn=sysaccounts,cn=etc,dc=saltstack,dc=com auth.ldap.bindpw: mypassword As mentioned before, Salt uses a filter to find the DN associated with a user. Salt sub‐ stitutes the {{ username }} value for the username when querying LDAP auth.ldap.filter: uid={{ username }} Determining Group Memberships (OpenLDAP / non-Active Directory) For OpenLDAP, to determine group membership, one can specify an OU that contains group data. This is prepended to the basedn to create a search path. Then the results are fil‐ tered against auth.ldap.groupclass, default posixGroup, and the account's 'name' attribute, memberUid by default. auth.ldap.groupou: Groups Note that as of 2017.7, auth.ldap.groupclass can refer to either a groupclass or an objectClass. For some LDAP servers (notably OpenLDAP without the memberOf overlay enabled) to determine group membership we need to know both the objectClass and the mem‐ berUid attributes. Usually for these servers you will want a auth.ldap.groupclass of posixGroup and an auth.ldap.groupattribute of memberUid. LDAP servers with the memberOf overlay will have entries similar to auth.ldap.groupclass: person and auth.ldap.groupattribute: memberOf. When using the ldap('DC=domain,DC=com') eauth operator, sometimes the records returned from LDAP or Active Directory have fully-qualified domain names attached, while minion IDs instead are simple hostnames. The parameter below allows the administrator to strip off a certain set of domain names so the hostnames looked up in the directory service can match the minion IDs. auth.ldap.minion_stripdomains: ['.external.bigcorp.com', '.internal.bigcorp.com'] Determining Group Memberships (Active Directory) Active Directory handles group membership differently, and does not utilize the groupou configuration variable. AD needs the following options in the master config: auth.ldap.activedirectory: True auth.ldap.filter: sAMAccountName={{username}} auth.ldap.accountattributename: sAMAccountName auth.ldap.groupclass: group auth.ldap.persontype: person To determine group membership in AD, the username and password that is entered when LDAP is requested as the eAuth mechanism on the command line is used to bind to AD's LDAP interface. If this fails, then it doesn't matter what groups the user belongs to, he or she is denied access. Next, the distinguishedName of the user is looked up with the fol‐ lowing LDAP search: (&(<value of auth.ldap.accountattributename>={{username}}) (objectClass=<value of auth.ldap.persontype>) ) This should return a distinguishedName that we can use to filter for group membership. Then the following LDAP query is executed: (&(member=<distinguishedName from search above>) (objectClass=<value of auth.ldap.groupclass>) ) external_auth: ldap: test_ldap_user: - '*': - test.ping To configure a LDAP group, append a % to the ID: external_auth: ldap: test_ldap_group%: - '*': - test.echo In addition, if there are a set of computers in the directory service that should be part of the eAuth definition, they can be specified like this: external_auth: ldap: test_ldap_group%: - ldap('DC=corp,DC=example,DC=com'): - test.echo The string inside ldap() above is any valid LDAP/AD tree limiter. OU= in particular is permitted as long as it would return a list of computer objects. Peer Communication Salt 0.9.0 introduced the capability for Salt minions to publish commands. The intent of this feature is not for Salt minions to act as independent brokers one with another, but to allow Salt minions to pass commands to each other. In Salt 0.10.0 the ability to execute runners from the master was added. This allows for the master to return collective data from runners back to the minions via the peer inter‐ face. The peer interface is configured through two options in the master configuration file. For minions to send commands from the master the peer configuration is used. To allow for min‐ ions to execute runners from the master the peer_run configuration is used. Since this presents a viable security risk by allowing minions access to the master pub‐ lisher the capability is turned off by default. The minions can be allowed access to the master publisher on a per minion basis based on regular expressions. Minions with specific ids can be allowed access to certain Salt modules and functions. Peer Configuration The configuration is done under the peer setting in the Salt master configuration file, here are a number of configuration possibilities. The simplest approach is to enable all communication for all minions, this is only recom‐ mended for very secure environments. peer: .*: - .* This configuration will allow minions with IDs ending in example.com access to the test, ps, and pkg module functions. peer: .*example.com: - test.* - ps.* - pkg.* The configuration logic is simple, a regular expression is passed for matching minion ids, and then a list of expressions matching minion functions is associated with the named min‐ ion. For instance, this configuration will also allow minions ending with foo.org access to the publisher. peer: .*example.com: - test.* - ps.* - pkg.* .*foo.org: - test.* - ps.* - pkg.* NOTE: Functions are matched using regular expressions. Peer Runner Communication Configuration to allow minions to execute runners from the master is done via the peer_run option on the master. The peer_run configuration follows the same logic as the peer option. The only difference is that access is granted to runner modules. To open up access to all minions to all runners: peer_run: .*: - .* This configuration will allow minions with IDs ending in example.com access to the manage and jobs runner functions. peer_run: .*example.com: - manage.* - jobs.* NOTE: Functions are matched using regular expressions. Using Peer Communication The publish module was created to manage peer communication. The publish module comes with a number of functions to execute peer communication in different ways. Currently there are three functions in the publish module. These examples will show how to test the peer sys‐ tem via the salt-call command. To execute test.ping on all minions: # salt-call publish.publish \* test.ping To execute the manage.up runner: # salt-call publish.runner manage.up To match minions using other matchers, use tgt_type: # salt-call publish.publish 'webserv* and not G@os:Ubuntu' test.ping tgt_type='compound' NOTE: In pre-2017.7.0 releases, use expr_form instead of tgt_type. When to Use Each Authentication System publisher_acl is useful for allowing local system users to run Salt commands without giv‐ ing them root access. If you can log into the Salt master directly, then publisher_acl allows you to use Salt without root privileges. If the local system is configured to authenticate against a remote system, like LDAP or Active Directory, then publisher_acl will interact with the remote system transparently. external_auth is useful for salt-api or for making your own scripts that use Salt's Python API. It can be used at the CLI (with the -a flag) but it is more cumbersome as there are more steps involved. The only time it is useful at the CLI is when the local system is not configured to authenticate against an external service but you still want Salt to authenticate against an external service. Examples The access controls are manifested using matchers in these configurations: publisher_acl: fred: - web\*: - pkg.list_pkgs - test.* - apache.* In the above example, fred is able to send commands only to minions which match the speci‐ fied glob target. This can be expanded to include other functions for other minions based on standard targets (all matchers are supported except the compound one). external_auth: pam: dave: - test.ping - mongo\*: - network.* - log\*: - network.* - pkg.* - 'G@os:RedHat': - kmod.* steve: - .* The above allows for all minions to be hit by test.ping by dave, and adds a few functions that dave can execute on other minions. It also allows steve unrestricted access to salt commands. NOTE: Functions are matched using regular expressions. Job Management New in version 0.9.7. Since Salt executes jobs running on many systems, Salt needs to be able to manage jobs running on many systems. The Minion proc System Salt Minions maintain a proc directory in the Salt cachedir. The proc directory maintains files named after the executed job ID. These files contain the information about the cur‐ rent running jobs on the minion and allow for jobs to be looked up. This is located in the proc directory under the cachedir, with a default configuration it is under /var/cache/salt/proc. Functions in the saltutil Module Salt 0.9.7 introduced a few new functions to the saltutil module for managing jobs. These functions are: 1. running Returns the data of all running jobs that are found in the proc directory. 2. find_job Returns specific data about a certain job based on job id. 3. signal_job Allows for a given jid to be sent a signal. 4. term_job Sends a termination signal (SIGTERM, 15) to the process controlling the speci‐ fied job. 5. kill_job Sends a kill signal (SIGKILL, 9) to the process controlling the specified job. These functions make up the core of the back end used to manage jobs at the minion level. The jobs Runner A convenience runner front end and reporting system has been added as well. The jobs run‐ ner contains functions to make viewing data easier and cleaner. The jobs runner contains a number of functions... active The active function runs saltutil.running on all minions and formats the return data about all running jobs in a much more usable and compact format. The active function will also compare jobs that have returned and jobs that are still running, making it easier to see what systems have completed a job and what systems are still being waited on. # salt-run jobs.active lookup_jid When jobs are executed the return data is sent back to the master and cached. By default it is cached for 24 hours, but this can be configured via the keep_jobs option in the mas‐ ter configuration. Using the lookup_jid runner will display the same return data that the initial job invocation with the salt command would display. # salt-run jobs.lookup_jid <job id number> list_jobs Before finding a historic job, it may be required to find the job id. list_jobs will parse the cached execution data and display all of the job data for jobs that have already, or partially returned. # salt-run jobs.list_jobs Scheduling Jobs Salt's scheduling system allows incremental executions on minions or the master. The schedule system exposes the execution of any execution function on minions or any runner on the master. Scheduling can be enabled by multiple methods: · schedule option in either the master or minion config files. These require the master or minion application to be restarted in order for the schedule to be implemented. · Minion pillar data. Schedule is implemented by refreshing the minion's pillar data, for example by using saltutil.refresh_pillar. · The schedule state or schedule module NOTE: The scheduler executes different functions on the master and minions. When running on the master the functions reference runner functions, when running on the minion the functions specify execution functions. A scheduled run has no output on the minion unless the config is set to info level or higher. Refer to minion-logging-settings. States are executed on the minion, as all states are. You can pass positional arguments and provide a YAML dict of named arguments. schedule: job1: function: state.sls seconds: 3600 args: - httpd kwargs: test: True This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour). schedule: job1: function: state.sls seconds: 3600 args: - httpd kwargs: test: True splay: 15 This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) splaying the time between 0 and 15 seconds. schedule: job1: function: state.sls seconds: 3600 args: - httpd kwargs: test: True splay: start: 10 end: 15 This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) splaying the time between 10 and 15 seconds. Schedule by Date and Time New in version 2014.7.0. Frequency of jobs can also be specified using date strings supported by the Python dateu‐ til library. This requires the Python dateutil library to be installed. schedule: job1: function: state.sls args: - httpd kwargs: test: True when: 5:00pm This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True at 5:00 PM minion localtime. schedule: job1: function: state.sls args: - httpd kwargs: test: True when: - Monday 5:00pm - Tuesday 3:00pm - Wednesday 5:00pm - Thursday 3:00pm - Friday 5:00pm This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True at 5:00 PM on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, and 3:00 PM on Tuesday and Thursday. schedule: job1: function: state.sls seconds: 3600 args: - httpd kwargs: test: True range: start: 8:00am end: 5:00pm This will schedule the command: state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) between the hours of 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM. The range parameter must be a dictionary with the date strings using the dateutil format. schedule: job1: function: state.sls seconds: 3600 args: - httpd kwargs: test: True range: invert: True start: 8:00am end: 5:00pm Using the invert option for range, this will schedule the command state.sls httpd test=True every 3600 seconds (every hour) until the current time is between the hours of 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM. The range parameter must be a dictionary with the date strings using the dateutil format. schedule: job1: function: pkg.install kwargs: pkgs: [{'bar': '>1.2.3'}] refresh: true once: '2016-01-07T14:30:00' This will schedule the function pkg.install to be executed once at the specified time. The schedule entry job1 will not be removed after the job completes, therefore use sched‐ ule.delete to manually remove it afterwards. The default date format is ISO 8601 but can be overridden by also specifying the once_fmt option, like this: schedule: job1: function: test.ping once: 2015-04-22T20:21:00 once_fmt: '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S' Maximum Parallel Jobs Running New in version 2014.7.0. The scheduler also supports ensuring that there are no more than N copies of a particular routine running. Use this for jobs that may be long-running and could step on each other or pile up in case of infrastructure outage. The default for maxrunning is 1. schedule: long_running_job: function: big_file_transfer jid_include: True maxrunning: 1 Cron-like Schedule New in version 2014.7.0. schedule: job1: function: state.sls cron: '*/15 * * * *' args: - httpd kwargs: test: True The scheduler also supports scheduling jobs using a cron like format. This requires the Python croniter library. Job Data Return New in version 2015.5.0. By default, data about jobs runs from the Salt scheduler is returned to the master. Set‐ ting the return_job parameter to False will prevent the data from being sent back to the Salt master. schedule: job1: function: scheduled_job_function return_job: False Job Metadata New in version 2015.5.0. It can be useful to include specific data to differentiate a job from other jobs. Using the metadata parameter special values can be associated with a scheduled job. These values are not used in the execution of the job, but can be used to search for specific jobs later if combined with the return_job parameter. The metadata parameter must be specified as a dictionary, othewise it will be ignored. schedule: job1: function: scheduled_job_function metadata: foo: bar Run on Start New in version 2015.5.0. By default, any job scheduled based on the startup time of the minion will run the sched‐ uled job when the minion starts up. Sometimes this is not the desired situation. Using the run_on_start parameter set to False will cause the scheduler to skip this first run and wait until the next scheduled run: schedule: job1: function: state.sls seconds: 3600 run_on_start: False args: - httpd kwargs: test: True Until and After New in version 2015.8.0. schedule: job1: function: state.sls seconds: 15 until: '12/31/2015 11:59pm' args: - httpd kwargs: test: True Using the until argument, the Salt scheduler allows you to specify an end time for a scheduled job. If this argument is specified, jobs will not run once the specified time has passed. Time should be specified in a format supported by the dateutil library. This requires the Python dateutil library to be installed. New in version 2015.8.0. schedule: job1: function: state.sls seconds: 15 after: '12/31/2015 11:59pm' args: - httpd kwargs: test: True Using the after argument, the Salt scheduler allows you to specify an start time for a scheduled job. If this argument is specified, jobs will not run until the specified time has passed. Time should be specified in a format supported by the dateutil library. This requires the Python dateutil library to be installed. Scheduling States schedule: log-loadavg: function: cmd.run seconds: 3660 args: - 'logger -t salt < /proc/loadavg' kwargs: stateful: False shell: /bin/sh Scheduling Highstates To set up a highstate to run on a minion every 60 minutes set this in the minion config or pillar: schedule: highstate: function: state.highstate minutes: 60 Time intervals can be specified as seconds, minutes, hours, or days. Scheduling Runners Runner executions can also be specified on the master within the master configuration file: schedule: run_my_orch: function: state.orchestrate hours: 6 splay: 600 args: - orchestration.my_orch The above configuration is analogous to running salt-run state.orch orchestration.my_orch every 6 hours. Scheduler With Returner The scheduler is also useful for tasks like gathering monitoring data about a minion, this schedule option will gather status data and send it to a MySQL returner database: schedule: uptime: function: status.uptime seconds: 60 returner: mysql meminfo: function: status.meminfo minutes: 5 returner: mysql Since specifying the returner repeatedly can be tiresome, the schedule_returner option is available to specify one or a list of global returners to be used by the minions when scheduling. Managing the Job Cache The Salt Master maintains a job cache of all job executions which can be queried via the jobs runner. This job cache is called the Default Job Cache. Default Job Cache A number of options are available when configuring the job cache. The default caching sys‐ tem uses local storage on the Salt Master and can be found in the job cache directory (on Linux systems this is typically /var/cache/salt/master/jobs). The default caching system is suitable for most deployments as it does not typically require any further configura‐ tion or management. The default job cache is a temporary cache and jobs will be stored for 24 hours. If the default cache needs to store jobs for a different period the time can be easily adjusted by changing the keep_jobs parameter in the Salt Master configuration file. The value passed in is measured via hours: keep_jobs: 24 Reducing the Size of the Default Job Cache The Default Job Cache can sometimes be a burden on larger deployments (over 5000 minions). Disabling the job cache will make previously executed jobs unavailable to the jobs system and is not generally recommended. Normally it is wise to make sure the master has access to a faster IO system or a tmpfs is mounted to the jobs dir. However, you can disable the job_cache by setting it to False in the Salt Master configu‐ ration file. Setting this value to False means that the Salt Master will no longer cache minion returns, but a JID directory and jid file for each job will still be created. This JID directory is necessary for checking for and preventing JID collisions. The default location for the job cache is in the /var/cache/salt/master/jobs/ directory. Setting the job_cache` to False in addition to setting the keep_jobs option to a smaller value, such as 1, in the Salt Master configuration file will reduce the size of the Default Job Cache, and thus the burden on the Salt Master. NOTE: Changing the keep_jobs option sets the number of hours to keep old job information and defaults to 24 hours. Do not set this value to 0 when trying to make the cache cleaner run more frequently, as this means the cache cleaner will never run. Additional Job Cache Options Many deployments may wish to use an external database to maintain a long term register of executed jobs. Salt comes with two main mechanisms to do this, the master job cache and the external job cache. See Storing Job Results in an External System. Storing Job Results in an External System After a job executes, job results are returned to the Salt Master by each Salt Minion. These results are stored in the Default Job Cache. In addition to the Default Job Cache, Salt provides two additional mechanisms to send job results to other systems (databases, local syslog, and others): · External Job Cache · Master Job Cache The major difference between these two mechanism is from where results are returned (from the Salt Master or Salt Minion). Configuring either of these options will also make the Jobs Runner functions to automatically query the remote stores for infomation. External Job Cache - Minion-Side Returner When an External Job Cache is configured, data is returned to the Default Job Cache on the Salt Master like usual, and then results are also sent to an External Job Cache using a Salt returner module running on the Salt Minion. [image] · Advantages: Data is stored without placing additional load on the Salt Master. · Disadvantages: Each Salt Minion connects to the external job cache, which can result in a large number of connections. Also requires additional configuration to get returner module settings on all Salt Minions. Master Job Cache - Master-Side Returner New in version 2014.7.0. Instead of configuring an External Job Cache on each Salt Minion, you can configure the Master Job Cache to send job results from the Salt Master instead. In this configuration, Salt Minions send data to the Default Job Cache as usual, and then the Salt Master sends the data to the external system using a Salt returner module running on the Salt Master. [image] · Advantages: A single connection is required to the external system. This is preferred for databases and similar systems. · Disadvantages: Places additional load on your Salt Master. Configure an External or Master Job Cache Step 1: Understand Salt Returners Before you configure a job cache, it is essential to understand Salt returner modules ("returners"). Returners are pluggable Salt Modules that take the data returned by jobs, and then perform any necessary steps to send the data to an external system. For example, a returner might establish a connection, authenticate, and then format and transfer data. The Salt Returner system provides the core functionality used by the External and Master Job Cache systems, and the same returners are used by both systems. Salt currently provides many different returners that let you connect to a wide variety of systems. A complete list is available at all Salt returners. Each returner is configured differently, so make sure you read and follow the instructions linked from that page. For example, the MySQL returner requires: · A database created using provided schema (structure is available at MySQL returner) · A user created with privileges to the database · Optional SSL configuration A simpler returner, such as Slack or HipChat, requires: · An API key/version · The target channel/room · The username that should be used to send the message Step 2: Configure the Returner After you understand the configuration and have the external system ready, the configura‐ tion requirements must be declared. External Job Cache The returner configuration settings can be declared in the Salt Minion configuration file, the Minion's pillar data, or the Minion's grains. If external_job_cache configuration settings are specified in more than one place, the options are retrieved in the following order. The first configuration location that is found is the one that will be used. · Minion configuration file · Minion's grains · Minion's pillar data Master Job Cache The returner configuration settings for the Master Job Cache should be declared in the Salt Master's configuration file. Configuration File Examples MySQL requires: mysql.host: 'salt' mysql.user: 'salt' mysql.pass: 'salt' mysql.db: 'salt' mysql.port: 3306 Slack requires: slack.channel: 'channel' slack.api_key: 'key' slack.from_name: 'name' After you have configured the returner and added settings to the configuration file, you can enable the External or Master Job Cache. Step 3: Enable the External or Master Job Cache Configuration is a single line that specifies an already-configured returner to use to send all job data to an external system. External Job Cache To enable a returner as the External Job Cache (Minion-side), add the following line to the Salt Master configuration file: ext_job_cache: <returner> For example: ext_job_cache: mysql NOTE: When configuring an External Job Cache (Minion-side), the returner settings are added to the Minion configuration file, but the External Job Cache setting is configured in the Master configuration file. Master Job Cache To enable a returner as a Master Job Cache (Master-side), add the following line to the Salt Master configuration file: master_job_cache: <returner> For example: master_job_cache: mysql Verify that the returner configuration settings are in the Master configuration file, and be sure to restart the salt-master service after you make configuration changes. (service salt-master restart). Logging The salt project tries to get the logging to work for you and help us solve any issues you might find along the way. If you want to get some more information on the nitty-gritty of salt's logging system, please head over to the logging development document, if all you're after is salt's log‐ ging configurations, please continue reading. Log Levels The log levels are ordered numerically such that setting the log level to a specific level will record all log statements at that level and higher. For example, setting log_level: error will log statements at error, critical, and quiet levels, although nothing should be logged at quiet level. Most of the logging levels are defined by default in Python's logging library and can be found in the official Python documentation. Salt uses some more levels in addition to the standard levels. All levels available in salt are shown in the table below. NOTE: Python dependencies used by salt may define and use additional logging levels. For example, the Python 2 version of the multiprocessing standard Python library uses the levels subwarning, 25 and subdebug, 5. ┌─────────┬───────────────┬──────────────────────────┐ │Level │ Numeric value │ Description │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │quiet │ 1000 │ Nothing should be logged │ │ │ │ at this level │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │critical │ 50 │ Critical errors │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │error │ 40 │ Errors │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │warning │ 30 │ Warnings │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │info │ 20 │ Normal log information │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │profile │ 15 │ Profiling information on │ │ │ │ salt performance │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │debug │ 10 │ Information useful for │ │ │ │ debugging both salt │ │ │ │ implementations and salt │ │ │ │ code │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │trace │ 5 │ More detailed code │ │ │ │ debugging information │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │garbage │ 1 │ Even more debugging │ │ │ │ information │ ├─────────┼───────────────┼──────────────────────────┤ │all │ 0 │ Everything │ └─────────┴───────────────┴──────────────────────────┘ Available Configuration Settings log_file The log records can be sent to a regular file, local path name, or network location. Remote logging works best when configured to use rsyslogd(8) (e.g.: file:///dev/log), with rsyslogd(8) configured for network logging. The format for remote addresses is: <file|udp|tcp>://<host|socketpath>:<port-if-required>/<log-facility>. Where log-facility is the symbolic name of a syslog facility as defined in the SysLogHandler documentation . It defaults to LOG_USER. Default: Dependent of the binary being executed, for example, for salt-master, /var/log/salt/master. Examples: log_file: /var/log/salt/master log_file: /var/log/salt/minion log_file: file:///dev/log log_file: file:///dev/log/LOG_DAEMON log_file: udp://loghost:10514 log_level Default: warning The level of log record messages to send to the console. One of all, garbage, trace, debug, profile, info, warning, error, critical, quiet. log_level: warning NOTE: Add log_level: quiet in salt configuration file to completely disable logging. In case of running salt in command line use --log-level=quiet instead. log_level_logfile Default: info The level of messages to send to the log file. One of all, garbage, trace, debug, profile, info, warning, error, critical, quiet. log_level_logfile: warning log_datefmt Default: %H:%M:%S The date and time format used in console log messages. Allowed date/time formatting can be seen on time.strftime. log_datefmt: '%H:%M:%S' log_datefmt_logfile Default: %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S The date and time format used in log file messages. Allowed date/time formatting can be seen on time.strftime. log_datefmt_logfile: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S' log_fmt_console Default: [%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s The format of the console logging messages. All standard python logging LogRecord attributes can be used. Salt also provides these custom LogRecord attributes to colorize console log output: '%(colorlevel)s' # log level name colorized by level '%(colorname)s' # colorized module name '%(colorprocess)s' # colorized process number '%(colormsg)s' # log message colorized by level NOTE: The %(colorlevel)s, %(colorname)s, and %(colorprocess) LogRecord attributes also include padding and enclosing brackets, [ and ] to match the default values of their collateral non-colorized LogRecord attributes. log_fmt_console: '[%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' log_fmt_logfile Default: %(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s The format of the log file logging messages. All standard python logging LogRecord attributes can be used. Salt also provides these custom LogRecord attributes that include padding and enclosing brackets [ and ]: '%(bracketlevel)s' # equivalent to [%(levelname)-8s] '%(bracketname)s' # equivalent to [%(name)-17s] '%(bracketprocess)s' # equivalent to [%(process)5s] log_fmt_logfile: '%(asctime)s,%(msecs)03d [%(name)-17s][%(levelname)-8s] %(message)s' log_granular_levels Default: {} This can be used to control logging levels more specifically, based on log call name. The example sets the main salt library at the 'warning' level, sets salt.modules to log at the debug level, and sets a custom module to the all level: log_granular_levels: 'salt': 'warning' 'salt.modules': 'debug' 'salt.loader.saltmaster.ext.module.custom_module': 'all' External Logging Handlers Besides the internal logging handlers used by salt, there are some external which can be used, see the external logging handlers document. Salt File Server Salt comes with a simple file server suitable for distributing files to the Salt minions. The file server is a stateless ZeroMQ server that is built into the Salt master. The main intent of the Salt file server is to present files for use in the Salt state sys‐ tem. With this said, the Salt file server can be used for any general file transfer from the master to the minions. File Server Backends In Salt 0.12.0, the modular fileserver was introduced. This feature added the ability for the Salt Master to integrate different file server backends. File server backends allow the Salt file server to act as a transparent bridge to external resources. A good example of this is the git backend, which allows Salt to serve files sourced from one or more git repositories, but there are several others as well. Click here for a full list of Salt's fileserver backends. Enabling a Fileserver Backend Fileserver backends can be enabled with the fileserver_backend option. fileserver_backend: - git See the documentation for each backend to find the correct value to add to file‐ server_backend in order to enable them. Using Multiple Backends If fileserver_backend is not defined in the Master config file, Salt will use the roots backend, but the fileserver_backend option supports multiple backends. When more than one backend is in use, the files from the enabled backends are merged into a single virtual filesystem. When a file is requested, the backends will be searched in order for that file, and the first backend to match will be the one which returns the file. fileserver_backend: - roots - git With this configuration, the environments and files defined in the file_roots parameter will be searched first, and if the file is not found then the git repositories defined in gitfs_remotes will be searched. Defining Environments Just as the order of the values in fileserver_backend matters, so too does the order in which different sources are defined within a fileserver environment. For example, given the below file_roots configuration, if both /srv/salt/dev/foo.txt and /srv/salt/prod/foo.txt exist on the Master, then salt://foo.txt would point to /srv/salt/dev/foo.txt in the dev environment, but it would point to /srv/salt/prod/foo.txt in the base environment. file_roots: base: - /srv/salt/prod qa: - /srv/salt/qa - /srv/salt/prod dev: - /srv/salt/dev - /srv/salt/qa - /srv/salt/prod Similarly, when using the git backend, if both repositories defined below have a hotfix23 branch/tag, and both of them also contain the file bar.txt in the root of the repository at that branch/tag, then salt://bar.txt in the hotfix23 environment would be served from the first repository. gitfs_remotes: - https://mydomain.tld/repos/first.git - https://mydomain.tld/repos/second.git NOTE: Environments map differently based on the fileserver backend. For instance, the map‐ pings are explicitly defined in roots backend, while in the VCS backends (git, hg, svn) the environments are created from branches/tags/bookmarks/etc. For the minion backend, the files are all in a single environment, which is specified by the minionfs_env option. See the documentation for each backend for a more detailed explanation of how environ‐ ments are mapped. Dynamic Module Distribution New in version 0.9.5. Custom Salt execution, state, and other modules can be distributed to Salt minions using the Salt file server. Under the root of any environment defined via the file_roots option on the master server directories corresponding to the type of module can be used. The directories are prepended with an underscore: · _beacons · _clouds · _engines · _grains · _modules · _output · _proxy · _renderers · _returners · _states · _tops · _utils The contents of these directories need to be synced over to the minions after Python mod‐ ules have been created in them. There are a number of ways to sync the modules. Sync Via States The minion configuration contains an option autoload_dynamic_modules which defaults to True. This option makes the state system refresh all dynamic modules when states are run. To disable this behavior set autoload_dynamic_modules to False in the minion config. When dynamic modules are autoloaded via states, modules only pertinent to the environments matched in the master's top file are downloaded. This is important to remember, because modules can be manually loaded from any specific environment that environment specific modules will be loaded when a state run is executed. Sync Via the saltutil Module The saltutil module has a number of functions that can be used to sync all or specific dynamic modules. The saltutil module function saltutil.sync_all will sync all module types over to a minion. For more information see: salt.modules.saltutil Requesting Files from Specific Environments The Salt fileserver supports multiple environments, allowing for SLS files and other files to be isolated for better organization. For the default backend (called roots), environments are defined using the roots option. Other backends (such as gitfs) define environments in their own ways. For a list of avail‐ able fileserver backends, see here. Querystring Syntax Any salt:// file URL can specify its fileserver environment using a querystring syntax, like so: salt://path/to/file?saltenv=foo In Reactor configurations, this method must be used to pull files from an environment other than base. In States Minions can be instructed which environment to use both globally, and for a single state, and multiple methods for each are available: Globally A minion can be pinned to an environment using the environment option in the minion config file. Additionally, the environment can be set for a single call to the following functions: · state.apply · state.highstate · state.sls · state.top NOTE: When the saltenv parameter is used to trigger a highstate using either state.apply or state.highstate, only states from that environment will be applied. On a Per-State Basis Within an individual state, there are two ways of specifying the environment. The first is to add a saltenv argument to the state. This example will pull the file from the config environment: /etc/foo/bar.conf: file.managed: - source: salt://foo/bar.conf - user: foo - mode: 600 - saltenv: config Another way of doing the same thing is to use the querystring syntax described above: /etc/foo/bar.conf: file.managed: - source: salt://foo/bar.conf?saltenv=config - user: foo - mode: 600 NOTE: Specifying the environment using either of the above methods is only necessary in cases where a state from one environment needs to access files from another environment. If the SLS file containing this state was in the config environment, then it would look in that environment by default. File Server Configuration The Salt file server is a high performance file server written in ZeroMQ. It manages large files quickly and with little overhead, and has been optimized to handle small files in an extremely efficient manner. The Salt file server is an environment aware file server. This means that files can be allocated within many root directories and accessed by specifying both the file path and the environment to search. The individual environments can span across multiple directory roots to create overlays and to allow for files to be organized in many flexible ways. Environments The Salt file server defaults to the mandatory base environment. This environment MUST be defined and is used to download files when no environment is specified. Environments allow for files and sls data to be logically separated, but environments are not isolated from each other. This allows for logical isolation of environments by the engineer using Salt, but also allows for information to be used in multiple environments. Directory Overlay The environment setting is a list of directories to publish files from. These directories are searched in order to find the specified file and the first file found is returned. This means that directory data is prioritized based on the order in which they are listed. In the case of this file_roots configuration: file_roots: base: - /srv/salt/base - /srv/salt/failover If a file's URI is salt://httpd/httpd.conf, it will first search for the file at /srv/salt/base/httpd/httpd.conf. If the file is found there it will be returned. If the file is not found there, then /srv/salt/failover/httpd/httpd.conf will be used for the source. This allows for directories to be overlaid and prioritized based on the order they are defined in the configuration. It is also possible to have file_roots which supports multiple environments: file_roots: base: - /srv/salt/base dev: - /srv/salt/dev - /srv/salt/base prod: - /srv/salt/prod - /srv/salt/base This example ensures that each environment will check the associated environment directory for files first. If a file is not found in the appropriate directory, the system will default to using the base directory. Local File Server New in version 0.9.8. The file server can be rerouted to run from the minion. This is primarily to enable run‐ ning Salt states without a Salt master. To use the local file server interface, copy the file server data to the minion and set the file_roots option on the minion to point to the directories copied from the master. Once the minion file_roots option has been set, change the file_client option to local to make sure that the local file server interface is used. The cp Module The cp module is the home of minion side file server operations. The cp module is used by the Salt state system, salt-cp, and can be used to distribute files presented by the Salt file server. Escaping Special Characters The salt:// url format can potentially contain a query string, for example salt://dir/file.txt?saltenv=base. You can prevent the fileclient/fileserver from inter‐ preting ? as the initial token of a query string by referencing the file with salt://| rather than salt://. /etc/marathon/conf/?checkpoint: file.managed: - source: salt://|hw/config/?checkpoint - makedirs: True Environments Since the file server is made to work with the Salt state system, it supports environ‐ ments. The environments are defined in the master config file and when referencing an environment the file specified will be based on the root directory of the environment. get_file The cp.get_file function can be used on the minion to download a file from the master, the syntax looks like this: # salt '*' cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vimrc This will instruct all Salt minions to download the vimrc file and copy it to /etc/vimrc Template rendering can be enabled on both the source and destination file names like so: # salt '*' cp.get_file "salt://{{grains.os}}/vimrc" /etc/vimrc template=jinja This example would instruct all Salt minions to download the vimrc from a directory with the same name as their OS grain and copy it to /etc/vimrc For larger files, the cp.get_file module also supports gzip compression. Because gzip is CPU-intensive, this should only be used in scenarios where the compression ratio is very high (e.g. pretty-printed JSON or YAML files). To use compression, use the gzip named argument. Valid values are integers from 1 to 9, where 1 is the lightest compression and 9 the heaviest. In other words, 1 uses the least CPU on the master (and minion), while 9 uses the most. # salt '*' cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vimrc gzip=5 Finally, note that by default cp.get_file does not create new destination directories if they do not exist. To change this, use the makedirs argument: # salt '*' cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vim/vimrc makedirs=True In this example, /etc/vim/ would be created if it didn't already exist. get_dir The cp.get_dir function can be used on the minion to download an entire directory from the master. The syntax is very similar to get_file: # salt '*' cp.get_dir salt://etc/apache2 /etc cp.get_dir supports template rendering and gzip compression arguments just like get_file: # salt '*' cp.get_dir salt://etc/{{pillar.webserver}} /etc gzip=5 template=jinja File Server Client Instance A client instance is available which allows for modules and applications to be written which make use of the Salt file server. The file server uses the same authentication and encryption used by the rest of the Salt system for network communication. fileclient Module The salt/fileclient.py module is used to set up the communication from the minion to the master. When creating a client instance using the fileclient module, the minion configura‐ tion needs to be passed in. When using the fileclient module from within a minion module the built in __opts__ data can be passed: import salt.minion import salt.fileclient def get_file(path, dest, saltenv='base'): ''' Used to get a single file from the Salt master CLI Example: salt '*' cp.get_file salt://vimrc /etc/vimrc ''' # Get the fileclient object client = salt.fileclient.get_file_client(__opts__) # Call get_file return client.get_file(path, dest, False, saltenv) Creating a fileclient instance outside of a minion module where the __opts__ data is not available, it needs to be generated: import salt.fileclient import salt.config def get_file(path, dest, saltenv='base'): ''' Used to get a single file from the Salt master ''' # Get the configuration data opts = salt.config.minion_config('/etc/salt/minion') # Get the fileclient object client = salt.fileclient.get_file_client(opts) # Call get_file return client.get_file(path, dest, False, saltenv) Git Fileserver Backend Walkthrough NOTE: This walkthrough assumes basic knowledge of Salt. To get up to speed, check out the Salt Walkthrough. The gitfs backend allows Salt to serve files from git repositories. It can be enabled by adding git to the fileserver_backend list, and configuring one or more repositories in gitfs_remotes. Branches and tags become Salt fileserver environments. NOTE: Branching and tagging can result in a lot of potentially-conflicting top files, for this reason it may be useful to set top_file_merging_strategy to same in the minions' config files if the top files are being managed in a GitFS repo. Installing Dependencies Both pygit2 and GitPython are supported Python interfaces to git. If compatible versions of both are installed, pygit2 will be preferred. In these cases, GitPython can be forced using the gitfs_provider parameter in the master config file. NOTE: It is recommended to always run the most recent version of any the below dependencies. Certain features of GitFS may not be available without the most recent version of the chosen library. pygit2 The minimum supported version of pygit2 is 0.20.3. Availability for this version of pygit2 is still limited, though the SaltStack team is working to get compatible versions avail‐ able for as many platforms as possible. For the Fedora/EPEL versions which have a new enough version packaged, the following com‐ mand would be used to install pygit2: # yum install python-pygit2 Provided a valid version is packaged for Debian/Ubuntu (which is not currently the case), the package name would be the same, and the following command would be used to install it: # apt-get install python-pygit2 If pygit2 is not packaged for the platform on which the Master is running, the pygit2 web‐ site has installation instructions here. Keep in mind however that following these instructions will install libgit2 and pygit2 without system packages. Additionally, keep in mind that SSH authentication in pygit2 requires libssh2 (not libssh) development libraries to be present before libgit2 is built. On some Debian-based distros pkg-config is also required to link libgit2 with libssh2. If you are receiving the error "Unsupported URL Protocol" in the Salt Master log when making a connection using SSH, review the libssh2 details listed above. Additionally, version 0.21.0 of pygit2 introduced a dependency on python-cffi, which in turn depends on newer releases of libffi. Upgrading libffi is not advisable as several other applications depend on it, so on older LTS linux releases pygit2 0.20.3 and libgit2 0.20.0 is the recommended combination. WARNING: pygit2 is actively developed and frequently makes non-backwards-compatible API changes, even in minor releases. It is not uncommon for pygit2 upgrades to result in errors in Salt. Please take care when upgrading pygit2, and pay close attention to the changelog, keeping an eye out for API changes. Errors can be reported on the SaltStack issue tracker. RedHat Pygit2 Issues The release of RedHat/CentOS 7.3 upgraded both python-cffi and http-parser, both of which are dependencies for pygit2/libgit2. Both pygit2 and libgit2 (which are from the EPEL repository and not managed directly by RedHat) need to be rebuilt against these updated dependencies. The below errors will show up in the master log if an incompatible python-pygit2 package is installed: 2017-02-10 09:07:34,892 [salt.utils.gitfs ][ERROR ][11211] Import pygit2 failed: CompileEr ↲ ror: command 'gcc' failed with exit status 1 2017-02-10 09:07:34,907 [salt.utils.gitfs ][ERROR ][11211] gitfs is configured but could n ↲ ot be loaded, are pygit2 and libgit2 installed? 2017-02-10 09:07:34,907 [salt.utils.gitfs ][CRITICAL][11211] No suitable gitfs provider mo ↲ dule is installed. 2017-02-10 09:07:34,912 [salt.master ][CRITICAL][11211] Master failed pre flight checks, e ↲ xiting The below errors will show up in the master log if an incompatible libgit2 package is installed: 2017-02-15 18:04:45,211 [salt.utils.gitfs ][ERROR ][6211] Error occurred fetching gitfs ↲ remote 'https://foo.com/bar.git': No Content-Type header in response As of 15 February 2017, python-pygit2 has been rebuilt and is in the stable EPEL reposi‐ tory. However, libgit2 remains broken (a bug report has been filed to get it rebuilt). In the meantime, you can work around this by downgrading http-parser. To do this, go to this page and download the appropriate http-parser RPM for the OS architecture you are using (x86_64, etc.). Then downgrade using the rpm command. For example: [root@784e8a8c5028 /]# curl --silent -O https://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org//packages/http- ↲ parser/2.0/5.20121128gitcd01361.el7/x86_64/http-parser-2.0-5.20121128gitcd01361.el7.x86_64.rpm [root@784e8a8c5028 /]# rpm -Uvh --oldpackage http-parser-2.0-5.20121128gitcd01361.el7.x86_ ↲ 64.rpm Preparing... ################################# [100%] Updating / installing... 1:http-parser-2.0-5.20121128gitcd01################################# [ 50%] Cleaning up / removing... 2:http-parser-2.7.1-3.el7 ################################# [100%] A restart of the salt-master daemon may be required to allow http(s) repositories to con‐ tinue to be fetched. GitPython GitPython 0.3.0 or newer is required to use GitPython for gitfs. For RHEL-based Linux dis‐ tros, a compatible version is available in EPEL, and can be easily installed on the master using yum: # yum install GitPython Ubuntu 14.04 LTS and Debian Wheezy (7.x) also have a compatible version packaged: # apt-get install python-git GitPython requires the git CLI utility to work. If installed from a system package, then git should already be installed, but if installed via pip then it may still be necessary to install git separately. For MacOS users, GitPython comes bundled in with the Salt in‐ staller, but git must still be installed for it to work properly. Git can be installed in several ways, including by installing XCode. WARNING: Keep in mind that if GitPython has been previously installed on the master using pip (even if it was subsequently uninstalled), then it may still exist in the build cache (typically /tmp/pip-build-root/GitPython) if the cache is not cleared after installa‐ tion. The package in the build cache will override any requirement specifiers, so if you try upgrading to version 0.3.2.RC1 by running pip install 'GitPython==0.3.2.RC1' then it will ignore this and simply install the version from the cache directory. Therefore, it may be necessary to delete the GitPython directory from the build cache in order to ensure that the specified version is installed. WARNING: GitPython 2.0.9 and newer is not compatible with Python 2.6. If installing GitPython using pip on a machine running Python 2.6, make sure that a version earlier than 2.0.9 is installed. This can be done on the CLI by running pip install 'GitPython<2.0.9', or in a pip.installed state using the following SLS: GitPython: pip.installed: - name: 'GitPython < 2.0.9' Simple Configuration To use the gitfs backend, only two configuration changes are required on the master: 1. Include git in the fileserver_backend list in the master config file: fileserver_backend: - git 2. Specify one or more git://, https://, file://, or ssh:// URLs in gitfs_remotes to con‐ figure which repositories to cache and search for requested files: gitfs_remotes: - https://github.com/saltstack-formulas/salt-formula.git SSH remotes can also be configured using scp-like syntax: gitfs_remotes: - @github.com:user/repo.git - ssh://@domain.tld/path/to/repo.git Information on how to authenticate to SSH remotes can be found here. 3. Restart the master to load the new configuration. NOTE: In a master/minion setup, files from a gitfs remote are cached once by the master, so minions do not need direct access to the git repository. Multiple Remotes The gitfs_remotes option accepts an ordered list of git remotes to cache and search, in listed order, for requested files. A simple scenario illustrates this cascading lookup behavior: If the gitfs_remotes option specifies three remotes: gitfs_remotes: - git://github.com/example/first.git - https://github.com/example/second.git - file:///root/third And each repository contains some files: first.git: top.sls edit/vim.sls edit/vimrc nginx/init.sls second.git: edit/dev_vimrc haproxy/init.sls third: haproxy/haproxy.conf edit/dev_vimrc Salt will attempt to lookup the requested file from each gitfs remote repository in the order in which they are defined in the configuration. The git://github.com/exam‐ ple/first.git remote will be searched first. If the requested file is found, then it is served and no further searching is executed. For example: · A request for the file salt://haproxy/init.sls will be served from the https://github.com/example/second.git git repo. · A request for the file salt://haproxy/haproxy.conf will be served from the file:///root/third repo. NOTE: This example is purposefully contrived to illustrate the behavior of the gitfs backend. This example should not be read as a recommended way to lay out files and git repos. The file:// prefix denotes a git repository in a local directory. However, it will still use the given file:// URL as a remote, rather than copying the git repo to the salt cache. This means that any refs you want accessible must exist as local refs in the specified repo. WARNING: Salt versions prior to 2014.1.0 are not tolerant of changing the order of remotes or modifying the URI of existing remotes. In those versions, when modifying remotes it is a good idea to remove the gitfs cache directory (/var/cache/salt/master/gitfs) before restarting the salt-master service. Per-remote Configuration Parameters New in version 2014.7.0. The following master config parameters are global (that is, they apply to all configured gitfs remotes): · gitfs_base · gitfs_root · gitfs_ssl_verify · gitfs_mountpoint (new in 2014.7.0) · gitfs_user (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0) · gitfs_password (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0) · gitfs_insecure_auth (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0) · gitfs_pubkey (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0) · gitfs_privkey (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0) · gitfs_passphrase (pygit2 only, new in 2014.7.0) · gitfs_refspecs (new in 2017.7.0) NOTE: pygit2 only supports disabling SSL verification in versions 0.23.2 and newer. These parameters can now be overridden on a per-remote basis. This allows for a tremendous amount of customization. Here's some example usage: gitfs_provider: pygit2 gitfs_base: develop gitfs_remotes: - https://foo.com/foo.git - https://foo.com/bar.git: - root: salt - mountpoint: salt://bar - base: salt-base - ssl_verify: False - https://foo.com/bar.git: - name: second_bar_repo - root: other/salt - mountpoint: salt://other/bar - base: salt-base - http://foo.com/baz.git: - root: salt/states - user: joe - password: mysupersecretpassword - insecure_auth: True IMPORTANT: There are two important distinctions which should be noted for per-remote configura‐ tion: 1. The URL of a remote which has per-remote configuration must be suffixed with a colon. 2. Per-remote configuration parameters are named like the global versions, with the gitfs_ removed from the beginning. The exception being the name and saltenv parame‐ ters, which are only available to per-remote configurations. In the example configuration above, the following is true: 1. The first and fourth gitfs remotes will use the develop branch/tag as the base environ‐ ment, while the second and third will use the salt-base branch/tag as the base environ‐ ment. 2. The first remote will serve all files in the repository. The second remote will only serve files from the salt directory (and its subdirectories). The third remote will only server files from the other/salt directory (and its subdirectories), while the fourth remote will only serve files from the salt/states directory (and its subdirecto‐ ries). 3. The first and fourth remotes will have files located under the root of the Salt file‐ server namespace (salt://). The files from the second remote will be located under salt://bar, while the files from the third remote will be located under salt://other/bar. 4. The second and third remotes reference the same repository and unique names need to be declared for duplicate gitfs remotes. 5. The fourth remote overrides the default behavior of not authenticating to insecure (non-HTTPS) remotes. Per-Saltenv Configuration Parameters New in version 2016.11.0. For more granular control, Salt allows the following three things to be overridden for individual saltenvs within a given repo: · The mountpoint · The root · The branch/tag to be used for a given saltenv Here is an example: gitfs_root: salt gitfs_saltenv: - dev: - mountpoint: salt://gitfs-dev - ref: develop gitfs_remotes: - https://foo.com/bar.git: - saltenv: - staging: - ref: qa - mountpoint: salt://bar-staging - dev: - ref: development - https://foo.com/baz.git: - saltenv: - staging: - mountpoint: salt://baz-staging Given the above configuration, the following is true: 1. For all gitfs remotes, files for the dev saltenv will be located under salt://gitfs-dev. 2. For the dev saltenv, files from the first remote will be sourced from the development branch, while files from the second remote will be sourced from the develop branch. 3. For the staging saltenv, files from the first remote will be located under salt://bar-staging, while files from the second remote will be located under salt://baz-staging. 4. For all gitfs remotes, and in all saltenvs, files will be served from the salt direc‐ tory (and its subdirectories). Custom Refspecs New in version 2017.7.0. GitFS will by default fetch remote branches and tags. However, sometimes it can be useful to fetch custom refs (such as those created for GitHub pull requests). To change the ref‐ specs GitFS fetches, use the gitfs_refspecs config option: gitfs_refspecs: - '+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*' - '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' - '+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*' - '+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*' In the above example, in addition to fetching remote branches and tags, GitHub's custom refs for pull requests and merged pull requests will also be fetched. These special head refs represent the head of the branch which is requesting to be merged, and the merge refs represent the result of the base branch after the merge. IMPORTANT: When using custom refspecs, the destination of the fetched refs must be under refs/remotes/origin/, preferably in a subdirectory like in the example above. These custom refspecs will map as environment names using their relative path underneath refs/remotes/origin/. For example, assuming the configuration above, the head branch for pull request 12345 would map to fileserver environment pr/12345 (slash included). Refspecs can be configured on a per-remote basis. For example, the below configuration would only alter the default refspecs for the second GitFS remote. The first remote would only fetch branches and tags (the default). gitfs_remotes: - https://domain.tld/foo.git - https://domain.tld/bar.git: - refspecs: - '+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*' - '+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*' - '+refs/pull/*/head:refs/remotes/origin/pr/*' - '+refs/pull/*/merge:refs/remotes/origin/merge/*' Configuration Order of Precedence The order of precedence for GitFS configuration is as follows (each level overrides all levels below it): 1. Per-saltenv configuration (defined under a per-remote saltenv param) gitfs_remotes: - https://foo.com/bar.git: - saltenv: - dev: - mountpoint: salt://bar 2. Global per-saltenv configuration (defined in gitfs_saltenv) gitfs_saltenv: - saltenv: - dev: - mountpoint: salt://bar 3. Per-remote configuration parameter gitfs_remotes: - https://foo.com/bar.git: - mountpoint: salt://bar 4. Global configuration parameter gitfs_mountpoint: salt://bar Serving from a Subdirectory The gitfs_root parameter allows files to be served from a subdirectory within the reposi‐ tory. This allows for only part of a repository to be exposed to the Salt fileserver. Assume the below layout: .gitignore README.txt foo/ foo/bar/ foo/bar/one.txt foo/bar/two.txt foo/bar/three.txt foo/baz/ foo/baz/top.sls foo/baz/edit/vim.sls foo/baz/edit/vimrc foo/baz/nginx/init.sls The below configuration would serve only the files under foo/baz, ignoring the other files in the repository: gitfs_remotes: - git://mydomain.com/stuff.git gitfs_root: foo/baz The root can also be configured on a per-remote basis. Mountpoints New in version 2014.7.0. The gitfs_mountpoint parameter will prepend the specified path to the files served from gitfs. This allows an existing repository to be used, rather than needing to reorganize a repository or design it around the layout of the Salt fileserver. Before the addition of this feature, if a file being served up via gitfs was deeply nested within the root directory (for example, salt://webapps/foo/files/foo.conf, it would be necessary to ensure that the file was properly located in the remote repository, and that all of the parent directories were present (for example, the directories webapps/foo/files/ would need to exist at the root of the repository). The below example would allow for a file foo.conf at the root of the repository to be served up from the Salt fileserver path salt://webapps/foo/files/foo.conf. gitfs_remotes: - https://mydomain.com/stuff.git gitfs_mountpoint: salt://webapps/foo/files Mountpoints can also be configured on a per-remote basis. Using gitfs Alongside Other Backends Sometimes it may make sense to use multiple backends; for instance, if sls files are stored in git but larger files are stored directly on the master. The cascading lookup logic used for multiple remotes is also used with multiple backends. If the fileserver_backend option contains multiple backends: fileserver_backend: - roots - git Then the roots backend (the default backend of files in /srv/salt) will be searched first for the requested file; then, if it is not found on the master, each configured git remote will be searched. Branches, Environments, and Top Files When using the GitFS backend, branches, and tags will be mapped to environments using the branch/tag name as an identifier. There is one exception to this rule: the master branch is implicitly mapped to the base environment. So, for a typical base, qa, dev setup, the following branches could be used: master qa dev top.sls files from different branches will be merged into one at runtime. Since this can lead to overly complex configurations, the recommended setup is to have a separate reposi‐ tory, containing only the top.sls file with just one single master branch. To map a branch other than master as the base environment, use the gitfs_base parameter. gitfs_base: salt-base The base can also be configured on a per-remote basis. Environment Whitelist/Blacklist New in version 2014.7.0. The gitfs_env_whitelist and gitfs_env_blacklist parameters allow for greater control over which branches/tags are exposed as fileserver environments. Exact matches, globs, and reg‐ ular expressions are supported, and are evaluated in that order. If using a regular expression, ^ and $ must be omitted, and the expression must match the entire branch/tag. gitfs_env_whitelist: - base - v1.* - 'mybranch\d+' NOTE: v1.*, in this example, will match as both a glob and a regular expression (though it will have been matched as a glob, since globs are evaluated before regular expres‐ sions). The behavior of the blacklist/whitelist will differ depending on which combination of the two options is used: · If only gitfs_env_whitelist is used, then only branches/tags which match the whitelist will be available as environments · If only gitfs_env_blacklist is used, then the branches/tags which match the blacklist will not be available as environments · If both are used, then the branches/tags which match the whitelist, but do not match the blacklist, will be available as environments. Authentication pygit2 New in version 2014.7.0. Both HTTPS and SSH authentication are supported as of version 0.20.3, which is the earli‐ est version of pygit2 supported by Salt for gitfs. NOTE: The examples below make use of per-remote configuration parameters, a feature new to Salt 2014.7.0. More information on these can be found here. HTTPS For HTTPS repositories which require authentication, the username and password can be pro‐ vided like so: gitfs_remotes: - https://domain.tld/myrepo.git: - user: git - password: mypassword If the repository is served over HTTP instead of HTTPS, then Salt will by default refuse to authenticate to it. This behavior can be overridden by adding an insecure_auth parame‐ ter: gitfs_remotes: - http://domain.tld/insecure_repo.git: - user: git - password: mypassword - insecure_auth: True SSH SSH repositories can be configured using the ssh:// protocol designation, or using scp-like syntax. So, the following two configurations are equivalent: · ssh://@github.com/user/repo.git · @github.com:user/repo.git Both gitfs_pubkey and gitfs_privkey (or their per-remote counterparts) must be configured in order to authenticate to SSH-based repos. If the private key is protected with a passphrase, it can be configured using gitfs_passphrase (or simply passphrase if being configured per-remote). For example: gitfs_remotes: - @github.com:user/repo.git: - pubkey: /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub - privkey: /root/.ssh/id_rsa - passphrase: myawesomepassphrase Finally, the SSH host key must be added to the known_hosts file. NOTE: There is a known issue with public-key SSH authentication to Microsoft Visual Studio (VSTS) with pygit2. This is due to a bug or lack of support for VSTS in older libssh2 releases. Known working releases include libssh2 1.7.0 and later, and known incompati‐ ble releases include 1.5.0 and older. At the time of this writing, 1.6.0 has not been tested. Since upgrading libssh2 would require rebuilding many other packages (curl, etc.), fol‐ lowed by a rebuild of libgit2 and a reinstall of pygit2, an easier workaround for sys‐ tems with older libssh2 is to use GitPython with a passphraseless key for authentica‐ tion. GitPython HTTPS For HTTPS repositories which require authentication, the username and password can be con‐ figured in one of two ways. The first way is to include them in the URL using the format https://<user>:<password>@<url>, like so: gitfs_remotes: - https://git:@domain.tld/myrepo.git The other way would be to configure the authentication in ~/.netrc: machine domain.tld login git password mypassword If the repository is served over HTTP instead of HTTPS, then Salt will by default refuse to authenticate to it. This behavior can be overridden by adding an insecure_auth parame‐ ter: gitfs_remotes: - http://git:@domain.tld/insecure_repo.git: - insecure_auth: True SSH Only passphrase-less SSH public key authentication is supported using GitPython. The auth parameters (pubkey, privkey, etc.) shown in the pygit2 authentication examples above do not work with GitPython. gitfs_remotes: - ssh://@github.com/example/salt-states.git Since GitPython wraps the git CLI, the private key must be located in ~/.ssh/id_rsa for the user under which the Master is running, and should have permissions of 0600. Also, in the absence of a user in the repo URL, GitPython will (just as SSH does) attempt to login as the current user (in other words, the user under which the Master is running, usually root). If a key needs to be used, then ~/.ssh/config can be configured to use the desired key. Information on how to do this can be found by viewing the manpage for ssh_config. Here's an example entry which can be added to the ~/.ssh/config to use an alternate key for gitfs: Host github.com IdentityFile /root/.ssh/id_rsa_gitfs The Host parameter should be a hostname (or hostname glob) that matches the domain name of the git repository. It is also necessary to add the SSH host key to the known_hosts file. The exception to this would be if strict host key checking is disabled, which can be done by adding Stric‐ tHostKeyChecking no to the entry in ~/.ssh/config Host github.com IdentityFile /root/.ssh/id_rsa_gitfs StrictHostKeyChecking no However, this is generally regarded as insecure, and is not recommended. Adding the SSH Host Key to the known_hosts File To use SSH authentication, it is necessary to have the remote repository's SSH host key in the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file. If the master is also a minion, this can be done using the ssh.set_known_host function: # salt mymaster ssh.set_known_host user=root hostname=github.com mymaster: ---------- new: ---------- enc: ssh-rsa fingerprint: 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48 hostname: |1|OiefWWqOD4kwO3BhoIGa0loR5AA=|BIXVtmcTbPER+68HvXmceodDcfI= key: AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEAq2A7hRGmdnm9tUDbO9IDSwBK6TbQa+PXYPCPy6rbTrTtw7PHkc ↲ cKrpp0yVhp5HdEIcKr6pLlVDBfOLX9QUsyCOV0wzfjIJNlGEYsdlLJizHhbn2mUjvSAHQqZETYP81eFzLQNnPHt4EVVUh7VfDESU84KezmD5QlWpXLmvU31/yMf+Se8xhHTvKSCZIFImWwoG6mbUoWf9nzpIoaSjB+weqqUUmpaaasXVal72J+UX2B+2RPW3RcT0eOzQgqlJL3RKrTJvdsjE3JEAvGq3lGHSZXy28G3skua2SmVi/w4yCE6gbODqnTWlg7+wC604ydGXA8VJiS5ap43JXiUFFAaQ== old: None status: updated If not, then the easiest way to add the key is to su to the user (usually root) under which the salt-master runs and attempt to login to the server via SSH: $ su - Password: # ssh github.com The authenticity of host 'github.com (192.30.252.128)' can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added 'github.com,192.30.252.128' (RSA) to the list of known hosts. Permission denied (publickey). It doesn't matter if the login was successful, as answering yes will write the fingerprint to the known_hosts file. Verifying the Fingerprint To verify that the correct fingerprint was added, it is a good idea to look it up. One way to do this is to use nmap: $ nmap -p 22 github.com --script ssh-hostkey Starting Nmap 5.51 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2014-08-18 17:47 CDT Nmap scan report for github.com (192.30.252.129) Host is up (0.17s latency). Not shown: 996 filtered ports PORT STATE SERVICE 22/tcp open ssh | ssh-hostkey: 1024 ad:1c:08:a4:40:e3:6f:9c:f5:66:26:5d:4b:33:5d:8c (DSA) |_2048 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48 (RSA) 80/tcp open http 443/tcp open https 9418/tcp open git Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 28.78 seconds Another way is to check one's own known_hosts file, using this one-liner: $ ssh-keygen -l -f /dev/stdin <<<`ssh-keyscan github.com 2>/dev/null` | awk '{print $2}' 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48 WARNING: AWS tracks usage of nmap and may flag it as abuse. On AWS hosts, the ssh-keygen method is recommended for host key verification. NOTE: As of OpenSSH 6.8 the SSH fingerprint is now shown as a base64-encoded SHA256 checksum of the host key. So, instead of the fingerprint looking like 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48, it would look like SHA256:nThbg6kXUpJWGl7E1IGOCspRomTxdCARLviKw6E5SY8. Refreshing gitfs Upon Push By default, Salt updates the remote fileserver backends every 60 seconds. However, if it is desirable to refresh quicker than that, the Reactor System can be used to signal the master to update the fileserver on each push, provided that the git server is also a Salt minion. There are three steps to this process: 1. On the master, create a file /srv/reactor/update_fileserver.sls, with the following contents: update_fileserver: runner.fileserver.update 2. Add the following reactor configuration to the master config file: reactor: - 'salt/fileserver/gitfs/update': - /srv/reactor/update_fileserver.sls 3. On the git server, add a post-receive hook a. If the user executing git push is the same as the minion user, use the following hook: #!/usr/bin/env sh salt-call event.fire_master update salt/fileserver/gitfs/update b. To enable other git users to run the hook after a push, use sudo in the hook script: #!/usr/bin/env sh sudo -u root salt-call event.fire_master update salt/fileserver/gitfs/update 4. If using sudo in the git hook (above), the policy must be changed to permit all users to fire the event. Add the following policy to the sudoers file on the git server. Cmnd_Alias SALT_GIT_HOOK = /bin/salt-call event.fire_master update salt/fileserver/gitf ↲ s/update Defaults!SALT_GIT_HOOK !requiretty ALL ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: SALT_GIT_HOOK The update argument right after event.fire_master in this example can really be anything, as it represents the data being passed in the event, and the passed data is ignored by this reactor. Similarly, the tag name salt/fileserver/gitfs/update can be replaced by anything, so long as the usage is consistent. The root user name in the hook script and sudo policy should be changed to match the user under which the minion is running. Using Git as an External Pillar Source The git external pillar (a.k.a. git_pillar) has been rewritten for the 2015.8.0 release. This rewrite brings with it pygit2 support (allowing for access to authenticated reposito‐ ries), as well as more granular support for per-remote configuration. To make use of the new features, changes to the git ext_pillar configuration must be made. The new configuration schema is detailed here. For Salt releases before 2015.8.0, click here for documentation. Why aren't my custom modules/states/etc. syncing to my Minions? In versions 0.16.3 and older, when using the git fileserver backend, certain versions of GitPython may generate errors when fetching, which Salt fails to catch. While not fatal to the fetch process, these interrupt the fileserver update that takes place before custom types are synced, and thus interrupt the sync itself. Try disabling the git fileserver backend in the master config, restarting the master, and attempting the sync again. This issue is worked around in Salt 0.16.4 and newer. MinionFS Backend Walkthrough New in version 2014.1.0. NOTE: This walkthrough assumes basic knowledge of Salt and cp.push. To get up to speed, check out the Salt Walkthrough. Sometimes it is desirable to deploy a file located on one minion to one or more other min‐ ions. This is supported in Salt, and can be accomplished in two parts: 1. Minion support for pushing files to the master (using cp.push) 2. The minionfs fileserver backend This walkthrough will show how to use both of these features. Enabling File Push To set the master to accept files pushed from minions, the file_recv option in the master config file must be set to True (the default is False). file_recv: True NOTE: This change requires a restart of the salt-master service. Pushing Files Once this has been done, files can be pushed to the master using the cp.push function: salt 'minion-id' cp.push /path/to/the/file This command will store the file in a subdirectory named minions under the master's cachedir. On most masters, this path will be /var/cache/salt/master/minions. Within this directory will be one directory for each minion which has pushed a file to the master, and underneath that the full path to the file on the minion. So, for example, if a minion with an ID of dev1 pushed a file /var/log/myapp.log to the master, it would be saved to /var/cache/salt/master/minions/dev1/var/log/myapp.log. Serving Pushed Files Using MinionFS While it is certainly possible to add /var/cache/salt/master/minions to the master's file_roots and serve these files, it may only be desirable to expose files pushed from certain minions. Adding /var/cache/salt/master/minions/<minion-id> for each minion that needs to be exposed can be cumbersome and prone to errors. Enter minionfs. This fileserver backend will make files pushed using cp.push available to the Salt fileserver, and provides an easy mechanism to restrict which minions' pushed files are made available. Simple Configuration To use the minionfs backend, add minion to the list of backends in the fileserver_backend configuration option on the master: file_recv: True fileserver_backend: - roots - minion NOTE: As described earlier, file_recv: True is also needed to enable the master to receive files pushed from minions. As always, changes to the master configuration require a restart of the salt-master service. Files made available via minionfs are by default located at salt://<min‐ ion-id>/path/to/file. Think back to the earlier example, in which dev1 pushed a file /var/log/myapp.log to the master. With minionfs enabled, this file would be addressable in Salt at salt://dev1/var/log/myapp.log. If many minions have pushed to the master, this will result in many directories in the root of the Salt fileserver. For this reason, it is recommended to use the minionfs_mount‐ point config option to organize these files underneath a subdirectory: minionfs_mountpoint: salt://minionfs Using the above mountpoint, the file in the example would be located at salt://min‐ ionfs/dev1/var/log/myapp.log. Restricting Certain Minions' Files from Being Available Via MinionFS A whitelist and blacklist can be used to restrict the minions whose pushed files are available via minionfs. These lists can be managed using the minionfs_whitelist and min‐ ionfs_blacklist config options. Click the links for both of them for a detailed explana‐ tion of how to use them. A more complex configuration example, which uses both a whitelist and blacklist, can be found below: file_recv: True fileserver_backend: - roots - minion minionfs_mountpoint: salt://minionfs minionfs_whitelist: - host04 - web* - 'mail\d+\.domain\.tld' minionfs_whitelist: - web21 Potential Concerns · There is no access control in place to restrict which minions have access to files served up by minionfs. All minions will have access to these files. · Unless the minionfs_whitelist and/or minionfs_blacklist config options are used, all minions which push files to the master will have their files made available via min‐ ionfs. Salt Package Manager The Salt Package Manager, or SPM, enables Salt formulas to be packaged to simplify distri‐ bution to Salt masters. The design of SPM was influenced by other existing packaging sys‐ tems including RPM, Yum, and Pacman. [image] NOTE: The previous diagram shows each SPM component as a different system, but this is not required. You can build packages and host the SPM repo on a single Salt master if you'd like. Packaging System The packaging system is used to package the state, pillar, file templates, and other files used by your formula into a single file. After a formula package is created, it is copied to the Repository System where it is made available to Salt masters. See Building SPM Packages Repo System The Repo system stores the SPM package and metadata files and makes them available to Salt masters via http(s), ftp, or file URLs. SPM repositories can be hosted on a Salt Master, a Salt Minion, or on another system. See Distributing SPM Packages Salt Master SPM provides Salt master settings that let you configure the URL of one or more SPM repos. You can then quickly install packages that contain entire formulas to your Salt masters using SPM. See Installing SPM Packages Contents Building SPM Packages The first step when using Salt Package Manager is to build packages for each of of the formulas that you want to distribute. Packages can be built on any system where you can install Salt. Package Build Overview To build a package, all state, pillar, jinja, and file templates used by your formula are assembled into a folder on the build system. These files can be cloned from a Git reposi‐ tory, such as those found at the saltstack-formulas organization on GitHub, or copied directly to the folder. The following diagram demonstrates a typical formula layout on the build system: [image] In this example, all formula files are placed in a myapp-formula folder. This is the folder that is targeted by the spm build command when this package is built. Within this folder, pillar data is placed in a pillar.example file at the root, and all state, jinja, and template files are placed within a subfolder that is named after the application being packaged. State files are typically contained within a subfolder, simi‐ lar to how state files are organized in the state tree. Any non-pillar files in your pack‐ age that are not contained in a subfolder are placed at the root of the spm state tree. Additionally, a FORMULA file is created and placed in the root of the folder. This file contains package metadata that is used by SPM. Package Installation Overview When building packages, it is useful to know where files are installed on the Salt master. During installation, all files except pillar.example and FORMULA are copied directly to the spm state tree on the Salt master (located at \srv\spm\salt). If a pillar.example file is present in the root, it is renamed to <formula name>.sls.orig and placed in the pillar_path. [image] NOTE: Even though the pillar data file is copied to the pillar root, you still need to manu‐ ally assign this pillar data to systems using the pillar top file. This file can also be duplicated and renamed so the .orig version is left intact in case you need to restore it later. Building an SPM Formula Package 1. Assemble formula files in a folder on the build system. 2. Create a FORMULA file and place it in the root of the package folder. 3. Run spm build <folder name>. The package is built and placed in the /srv/spm_build folder. spm build /path/to/salt-packages-source/myapp-formula 4. Copy the .spm file to a folder on the repository system. Types of Packages SPM supports different types of packages. The function of each package is denoted by its name. For instance, packages which end in -formula are considered to be Salt States (the most common type of formula). Packages which end in -conf contain configuration which is to be placed in the /etc/salt/ directory. Packages which do not contain one of these names are treated as if they have a -formula name. formula By default, most files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/salt/ directory. The exception is the pillar.example file, which will be renamed to <package_name>.sls and placed in the pillar directory (/srv/spm/pillar/ by default). reactor By default, files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/reactor/ directory. conf The files in this type of package are configuration files for Salt, which normally live in the /etc/salt/ directory. Configuration files for packages other than Salt can and should be handled with a Salt State (using a formula type of package). Technical Information Packages are built using BZ2-compressed tarballs. By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 driver (see Loader Modules below). Support for these are built into Python, and so no external dependencies are needed. All other files belonging to SPM use YAML, for portability and ease of use and maintain‐ ability. SPM-Specific Loader Modules SPM was designed to behave like traditional package managers, which apply files to the filesystem and store package metadata in a local database. However, because modern infra‐ structures often extend beyond those use cases, certain parts of SPM have been broken out into their own set of modules. Package Database By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 module. This module was cho‐ sen because support for SQLite3 is built into Python itself. Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package database management. Package Files By default, package files are installed using the local module. This module applies files to the local filesystem, on the machine that the package is installed on. Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package file management. Distributing SPM Packages SPM packages can be distributed to Salt masters over HTTP(S), FTP, or through the file system. The SPM repo can be hosted on any system where you can install Salt. Salt is installed so you can run the spm create_repo command when you update or add a package to the repo. SPM repos do not require the salt-master, salt-minion, or any other process run‐ ning on the system. NOTE: If you are hosting the SPM repo on a system where you can not or do not want to install Salt, you can run the spm create_repo command on the build system and then copy the packages and the generated SPM-METADATA file to the repo. You can also install SPM files directly on a Salt master, bypassing the repository completely. Setting up a Package Repository After packages are built, the generated SPM files are placed in the srv/spm_build folder. Where you place the built SPM files on your repository server depends on how you plan to make them available to your Salt masters. You can share the srv/spm_build folder on the network, or copy the files to your FTP or Web server. Adding a Package to the repository New packages are added by simply copying the SPM file to the repo folder, and then gener‐ ating repo metadata. Generate Repo Metadata Each time you update or add an SPM package to your repository, issue an spm create_repo command: spm create_repo /srv/spm_build SPM generates the repository metadata for all of the packages in that directory and places it in an SPM-METADATA file at the folder root. This command is used even if repository metadata already exists in that directory. Installing SPM Packages SPM packages are installed to your Salt master, where they are available to Salt minions using all of Salt's package management functions. Configuring Remote Repositories Before SPM can use a repository, two things need to happen. First, the Salt master needs to know where the repository is through a configuration process. Then it needs to pull down the repository metadata. Repository Configuration Files Repositories are configured by adding each of them to the /etc/salt/spm.repos.d/spm.repo file on each Salt master. This file contains the name of the repository, and the link to the repository: my_repo: url: https://spm.example.com/ For HTTP/HTTPS Basic authorization you can define credentials: Beware of unauthorized access to this file, please set at least 0640 permissions for this configuration file: The URL can use http, https, ftp, or file. my_repo: url: file:///srv/spm_build Updating Local Repository Metadata After the repository is configured on the Salt master, repository metadata is downloaded using the spm update_repo command: spm update_repo NOTE: A file for each repo is placed in /var/cache/salt/spm on the Salt master after you run the update_repo command. If you add a repository and it does not seem to be showing up, check this path to verify that the repository was found. Update File Roots SPM packages are installed to the srv/spm/salt folder on your Salt master. This path needs to be added to the file roots on your Salt master manually. file_roots: base: 1. /srv/salt 2. /srv/spm/salt Restart the salt-master service after updating the file_roots setting. Installing Packages To install a package, use the spm install command: spm install apache WARNING: Currently, SPM does not check to see if files are already in place before installing them. That means that existing files will be overwritten without warning. Installing directly from an SPM file You can also install SPM packages using a local SPM file using the spm local install com‐ mand: spm local install /srv/spm/apache-201506-1.spm An SPM repository is not required when using spm local install. Pillars If an installed package includes Pillar data, be sure to target the installed pillar to the necessary systems using the pillar Top file. Removing Packages Packages may be removed after they are installed using the spm remove command. spm remove apache If files have been modified, they will not be removed. Empty directories will also be removed. SPM Configuration There are a number of options that are specific to SPM. They may be configured in the mas‐ ter configuration file, or in SPM's own spm configuration file (normally located at /etc/salt/spm). If configured in both places, the spm file takes precedence. In general, these values will not need to be changed from the defaults. spm_logfile Default: /var/log/salt/spm Where SPM logs messages. spm_repos_config Default: /etc/salt/spm.repos SPM repositories are configured with this file. There is also a directory which corre‐ sponds to it, which ends in .d. For instance, if the filename is /etc/salt/spm.repos, the directory will be /etc/salt/spm.repos.d/. spm_cache_dir Default: /var/cache/salt/spm When SPM updates package repository metadata and downloads packaged, they will be placed in this directory. The package database, normally called packages.db, also lives in this directory. spm_db Default: /var/cache/salt/spm/packages.db The location and name of the package database. This database stores the names of all of the SPM packages installed on the system, the files that belong to them, and the metadata for those files. spm_build_dir Default: /srv/spm_build When packages are built, they will be placed in this directory. spm_build_exclude Default: ['.git'] When SPM builds a package, it normally adds all files in the formula directory to the package. Files listed here will be excluded from that package. This option requires a list to be specified. spm_build_exclude: - .git - .svn Types of Packages SPM supports different types of formula packages. The function of each package is denoted by its name. For instance, packages which end in -formula are considered to be Salt States (the most common type of formula). Packages which end in -conf contain configuration which is to be placed in the /etc/salt/ directory. Packages which do not contain one of these names are treated as if they have a -formula name. formula By default, most files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/salt/ directory. The exception is the pillar.example file, which will be renamed to <package_name>.sls and placed in the pillar directory (/srv/spm/pillar/ by default). reactor By default, files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/reactor/ directory. conf The files in this type of package are configuration files for Salt, which normally live in the /etc/salt/ directory. Configuration files for packages other than Salt can and should be handled with a Salt State (using a formula type of package). FORMULA File In addition to the formula itself, a FORMULA file must exist which describes the package. An example of this file is: name: apache os: RedHat, Debian, Ubuntu, SUSE, FreeBSD os_family: RedHat, Debian, Suse, FreeBSD version: 201506 release: 2 summary: Formula for installing Apache description: Formula for installing Apache Required Fields This file must contain at least the following fields: name The name of the package, as it will appear in the package filename, in the repository metadata, and the package database. Even if the source formula has -formula in its name, this name should probably not include that. For instance, when packaging the apache-for‐ mula, the name should be set to apache. os The value of the os grain that this formula supports. This is used to help users know which operating systems can support this package. os_family The value of the os_family grain that this formula supports. This is used to help users know which operating system families can support this package. version The version of the package. While it is up to the organization that manages this package, it is suggested that this version is specified in a YYYYMM format. For instance, if this version was released in June 2015, the package version should be 201506. If multiple releases are made in a month, the release field should be used. minimum_version Minimum recommended version of Salt to use this formula. Not currently enforced. release This field refers primarily to a release of a version, but also to multiple versions within a month. In general, if a version has been made public, and immediate updates need to be made to it, this field should also be updated. summary A one-line description of the package. description A more detailed description of the package which can contain more than one line. Optional Fields The following fields may also be present. top_level_dir This field is optional, but highly recommended. If it is not specified, the package name will be used. Formula repositories typically do not store .sls files in the root of the repository; instead they are stored in a subdirectory. For instance, an apache-formula repository would contain a directory called apache, which would contain an init.sls, plus a number of other related files. In this instance, the top_level_dir should be set to apache. Files outside the top_level_dir, such as README.rst, FORMULA, and LICENSE will not be installed. The exceptions to this rule are files that are already treated specially, such as pillar.example and _modules/. dependencies A comma-separated list of packages that must be installed along with this package. When this package is installed, SPM will attempt to discover and install these packages as well. If it is unable to, then it will refuse to install this package. This is useful for creating packages which tie together other packages. For instance, a package called wordpress-mariadb-apache would depend upon wordpress, mariadb, and apache. optional A comma-separated list of packages which are related to this package, but are neither required nor necessarily recommended. This list is displayed in an informational message when the package is installed to SPM. recommended A comma-separated list of optional packages that are recommended to be installed with the package. This list is displayed in an informational message when the package is installed to SPM. files A files section can be added, to specify a list of files to add to the SPM. Such a sec‐ tion might look like: files: - _pillar - FORMULA - _runners - d|mymodule/index.rst - r|README.rst When files are specified, then only those files will be added to the SPM, regardless of what other files exist in the directory. They will also be added in the order specified, which is useful if you have a need to lay down files in a specific order. As can be seen in the example above, you may also tag files as being a specific type. This is done by pre-pending a filename with its type, followed by a pipe (|) character. The above example contains a document file and a readme. The available file types are: · c: config file · d: documentation file · g: ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload) · l: license file · r: readme file · s: SLS file · m: Salt module The first 5 of these types (c, d, g, l, r) will be placed in /usr/share/salt/spm/ by default. This can be changed by setting an spm_share_dir value in your /etc/salt/spm con‐ figuration file. The last two types (s and m) are currently ignored, but they are reserved for future use. Pre and Post States It is possible to run Salt states before and after installing a package by using pre and post states. The following sections may be declared in a FORMULA: · pre_local_state · pre_tgt_state · post_local_state · post_tgt_state Sections with pre in their name are evaluated before a package is installed and sections with post are evaluated after a package is installed. local states are evaluated before tgt states. Each of these sections needs to be evaluated as text, rather than as YAML. Consider the following block: Note that this declaration uses > after pre_local_state. This is a YAML marker that marks the next multi-line block as text, including newlines. It is important to use this marker whenever declaring pre or post states, so that the text following it can be evaluated properly. local States local states are evaluated locally; this is analagous to issuing a state run using a salt-call --local command. These commands will be issued on the local machine running the spm command, whether that machine is a master or a minion. local states do not require any special arguments, but they must still use the > marker to denote that the state is evaluated as text, not a data structure. tgt States tgt states are issued against a remote target. This is analogous to issuing a state using the salt command. As such it requires that the machine that the spm command is running on is a master. Because tgt states require that a target be specified, their code blocks are a little dif‐ ferent. Consider the following state: With tgt states, the state data is placed under a data section, inside the *_tgt_state code block. The target is of course specified as a tgt and you may also optionally specify a tgt_type (the default is glob). You still need to use the > marker, but this time it follows the data line, rather than the *_tgt_state line. Templating States The reason that state data must be evaluated as text rather than a data structure is because that state data is first processed through the rendering engine, as it would be with a standard state run. This means that you can use Jinja or any other supported renderer inside of Salt. All for‐ mula variables are available to the renderer, so you can reference FORMULA data inside your state if you need to: You may also declare your own variables inside the FORMULA. If SPM doesn't recognize them then it will ignore them, so there are no restrictions on variable names, outside of avoiding reserved words. By default the renderer is set to yaml_jinja. You may change this by changing the renderer setting in the FORMULA itself. Building a Package Once a FORMULA file has been created, it is placed into the root of the formula that is to be turned into a package. The spm build command is used to turn that formula into a pack‐ age: spm build /path/to/saltstack-formulas/apache-formula The resulting file will be placed in the build directory. By default this directory is located at /srv/spm/. Loader Modules When an execution module is placed in <file_roots>/_modules/ on the master, it will auto‐ matically be synced to minions, the next time a sync operation takes place. Other modules are also propagated this way: state modules can be placed in _states/, and so on. When SPM detects a file in a package which resides in one of these directories, that directory will be placed in <file_roots> instead of in the formula directory with the rest of the files. Removing Packages Packages may be removed once they are installed using the spm remove command. spm remove apache If files have been modified, they will not be removed. Empty directories will also be removed. Technical Information Packages are built using BZ2-compressed tarballs. By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 driver (see Loader Modules below). Support for these are built into Python, and so no external dependencies are needed. All other files belonging to SPM use YAML, for portability and ease of use and maintain‐ ability. SPM-Specific Loader Modules SPM was designed to behave like traditional package managers, which apply files to the filesystem and store package metadata in a local database. However, because modern infra‐ structures often extend beyond those use cases, certain parts of SPM have been broken out into their own set of modules. Package Database By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 module. This module was cho‐ sen because support for SQLite3 is built into Python itself. Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package database management. Package Files By default, package files are installed using the local module. This module applies files to the local filesystem, on the machine that the package is installed on. Please see the SPM Development Guide for information on creating new modules for package file management. Types of Packages SPM supports different types of formula packages. The function of each package is denoted by its name. For instance, packages which end in -formula are considered to be Salt States (the most common type of formula). Packages which end in -conf contain configuration which is to be placed in the /etc/salt/ directory. Packages which do not contain one of these names are treated as if they have a -formula name. formula By default, most files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/salt/ directory. The exception is the pillar.example file, which will be renamed to <package_name>.sls and placed in the pillar directory (/srv/spm/pillar/ by default). reactor By default, files from this type of package live in the /srv/spm/reactor/ directory. conf The files in this type of package are configuration files for Salt, which normally live in the /etc/salt/ directory. Configuration files for packages other than Salt can and should be handled with a Salt State (using a formula type of package). SPM Development Guide This document discusses developing additional code for SPM. SPM-Specific Loader Modules SPM was designed to behave like traditional package managers, which apply files to the filesystem and store package metadata in a local database. However, because modern infra‐ structures often extend beyond those use cases, certain parts of SPM have been broken out into their own set of modules. Each function that accepts arguments has a set of required and optional arguments. Take note that SPM will pass all arguments in, and therefore each function must accept each of those arguments. However, arguments that are marked as required are crucial to SPM's core functionality, while arguments that are marked as optional are provided as a benefit to the module, if it needs to use them. Package Database By default, the package database is stored using the sqlite3 module. This module was cho‐ sen because support for SQLite3 is built into Python itself. Modules for managing the package database are stored in the salt/spm/pkgdb/ directory. A number of functions must exist to support database management. init() Get a database connection, and initialize the package database if necessary. This function accepts no arguments. If a database is used which supports a connection object, then that connection object is returned. For instance, the sqlite3 module returns a connect() object from the sqlite3 library: conn = sqlite3.connect(__opts__['spm_db'], isolation_level=None) ... return conn SPM itself will not use this connection object; it will be passed in as-is to the other functions in the module. Therefore, when you set up this object, make sure to do so in a way that is easily usable throughout the module. info() Return information for a package. This generally consists of the information that is stored in the FORMULA file in the package. The arguments that are passed in, in order, are package (required) and conn (optional). package is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. conn is the connection object returned from init(). list_files() Return a list of files for an installed package. Only the filename should be returned, and no other information. The arguments that are passed in, in order, are package (required) and conn (optional). package is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. conn is the connection object returned from init(). register_pkg() Register a package in the package database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function. The arguments that are passed in, in order, are name (required), formula_def (required), and conn (optional). name is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. formula_def is the contents of the FORMULA file, as a dict. conn is the connection object returned from init(). register_file() Register a file in the package database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function. The arguments that are passed in are name (required), member (required), path (required), digest (optional), and conn (optional). name is the name of the package. member is a tarfile object for the package file. It is included, because it contains most of the information for the file. path is the location of the file on the local filesystem. digest is the SHA1 checksum of the file. conn is the connection object returned from init(). unregister_pkg() Unregister a package from the package database. This usually only involves removing the package's record from the database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function. The arguments that are passed in, in order, are name (required) and conn (optional). name is the name of the package, as specified in the FORMULA. conn is the connection object returned from init(). unregister_file() Unregister a package from the package database. This usually only involves removing the package's record from the database. Nothing is expected to be returned from this function. The arguments that are passed in, in order, are name (required), pkg (optional) and conn (optional). name is the path of the file, as it was installed on the filesystem. pkg is the name of the package that the file belongs to. conn is the connection object returned from init(). db_exists() Check to see whether the package database already exists. This is the path to the package database file. This function will return True or False. The only argument that is expected is db_, which is the package database file. Package Files By default, package files are installed using the local module. This module applies files to the local filesystem, on the machine that the package is installed on. Modules for managing the package database are stored in the salt/spm/pkgfiles/ directory. A number of functions must exist to support file management. init() Initialize the installation location for the package files. Normally these will be direc‐ tory paths, but other external destinations such as databases can be used. For this rea‐ son, this function will return a connection object, which can be a database object. How‐ ever, in the default local module, this object is a dict containing the paths. This object will be passed into all other functions. Three directories are used for the destinations: formula_path, pillar_path, and reac‐ tor_path. formula_path is the location of most of the files that will be installed. The default is specific to the operating system, but is normally /srv/salt/. pillar_path is the location that the pillar.example file will be installed to. The default is specific to the operating system, but is normally /srv/pillar/. reactor_path is the location that reactor files will be installed to. The default is spe‐ cific to the operating system, but is normally /srv/reactor/. check_existing() Check the filesystem for existing files. All files for the package will be checked, and if any are existing, then this function will normally state that SPM will refuse to install the package. This function returns a list of the files that exist on the system. The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order: package (required), pkg_files (required), formula_def (formula_def), and conn (optional). package is the name of the package that is to be installed. pkg_files is a list of the files to be checked. formula_def is a copy of the information that is stored in the FORMULA file. conn is the file connection object. install_file() Install a single file to the destination (normally on the filesystem). Nothing is expected to be returned from this function. This function returns the final location that the file was installed to. The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order, package (required), for‐ mula_tar (required), member (required), formula_def (required), and conn (optional). package is the name of the package that is to be installed. formula_tar is the tarfile object for the package. This is passed in so that the function can call formula_tar.extract() for the file. member is the tarfile object which represents the individual file. This may be modified as necessary, before being passed into formula_tar.extract(). formula_def is a copy of the information from the FORMULA file. conn is the file connection object. remove_file() Remove a single file from file system. Normally this will be little more than an os.remove(). Nothing is expected to be returned from this function. The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order, path (required) and conn (optional). path is the absolute path to the file to be removed. conn is the file connection object. hash_file() Returns the hexdigest hash value of a file. The arguments that are passed into this function are, in order, path (required), hashobj (required), and conn (optional). path is the absolute path to the file. hashobj is a reference to hashlib.sha1(), which is used to pull the hexdigest() for the file. conn is the file connection object. This function will not generally be more complex than: def hash_file(path, hashobj, conn=None): with salt.utils.fopen(path, 'r') as f: hashobj.update(f.read()) return hashobj.hexdigest() path_exists() Check to see whether the file already exists on the filesystem. Returns True or False. This function expects a path argument, which is the absolute path to the file to be checked. path_isdir() Check to see whether the path specified is a directory. Returns True or False. This function expects a path argument, which is the absolute path to be checked. Storing Data in Other Databases The SDB interface is designed to store and retrieve data that, unlike pillars and grains, is not necessarily minion-specific. The initial design goal was to allow passwords to be stored in a secure database, such as one managed by the keyring package, rather than as plain-text files. However, as a generic database interface, it could conceptually be used for a number of other purposes. SDB was added to Salt in version 2014.7.0. SDB Configuration In order to use the SDB interface, a configuration profile must be set up. To be avail‐ able for master commands, such as runners, it needs to be configured in the master config‐ uration. For modules executed on a minion, it can be set either in the minion configura‐ tion file, or as a pillar. The configuration stanza includes the name/ID that the profile will be referred to as, a driver setting, and any other arguments that are necessary for the SDB module that will be used. For instance, a profile called mykeyring, which uses the system service in the keyring module would look like: mykeyring: driver: keyring service: system It is recommended to keep the name of the profile simple, as it is used in the SDB URI as well. SDB URIs SDB is designed to make small database queries (hence the name, SDB) using a compact URL. This allows users to reference a database value quickly inside a number of Salt configura‐ tion areas, without a lot of overhead. The basic format of an SDB URI is: sdb://<profile>/<args> The profile refers to the configuration profile defined in either the master or the minion configuration file. The args are specific to the module referred to in the profile, but will typically only need to refer to the key of a key/value pair inside the database. This is because the profile itself should define as many other parameters as possible. For example, a profile might be set up to reference credentials for a specific OpenStack account. The profile might look like: kevinopenstack: driver: keyring service: salt.cloud.openstack.kevin And the URI used to reference the password might look like: sdb://kevinopenstack/password Getting, Setting and Deleting SDB Values Once an SDB driver is configured, you can use the sdb execution module to get, set and delete values from it. There are two functions that may appear in most SDB modules: get, set and delete. Getting a value requires only the SDB URI to be specified. To retrieve a value from the kevinopenstack profile above, you would use: salt-call sdb.get sdb://kevinopenstack/password Some drivers use slightly more complex URIs. For instance, the vault driver requires the full path to where the key is stored, followed by a question mark, followed by the key to be retrieved. If you were using a profile called myvault, you would use a URI that looks like: salt-call sdb.get 'sdb://myvault/secret/salt?saltstack' Setting a value uses the same URI as would be used to retrieve it, followed by the value as another argument. For the above myvault URI, you would set a new value using a command like: salt-call sdb.set 'sdb://myvault/secret/salt?saltstack' 'super awesome' Deleting values (if supported by the driver) is done pretty much the same way as getting them. Provided that you have a profile called mykvstore that uses a driver allowing to delete values you would delete a value as shown below: salt-call sdb.delete 'sdb://mykvstore/foobar' The sdb.get, sdb.set and sdb.delete functions are also available in the runner system: salt-run sdb.get 'sdb://myvault/secret/salt?saltstack' salt-run sdb.set 'sdb://myvault/secret/salt?saltstack' 'super awesome' salt-run sdb.delete 'sdb://mykvstore/foobar' Using SDB URIs in Files SDB URIs can be used in both configuration files, and files that are processed by the ren‐ derer system (jinja, mako, etc.). In a configuration file (such as /etc/salt/master, /etc/salt/minion, /etc/salt/cloud, etc.), make an entry as usual, and set the value to the SDB URI. For instance: mykey: sdb://myetcd/mykey To retrieve this value using a module, the module in question must use the config.get function to retrieve configuration values. This would look something like: mykey = __salt__['config.get']('mykey') Templating renderers use a similar construct. To get the mykey value from above in Jinja, you would use: {{ salt['config.get']('mykey') }} When retrieving data from configuration files using config.get, the SDB URI need only appear in the configuration file itself. If you would like to retrieve a key directly from SDB, you would call the sdb.get function directly, using the SDB URI. For instance, in Jinja: {{ salt['sdb.get']('sdb://myetcd/mykey') }} When writing Salt modules, it is not recommended to call sdb.get directly, as it requires the user to provide values in SDB, using a specific URI. Use config.get instead. Writing SDB Modules There is currently one function that MUST exist in any SDB module (get()), one that SHOULD exist (set_()) and one that MAY exist (delete()). If using a (set_()) function, a __func_alias__ dictionary MUST be declared in the module as well: __func_alias__ = { 'set_': 'set', } This is because set is a Python built-in, and therefore functions should not be created which are called set(). The __func_alias__ functionality is provided via Salt's loader interfaces, and allows legally-named functions to be referred to using names that would otherwise be unwise to use. The get() function is required, as it will be called via functions in other areas of the code which make use of the sdb:// URI. For example, the config.get function in the config execution module uses this function. The set_() function may be provided, but is not required, as some sources may be read-only, or may be otherwise unwise to access via a URI (for instance, because of SQL injection attacks). The delete() function may be provided as well, but is not required, as many sources may be read-only or restrict such operations. A simple example of an SDB module is salt/sdb/keyring_db.py, as it provides basic examples of most, if not all, of the types of functionality that are available not only for SDB modules, but for Salt modules in general. Running the Salt Master/Minion as an Unprivileged User While the default setup runs the master and minion as the root user, some may consider it an extra measure of security to run the master as a non-root user. Keep in mind that doing so does not change the master's capability to access minions as the user they are running as. Due to this many feel that running the master as a non-root user does not grant any real security advantage which is why the master has remained as root by default. NOTE: Some of Salt's operations cannot execute correctly when the master is not running as root, specifically the pam external auth system, as this system needs root access to check authentication. As of Salt 0.9.10 it is possible to run Salt as a non-root user. This can be done by set‐ ting the user parameter in the master configuration file. and restarting the salt-master service. The minion has it's own user parameter as well, but running the minion as an unprivileged user will keep it from making changes to things like users, installed packages, etc. unless access controls (sudo, etc.) are setup on the minion to permit the non-root user to make the needed changes. In order to allow Salt to successfully run as a non-root user, ownership, and permissions need to be set such that the desired user can read from and write to the following direc‐ tories (and their subdirectories, where applicable): · /etc/salt · /var/cache/salt · /var/log/salt · /var/run/salt Ownership can be easily changed with chown, like so: # chown -R user /etc/salt /var/cache/salt /var/log/salt /var/run/salt WARNING: Running either the master or minion with the root_dir parameter specified will affect these paths, as will setting options like pki_dir, cachedir, log_file, and other options that normally live in the above directories. Using cron with Salt The Salt Minion can initiate its own highstate using the salt-call command. $ salt-call state.apply This will cause the minion to check in with the master and ensure it is in the correct "state". Use cron to initiate a highstate If you would like the Salt Minion to regularly check in with the master you can use cron to run the salt-call command: 0 0 * * * salt-call state.apply The above cron entry will run a highstate every day at midnight. NOTE: When executing Salt using cron, keep in mind that the default PATH for cron may not include the path for any scripts or commands used by Salt, and it may be necessary to set the PATH accordingly in the crontab: PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/opt/bin 0 0 * * * salt-call state.apply Hardening Salt This topic contains tips you can use to secure and harden your Salt environment. How you best secure and harden your Salt environment depends heavily on how you use Salt, where you use Salt, how your team is structured, where you get data from, and what kinds of access (internal and external) you require. General hardening tips · Restrict who can directly log into your Salt master system. · Use SSH keys secured with a passphrase to gain access to the Salt master system. · Track and secure SSH keys and any other login credentials you and your team need to gain access to the Salt master system. · Use a hardened bastion server or a VPN to restrict direct access to the Salt master from the internet. · Don't expose the Salt master any more than what is required. · Harden the system as you would with any high-priority target. · Keep the system patched and up-to-date. · Use tight firewall rules. Salt hardening tips · Subscribe to salt-users or salt-announce so you know when new Salt releases are avail‐ able. Keep your systems up-to-date with the latest patches. · Use Salt's Client ACL system to avoid having to give out root access in order to run Salt commands. · Use Salt's Client ACL system to restrict which users can run what commands. · Use external Pillar to pull data into Salt from external sources so that non-sysadmins (other teams, junior admins, developers, etc) can provide configuration data without needing access to the Salt master. · Make heavy use of SLS files that are version-controlled and go through a peer-review/code-review process before they're deployed and run in production. This is good advice even for "one-off" CLI commands because it helps mitigate typos and mis‐ takes. · Use salt-api, SSL, and restrict authentication with the external auth system if you need to expose your Salt master to external services. · Make use of Salt's event system and reactor to allow minions to signal the Salt master without requiring direct access. · Run the salt-master daemon as non-root. · Disable which modules are loaded onto minions with the disable_modules setting. (for example, disable the cmd module if it makes sense in your environment.) · Look through the fully-commented sample master and minion config files. There are many options for securing an installation. · Run masterless-mode minions on particularly sensitive minions. There is also salt-ssh or the modules.sudo if you need to further restrict a minion. Security disclosure policy email @saltstack.com gpg key ID 4EA0793D gpg key fingerprint 8ABE 4EFC F0F4 B24B FF2A AF90 D570 F2D3 4EA0 793D gpg public key: -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- Version: GnuPG/MacGPG2 v2.0.22 (Darwin) mQINBFO15mMBEADa3CfQwk5ED9wAQ8fFDku277CegG3U1hVGdcxqKNvucblwoKCb hRK6u9ihgaO9V9duV2glwgjytiBI/z6lyWqdaD37YXG/gTL+9Md+qdSDeaOa/9eg 7y+g4P+FvU9HWUlujRVlofUn5Dj/IZgUywbxwEybutuzvvFVTzsn+DFVwTH34Qoh QIuNzQCSEz3Lhh8zq9LqkNy91ZZQO1ZIUrypafspH6GBHHcE8msBFgYiNBnVcUFH u0r4j1Rav+621EtD5GZsOt05+NJI8pkaC/dDKjURcuiV6bhmeSpNzLaXUhwx6f29 Vhag5JhVGGNQxlRTxNEM86HEFp+4zJQ8m/wRDrGX5IAHsdESdhP+ljDVlAAX/ttP /Ucl2fgpTnDKVHOA00E515Q87ZHv6awJ3GL1veqi8zfsLaag7rw1TuuHyGLOPkDt t5PAjsS9R3KI7pGnhqI6bTOi591odUdgzUhZChWUUX1VStiIDi2jCvyoOOLMOGS5 AEYXuWYP7KgujZCDRaTNqRDdgPd93Mh9JI8UmkzXDUgijdzVpzPjYgFaWtyK8lsc Fizqe3/Yzf9RCVX/lmRbiEH+ql/zSxcWlBQd17PKaL+TisQFXcmQzccYgAxFbj2r QHp5ABEu9YjFme2Jzun7Mv9V4qo3JF5dmnUk31yupZeAOGZkirIsaWC3hwARAQAB tDBTYWx0U3RhY2sgU2VjdXJpdHkgVGVhbSA8c2VjdXJpdHlAc2FsdHN0YWNrLmNv bT6JAj4EEwECACgFAlO15mMCGwMFCQeGH4AGCwkIBwMCBhUIAgkKCwQWAgMBAh4B AheAAAoJENVw8tNOoHk9z/MP/2vzY27fmVxU5X8joiiturjlgEqQw41IYEmWv1Bw 4WVXYCHP1yu/1MC1uuvOmOd5BlI8YO2C2oyW7d1B0NorguPtz55b7jabCElekVCh h/H4ZVThiwqgPpthRv/2npXjIm7SLSs/kuaXo6Qy2JpszwDVFw+xCRVL0tH9KJxz HuNBeVq7abWD5fzIWkmGM9hicG/R2D0RIlco1Q0VNKy8klG+pOFOW886KnwkSPc7 JUYp1oUlHsSlhTmkLEG54cyVzrTP/XuZuyMTdtyTc3mfgW0adneAL6MARtC5UB/h q+v9dqMf4iD3wY6ctu8KWE8Vo5MUEsNNO9EA2dUR88LwFZ3ZnnXdQkizgR/Aa515 dm17vlNkSoomYCo84eN7GOTfxWcq+iXYSWcKWT4X+h/ra+LmNndQWQBRebVUtbKE ZDwKmiQz/5LY5EhlWcuU4lVmMSFpWXt5FR/PtzgTdZAo9QKkBjcv97LYbXvsPI69 El1BLAg+m+1UpE1L7zJT1il6PqVyEFAWBxW46wXCCkGssFsvz2yRp0PDX8A6u4yq rTkt09uYht1is61joLDJ/kq3+6k8gJWkDOW+2NMrmf+/qcdYCMYXmrtOpg/wF27W GMNAkbdyzgeX/MbUBCGCMdzhevRuivOI5bu4vT5s3KdshG+yhzV45bapKRd5VN+1 mZRquQINBFO15mMBEAC5UuLii9ZLz6qHfIJp35IOW9U8SOf7QFhzXR7NZ3DmJsd3 f6Nb/habQFIHjm3K9wbpj+FvaW2oWRlFVvYdzjUq6c82GUUjW1dnqgUvFwdmM835 1n0YQ2TonmyaF882RvsRZrbJ65uvy7SQxlouXaAYOdqwLsPxBEOyOnMPSktW5V2U IWyxsNP3sADchWIGq9p5D3Y/loyIMsS1dj+TjoQZOKSj7CuRT98+8yhGAY8YBEXu 9r3I9o6mDkuPpAljuMc8r09Im6az2egtK/szKt4Hy1bpSSBZU4W/XR7XwQNywmb3 wxjmYT6Od3Mwj0jtzc3gQiH8hcEy3+BO+NNmyzFVyIwOLziwjmEcw62S57wYKUVn HD2nglMsQa8Ve0e6ABBMEY7zGEGStva59rfgeh0jUMJiccGiUDTMs0tdkC6knYKb u/fdRqNYFoNuDcSeLEw4DdCuP01l2W4yY+fiK6hAcL25amjzc+yYo9eaaqTn6RAT bzdhHQZdpAMxY+vNT0+NhP1Zo5gYBMR65Zp/VhFsf67ijb03FUtdw9N8dHwiR2m8 vVA8kO/gCD6wS2p9RdXqrJ9JhnHYWjiVuXR+f755ZAndyQfRtowMdQIoiXuJEXYw 6XN+/BX81gJaynJYc0uw0MnxWQX+A5m8HqEsbIFUXBYXPgbwXTm7c4IHGgXXdwAR AQABiQIlBBgBAgAPBQJTteZjAhsMBQkHhh+AAAoJENVw8tNOoHk91rcQAIhxLv4g duF/J1Cyf6Wixz4rqslBQ7DgNztdIUMjCThg3eB6pvIzY5d3DNROmwU5JvGP1rEw hNiJhgBDFaB0J/y28uSci+orhKDTHb/cn30IxfuAuqrv9dujvmlgM7JUswOtLZhs 5FYGa6v1RORRWhUx2PQsF6ORg22QAaagc7OlaO3BXBoiE/FWsnEQCUsc7GnnPqi7 um45OJl/pJntsBUKvivEU20fj7j1UpjmeWz56NcjXoKtEvGh99gM5W2nSMLE3aPw vcKhS4yRyLjOe19NfYbtID8m8oshUDji0XjQ1z5NdGcf2V1YNGHU5xyK6zwyGxgV xZqaWnbhDTu1UnYBna8BiUobkuqclb4T9k2WjbrUSmTwKixokCOirFDZvqISkgmN r6/g3w2TRi11/LtbUciF0FN2pd7rj5mWrOBPEFYJmrB6SQeswWNhr5RIsXrQd/Ho zvNm0HnUNEe6w5YBfA6sXQy8B0Zs6pcgLogkFB15TuHIIIpxIsVRv5z8SlEnB7HQ Io9hZT58yjhekJuzVQB9loU0C/W0lzci/pXTt6fd9puYQe1DG37pSifRG6kfHxrR if6nRyrfdTlawqbqdkoqFDmEybAM9/hv3BqriGahGGH/hgplNQbYoXfNwYMYaHuB aSkJvrOQW8bpuAzgVyd7TyNFv+t1kLlfaRYJ =wBTJ -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- The SaltStack Security Team is available at @saltstack.com for security-related bug reports or questions. We request the disclosure of any security-related bugs or issues be reported non-publicly until such time as the issue can be resolved and a security-fix release can be prepared. At that time we will release the fix and make a public announcement with upgrade instruc‐ tions and download locations. Security response procedure SaltStack takes security and the trust of our customers and users very seriously. Our dis‐ closure policy is intended to resolve security issues as quickly and safely as is possi‐ ble. 1. A security report sent to @saltstack.com is assigned to a team member. This person is the primary contact for questions and will coordinate the fix, release, and announcement. 2. The reported issue is reproduced and confirmed. A list of affected projects and releases is made. 3. Fixes are implemented for all affected projects and releases that are actively sup‐ ported. Back-ports of the fix are made to any old releases that are actively supported. 4. Packagers are notified via the salt-packagers mailing list that an issue was reported and resolved, and that an announcement is incoming. 5. A new release is created and pushed to all affected repositories. The release documen‐ tation provides a full description of the issue, plus any upgrade instructions or other relevant details. 6. An announcement is made to the salt-users and salt-announce mailing lists. The announcement contains a description of the issue and a link to the full release docu‐ mentation and download locations. Receiving security announcements The fastest place to receive security announcements is via the salt-announce mailing list. This list is low-traffic. Salt Transport One of fundamental features of Salt is remote execution. Salt has two basic "channels" for communicating with minions. Each channel requires a client (minion) and a server (master) implementation to work within Salt. These pairs of channels will work together to imple‐ ment the specific message passing required by the channel interface. Pub Channel The pub channel, or publish channel, is how a master sends a job (payload) to a minion. This is a basic pub/sub paradigm, which has specific targeting semantics. All data which goes across the publish system should be encrypted such that only members of the Salt cluster can decrypt the publishes. Req Channel The req channel is how the minions send data to the master. This interface is primarily used for fetching files and returning job returns. The req channels have two basic inter‐ faces when talking to the master. send is the basic method that guarantees the message is encrypted at least so that only minions attached to the same master can read it-- but no guarantee of minion-master confidentiality, whereas the crypted_transfer_decode_dictentry method does guarantee minion-master confidentiality. Zeromq Transport NOTE: Zeromq is the current default transport within Salt Zeromq is a messaging library with bindings into many languages. Zeromq implements a socket interface for message passing, with specific semantics for the socket type. Pub Channel The pub channel is implemented using zeromq's pub/sub sockets. By default we don't use zeromq's filtering, which means that all publish jobs are sent to all minions and filtered minion side. Zeromq does have publisher side filtering which can be enabled in salt using zmq_filtering. Req Channel The req channel is implemented using zeromq's req/rep sockets. These sockets enforce a send/recv pattern, which forces salt to serialize messages through these socket pairs. This means that although the interface is asynchronous on the minion we cannot send a sec‐ ond message until we have received the reply of the first message. TCP Transport The tcp transport is an implementation of Salt's channels using raw tcp sockets. Since this isn't using a pre-defined messaging library we will describe the wire protocol, mes‐ sage semantics, etc. in this document. The tcp transport is enabled by changing the transport setting to tcp on each Salt minion and Salt master. transport: tcp Wire Protocol This implementation over TCP focuses on flexibility over absolute efficiency. This means we are okay to spend a couple of bytes of wire space for flexibility in the future. That being said, the wire framing is quite efficient and looks like: msgpack({'head': SOMEHEADER, 'body': SOMEBODY}) Since msgpack is an iterably parsed serialization, we can simply write the serialized pay‐ load to the wire. Within that payload we have two items "head" and "body". Head contains header information (such as "message id"). The Body contains the actual message that we are sending. With this flexible wire protocol we can implement any message semantics that we'd like-- including multiplexed message passing on a single socket. TLS Support The TCP transport allows for the master/minion communication to be optionally wrapped in a TLS connection. Enabling this is simple, the master and minion need to be using the tcp connection, then the ssl option is enabled. The ssl option is passed as a dict and corre‐ sponds to the options passed to the Python ssl.wrap_socket <https://docs.python.org/2/library/ssl.html#ssl.wrap_socket> function. A simple setup looks like this, on the Salt Master add the ssl option to the master con‐ figuration file: ssl: keyfile: <path_to_keyfile> certfile: <path_to_certfile> ssl_version: PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2 The minimal ssl option in the minion configuration file looks like this: ssl: True # Versions below 2016.11.4: ssl: {} Specific options can be sent to the minion also, as defined in the Python ssl.wrap_socket function. NOTE: While setting the ssl_version is not required, we recommend it. Some older versions of python do not support the latest TLS protocol and if this is the case for your version of python we strongly recommend upgrading your version of Python. Crypto The current implementation uses the same crypto as the zeromq transport. Pub Channel For the pub channel we send messages without "message ids" which the remote end interprets as a one-way send. NOTE: As of today we send all publishes to all minions and rely on minion-side filtering. Req Channel For the req channel we send messages with a "message id". This "message id" allows us to multiplex messages across the socket. The RAET Transport NOTE: The RAET transport is in very early development, it is functional but no promises are yet made as to its reliability or security. As for reliability and security, the encryption used has been audited and our tests show that raet is reliable. With this said we are still conducting more security audits and pushing the reliability. This document outlines the encryption used in RAET New in version 2014.7.0. The Reliable Asynchronous Event Transport, or RAET, is an alternative transport medium developed specifically with Salt in mind. It has been developed to allow queuing to happen up on the application layer and comes with socket layer encryption. It also abstracts a great deal of control over the socket layer and makes it easy to bubble up errors and exceptions. RAET also offers very powerful message routing capabilities, allowing for messages to be routed between processes on a single machine all the way up to processes on multiple machines. Messages can also be restricted, allowing processes to be sent messages of spe‐ cific types from specific sources allowing for trust to be established. Using RAET in Salt Using RAET in Salt is easy, the main difference is that the core dependencies change, instead of needing pycrypto, M2Crypto, ZeroMQ, and PYZMQ, the packages libsodium, libnacl, ioflo, and raet are required. Encryption is handled very cleanly by libnacl, while the queueing and flow control is handled by ioflo. Distribution packages are forthcoming, but libsodium can be easily installed from source, or many distributions do ship packages for it. The libnacl and ioflo packages can be easily installed from pypi, distribution pack‐ ages are in the works. Once the new deps are installed the 2014.7 release or higher of Salt needs to be installed. Once installed, modify the configuration files for the minion and master to set the trans‐ port to raet: /etc/salt/master: transport: raet /etc/salt/minion: transport: raet Now start salt as it would normally be started, the minion will connect to the master and share long term keys, which can then in turn be managed via salt-key. Remote execution and salt states will function in the same way as with Salt over ZeroMQ. Limitations The 2014.7 release of RAET is not complete! The Syndic and Multi Master have not been com‐ pleted yet and these are slated for completion in the 2015.5.0 release. Also, Salt-Raet allows for more control over the client but these hooks have not been implemented yet, thereforre the client still uses the same system as the ZeroMQ client. This means that the extra reliability that RAET exposes has not yet been implemented in the CLI client. Why? Customer and User Request Why make an alternative transport for Salt? There are many reasons, but the primary moti‐ vation came from customer requests, many large companies came with requests to run Salt over an alternative transport, the reasoning was varied, from performance and scaling improvements to licensing concerns. These customers have partnered with SaltStack to make RAET a reality. More Capabilities RAET has been designed to allow salt to have greater communication capabilities. It has been designed to allow for development into features which out ZeroMQ topologies can't match. Many of the proposed features are still under development and will be announced as they enter proof of concept phases, but these features include salt-fuse - a filesystem over salt, salt-vt - a parallel api driven shell over the salt transport and many others. RAET Reliability RAET is reliable, hence the name (Reliable Asynchronous Event Transport). The concern posed by some over RAET reliability is based on the fact that RAET uses UDP instead of TCP and UDP does not have built in reliability. RAET itself implements the needed reliability layers that are not natively present in UDP, this allows RAET to dynamically optimize packet delivery in a way that keeps it both reli‐ able and asynchronous. RAET and ZeroMQ When using RAET, ZeroMQ is not required. RAET is a complete networking replacement. It is noteworthy that RAET is not a ZeroMQ replacement in a general sense, the ZeroMQ constructs are not reproduced in RAET, but they are instead implemented in such a way that is spe‐ cific to Salt's needs. RAET is primarily an async communication layer over truly async connections, defaulting to UDP. ZeroMQ is over TCP and abstracts async constructs within the socket layer. Salt is not dropping ZeroMQ support and has no immediate plans to do so. Encryption RAET uses Dan Bernstein's NACL encryption libraries and CurveCP handshake. The libnacl python binding binds to both libsodium and tweetnacl to execute the underlying cryptogra‐ phy. This allows us to completely rely on an externally developed cryptography system. Programming Intro Intro to RAET Programming NOTE: This page is still under construction The first thing to cover is that RAET does not present a socket api, it presents, and queueing api, all messages in RAET are made available to via queues. This is the single most differentiating factor with RAET vs other networking libraries, instead of making a socket, a stack is created. Instead of calling send() or recv(), messages are placed on the stack to be sent and messages that are received appear on the stack. Different kinds of stacks are also available, currently two stacks exist, the UDP stack, and the UXD stack. The UDP stack is used to communicate over udp sockets, and the UXD stack is used to communicate over Unix Domain Sockets. The UDP stack runs a context for communicating over networks, while the UXD stack has con‐ texts for communicating between processes. UDP Stack Messages To create a UDP stack in RAET, simply create the stack, manage the queues, and process messages: from salt.transport.road.raet import stacking from salt.transport.road.raet import estating udp_stack = stacking.StackUdp(ha=('127.0.0.1', 7870)) r_estate = estating.Estate(stack=stack, name='foo', ha=('192.168.42.42', 7870)) msg = {'hello': 'world'} udp_stack.transmit(msg, udp_stack.estates[r_estate.name]) udp_stack.serviceAll() Master Tops System In 0.10.4 the external_nodes system was upgraded to allow for modular subsystems to be used to generate the top file data for a highstate run on the master. The old external_nodes option has been removed. The master tops system provides a plug‐ gable and extendable replacement for it, allowing for multiple different subsystems to provide top file data. Using the new master_tops option is simple: master_tops: ext_nodes: cobbler-external-nodes for Cobbler or: master_tops: reclass: inventory_base_uri: /etc/reclass classes_uri: roles for Reclass. master_tops: varstack: /path/to/the/config/file/varstack.yaml for Varstack. It's also possible to create custom master_tops modules. Simply place them into salt://_tops in the Salt fileserver and use the saltutil.sync_tops runner to sync them. If this runner function is not available, they can manually be placed into extmods/tops, rel‐ ative to the master cachedir (in most cases the full path will be /var/cache/salt/mas‐ ter/extmods/tops). Custom tops modules are written like any other execution module, see the source for the two modules above for examples of fully functional ones. Below is a bare-bones example: /etc/salt/master: master_tops: customtop: True customtop.py: (custom master_tops module) import logging import sys # Define the module's virtual name __virtualname__ = 'customtop' log = logging.getLogger(__name__) def __virtual__(): return __virtualname__ def top(**kwargs): log.debug('Calling top in customtop') return {'base': ['test']} salt minion state.show_top should then display something like: $ salt minion state.show_top minion ---------- base: - test NOTE: If a master_tops module returns top file data for a given minion, it will be added to the states configured in the top file. It will not replace it altogether. The Oxygen release adds additional functionality allowing a minion to treat master_tops as the single source of truth, irrespective of the top file. Returners By default the return values of the commands sent to the Salt minions are returned to the Salt master, however anything at all can be done with the results data. By using a Salt returner, results data can be redirected to external data-stores for anal‐ ysis and archival. Returners pull their configuration values from the Salt minions. Returners are only con‐ figured once, which is generally at load time. The returner interface allows the return data to be sent to any system that can receive data. This means that return data can be sent to a Redis server, a MongoDB server, a MySQL server, or any system. SEE ALSO: Full list of builtin returners Using Returners All Salt commands will return the command data back to the master. Specifying returners will ensure that the data is _also_ sent to the specified returner interfaces. Specifying what returners to use is done when the command is invoked: salt '*' test.ping --return redis_return This command will ensure that the redis_return returner is used. It is also possible to specify multiple returners: salt '*' test.ping --return mongo_return,redis_return,cassandra_return In this scenario all three returners will be called and the data from the test.ping com‐ mand will be sent out to the three named returners. Writing a Returner A returner is a Python module containing at minimum a returner function. Other optional functions can be included to add support for master_job_cache, external-job-cache, and Event Returners. returner The returner function must accept a single argument. The argument contains return data from the called minion function. If the minion function test.ping is called, the value of the argument will be a dictionary. Run the following command from a Salt master to get a sample of the dictionary: salt-call --local --metadata test.ping --out=pprint import redis import json def returner(ret): ''' Return information to a redis server ''' # Get a redis connection serv = redis.Redis( host='redis-serv.example.com', port=6379, db='0') serv.sadd("%(id)s:jobs" % ret, ret['jid']) serv.set("%(jid)s:%(id)s" % ret, json.dumps(ret['return'])) serv.sadd('jobs', ret['jid']) serv.sadd(ret['jid'], ret['id']) The above example of a returner set to send the data to a Redis server serializes the data as JSON and sets it in redis. Master Job Cache Support master_job_cache, external-job-cache, and Event Returners. Salt's master_job_cache allows returners to be used as a pluggable replacement for the default_job_cache. In order to do so, a returner must implement the following functions: NOTE: The code samples contained in this section were taken from the cassandra_cql returner. prep_jid Ensures that job ids (jid) don't collide, unless passed_jid is provided. nochache is an optional boolean that indicates if return data should be cached. passed_jid is a caller provided jid which should be returned unconditionally. def prep_jid(nocache, passed_jid=None): # pylint: disable=unused-argument ''' Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id ''' return passed_jid if passed_jid is not None else salt.utils.jid.gen_jid() save_load Save job information. The jid is generated by prep_jid and should be considered a unique identifier for the job. The jid, for example, could be used as the pri‐ mary/unique key in a database. The load is what is returned to a Salt master by a minion. The following code example stores the load as a JSON string in the salt.jids table. def save_load(jid, load): ''' Save the load to the specified jid id ''' query = '''INSERT INTO salt.jids ( jid, load ) VALUES ( '{0}', '{1}' );'''.format(jid, json.dumps(load)) # cassandra_cql.cql_query may raise a CommandExecutionError try: __salt__['cassandra_cql.cql_query'](query) except CommandExecutionError: log.critical('Could not save load in jids table.') raise except Exception as e: log.critical('''Unexpected error while inserting into jids: {0}'''.format(str(e))) raise get_load must accept a job id (jid) and return the job load stored by save_load, or an empty dictionary when not found. def get_load(jid): ''' Return the load data that marks a specified jid ''' query = '''SELECT load FROM salt.jids WHERE jid = '{0}';'''.format(jid) ret = {} # cassandra_cql.cql_query may raise a CommandExecutionError try: data = __salt__['cassandra_cql.cql_query'](query) if data: load = data[0].get('load') if load: ret = json.loads(load) except CommandExecutionError: log.critical('Could not get load from jids table.') raise except Exception as e: log.critical('''Unexpected error while getting load from jids: {0}'''.format(str(e))) raise return ret External Job Cache Support Salt's external-job-cache extends the master_job_cache. External Job Cache support requires the following functions in addition to what is required for Master Job Cache sup‐ port: get_jid Return a dictionary containing the information (load) returned by each minion when the specified job id was executed. Sample: { "local": { "master_minion": { "fun_args": [], "jid": "20150330121011408195", "return": true, "retcode": 0, "success": true, "cmd": "_return", "_stamp": "2015-03-30T12:10:12.708663", "fun": "test.ping", "id": "master_minion" } } } get_fun Return a dictionary of minions that called a given Salt function as their last function call. Sample: { "local": { "minion1": "test.ping", "minion3": "test.ping", "minion2": "test.ping" } } get_jids Return a list of all job ids. Sample: { "local": [ "20150330121011408195", "20150330195922139916" ] } get_minions Returns a list of minions Sample: { "local": [ "minion3", "minion2", "minion1", "master_minion" ] } Please refer to one or more of the existing returners (i.e. mysql, cassandra_cql) if you need further clarification. Event Support An event_return function must be added to the returner module to allow events to be logged from a master via the returner. A list of events are passed to the function by the master. The following example was taken from the MySQL returner. In this example, each event is inserted into the salt_events table keyed on the event tag. The tag contains the jid and therefore is guaranteed to be unique. def event_return(events): ''' Return event to mysql server Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config. ''' with _get_serv(events, commit=True) as cur: for event in events: tag = event.get('tag', '') data = event.get('data', '') sql = '''INSERT INTO `salt_events` (`tag`, `data`, `master_id` ) VALUES (%s, %s, %s)''' cur.execute(sql, (tag, json.dumps(data), __opts__['id'])) Custom Returners Place custom returners in a _returners directory within the file_roots specified by the master config file. Custom returners are distributed when any of the following are called: · state.apply · saltutil.sync_returners · saltutil.sync_all Any custom returners which have been synced to a minion that are named the same as one of Salt's default set of returners will take the place of the default returner with the same name. Naming the Returner Note that a returner's default name is its filename (i.e. foo.py becomes returner foo), but that its name can be overridden by using a __virtual__ function. A good example of this can be found in the redis returner, which is named redis_return.py but is loaded as simply redis: try: import redis HAS_REDIS = True except ImportError: HAS_REDIS = False __virtualname__ = 'redis' def __virtual__(): if not HAS_REDIS: return False return __virtualname__ Testing the Returner The returner, prep_jid, save_load, get_load, and event_return functions can be tested by configuring the master_job_cache and Event Returners in the master config file and submit‐ ting a job to test.ping each minion from the master. Once you have successfully exercised the Master Job Cache functions, test the External Job Cache functions using the ret execution module. salt-call ret.get_jids cassandra_cql --output=json salt-call ret.get_fun cassandra_cql test.ping --output=json salt-call ret.get_minions cassandra_cql --output=json salt-call ret.get_jid cassandra_cql 20150330121011408195 --output=json Event Returners For maximum visibility into the history of events across a Salt infrastructure, all events seen by a salt master may be logged to one or more returners. To enable event logging, set the event_return configuration option in the master config to the returner(s) which should be designated as the handler for event returns. NOTE: Not all returners support event returns. Verify a returner has an event_return() func‐ tion before using. NOTE: On larger installations, many hundreds of events may be generated on a busy master every second. Be certain to closely monitor the storage of a given returner as Salt can easily overwhelm an underpowered server with thousands of returns. Full List of Returners returner modules ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── carbon_return Take data from salt and "return" it into a carbon receiver ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── cassandra_cql_return Return data to a cassandra server ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── cassandra_return Return data to a Cassandra ColumnFamily ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── couchbase_return Simple returner for Couchbase. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── couchdb_return Simple returner for CouchDB. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── django_return A returner that will inform a Django system that returns are available using Django's signal system. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── elasticsearch_return Return data to an elasticsearch server for indexing. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── etcd_return Return data to an etcd server or cluster ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── highstate_return Return the results of a high‐ state (or any other state func‐ tion that returns data in a com‐ patible format) via an HTML email or HTML file. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── hipchat_return Return salt data via hipchat. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── influxdb_return Return data to an influxdb server. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── kafka_return Return data to a Kafka topic ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── librato_return Salt returner to return high‐ state stats to Librato ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── local The local returner is used to test the returner interface, it just prints the ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── local_cache Return data to local job cache ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── mattermost_returner Return salt data via mattermost ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── memcache_return Return data to a memcache server ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── mongo_future_return Return data to a mongodb server ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── mongo_return Return data to a mongodb server ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── multi_returner Read/Write multiple returners ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── mysql Return data to a mysql server ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── nagios_return Return salt data to Nagios ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── odbc Return data to an ODBC compliant server. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── pgjsonb Return data to a PostgreSQL server with json data stored in Pg's jsonb data type ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── postgres Return data to a postgresql server ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── postgres_local_cache Use a postgresql server for the master job cache. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── pushover_returner Return salt data via pushover (‐ http://www.pushover.net) ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── rawfile_json Take data from salt and "return" it into a raw file containing the json, with one line per event. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── redis_return Return data to a redis server ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── sentry_return Salt returner that reports exe‐ cution results back to sentry. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── slack_returner Return salt data via slack ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── sms_return Return data by SMS. ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── smtp_return Return salt data via email ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── splunk Send json response data to Splunk via the HTTP Event Col‐ lector ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── sqlite3_return Insert minion return data into a sqlite3 database ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── syslog_return Return data to the host operat‐ ing system's syslog facility ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── xmpp_return Return salt data via xmpp ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── zabbix_return Return salt data to Zabbix ┼─────────────────────┼──────────────────────────────────┼ salt.returners.carbon_return Take data from salt and "return" it into a carbon receiver Add the following configuration to the minion configuration file: carbon.host: <server ip address> carbon.port: 2003 Errors when trying to convert data to numbers may be ignored by setting car‐ bon.skip_on_error to True: carbon.skip_on_error: True By default, data will be sent to carbon using the plaintext protocol. To use the pickle protocol, set carbon.mode to pickle: carbon.mode: pickle You can also specify the pattern used for the metric base path (except for virt modules metrics): carbon.metric_base_pattern: carbon.[minion_id].[module].[function] These tokens can used : [module]: salt module [function]: salt function [minion_id]: minion id Default is : carbon.metric_base_pattern: [module].[function].[minion_id] Carbon settings may also be configured as: carbon: host: <server IP or hostname> port: <carbon port> skip_on_error: True mode: (pickle|text) metric_base_pattern: <pattern> | [module].[function].[minion_id] Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.carbon: host: <server IP or hostname> port: <carbon port> skip_on_error: True mode: (pickle|text) To use the carbon returner, append '--return carbon' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return carbon To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return carbon --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return carbon --return_kwargs '{"skip_on_error": False}' salt.returners.carbon_return.event_return(events) Return event data to remote carbon server Provide a list of events to be stored in carbon salt.returners.carbon_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.carbon_return.returner(ret) Return data to a remote carbon server using the text metric protocol Each metric will look like: [module].[function].[minion_id].[metric path [...]].[metric name] salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return Return data to a cassandra server New in version 2015.5.0. maintainer Corin Kochenower<@saltstack.com> maturity new as of 2015.2 depends salt.modules.cassandra_cql depends DataStax Python Driver for Apache Cassandra https://github.com/datastax/python-driver pip install cassandra-driver platform all configuration To enable this returner, the minion will need the DataStax Python Driver for Apache Cassandra ( https://github.com/datastax/python-driver ) installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config. The list of cluster IPs must include at least one cassandra node IP address. No assumption or default will be used for the cluster IPs. The cluster IPs will be tried in the order listed. The port, username, and password values shown below will be the assumed defaults if you do not provide values.: cassandra: cluster: - 192.168.50.11 - 192.168.50.12 - 192.168.50.13 port: 9042 username: salt password: salt Use the following cassandra database schema: CREATE KEYSPACE IF NOT EXISTS salt WITH replication = {'class': 'SimpleStrategy', 'replication_factor' : 1}; CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS salt WITH PASSWORD 'salt' NOSUPERUSER; GRANT ALL ON KEYSPACE salt TO salt; USE salt; CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.salt_returns ( jid text, minion_id text, fun text, alter_time timestamp, full_ret text, return text, success boolean, PRIMARY KEY (jid, minion_id, fun) ) WITH CLUSTERING ORDER BY (minion_id ASC, fun ASC); CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS salt_returns_minion_id ON salt.salt_returns (minion_id); CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS salt_returns_fun ON salt.salt_returns (fun); CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.jids ( jid text PRIMARY KEY, load text ); CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.minions ( minion_id text PRIMARY KEY, last_fun text ); CREATE INDEX IF NOT EXISTS minions_last_fun ON salt.minions (last_fun); CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS salt.salt_events ( id timeuuid, tag text, alter_time timestamp, data text, master_id text, PRIMARY KEY (id, tag) ) WITH CLUSTERING ORDER BY (tag ASC); CREATE INDEX tag ON salt.salt_events (tag); Required python modules: cassandra-driver To use the cassandra returner, append '--return cassandra_cql' to the salt command. ex: salt '*' test.ping --return_cql cassandra Note: if your Cassandra instance has not been tuned much you may benefit from altering some timeouts in cassandra.yaml like so: # How long the coordinator should wait for read operations to complete read_request_timeout_in_ms: 5000 # How long the coordinator should wait for seq or index scans to complete range_request_timeout_in_ms: 20000 # How long the coordinator should wait for writes to complete write_request_timeout_in_ms: 20000 # How long the coordinator should wait for counter writes to complete counter_write_request_timeout_in_ms: 10000 # How long a coordinator should continue to retry a CAS operation # that contends with other proposals for the same row cas_contention_timeout_in_ms: 5000 # How long the coordinator should wait for truncates to complete # (This can be much longer, because unless auto_snapshot is disabled # we need to flush first so we can snapshot before removing the data.) truncate_request_timeout_in_ms: 60000 # The default timeout for other, miscellaneous operations request_timeout_in_ms: 20000 As always, your mileage may vary and your Cassandra cluster may have different needs. SaltStack has seen situations where these timeouts can resolve some stacktraces that appear to come from the Datastax Python driver. salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.event_return(events) Return event to one of potentially many clustered cassandra nodes Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config. Cassandra does not support an auto-increment feature due to the highly inefficient nature of creating a monotonically increasing number across all nodes in a distrib‐ uted database. Each event will be assigned a uuid by the connecting client. salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_fun(fun) Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.prep_jid(nocache, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.returner(ret) Return data to one of potentially many clustered cassandra nodes salt.returners.cassandra_cql_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid id salt.returners.cassandra_return Return data to a Cassandra ColumnFamily Here's an example Keyspace / ColumnFamily setup that works with this returner: create keyspace salt; use salt; create column family returns with key_validation_class='UTF8Type' and comparator='UTF8Type' and default_validation_class='UTF8Type'; Required python modules: pycassa To use the cassandra returner, append '--return cassandra' to the salt command. ex: salt '*' test.ping --return cassandra salt.returners.cassandra_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.cassandra_return.returner(ret) Return data to a Cassandra ColumnFamily salt.returners.couchbase_return Simple returner for Couchbase. Optional configuration settings are listed below, along with sane defaults. couchbase.host: 'salt' couchbase.port: 8091 couchbase.bucket: 'salt' couchbase.ttl: 24 couchbase.password: 'password' couchbase.skip_verify_views: False To use the couchbase returner, append '--return couchbase' to the salt command. ex: salt '*' test.ping --return couchbase To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return couchbase --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return couchbase --return_kwargs '{"bucket": "another-salt"}' All of the return data will be stored in documents as follows: JID load: load obj tgt_minions: list of minions targeted nocache: should we not cache the return data JID/MINION_ID return: return_data full_ret: full load of job return salt.returners.couchbase_return.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.couchbase_return.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.couchbase_return.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.couchbase_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Return a job id and prepare the job id directory This is the function responsible for making sure jids don't collide (unless its passed a jid) So do what you have to do to make sure that stays the case salt.returners.couchbase_return.returner(load) Return data to couchbase bucket salt.returners.couchbase_return.save_load(jid, clear_load, minion=None) Save the load to the specified jid salt.returners.couchbase_return.save_minions(jid, minions, syndic_id=None) Save/update the minion list for a given jid. The syndic_id argument is included for API compatibility only. salt.returners.couchdb_return Simple returner for CouchDB. Optional configuration settings are listed below, along with sane defaults: couchdb.db: 'salt' couchdb.url: 'http://salt:5984/' Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.couchdb.db: 'salt' alternative.couchdb.url: 'http://salt:5984/' To use the couchdb returner, append --return couchdb to the salt command. Example: salt '*' test.ping --return couchdb To use the alternative configuration, append --return_config alternative to the salt com‐ mand. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return couchdb --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return couchdb --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}' On concurrent database access As this returner creates a couchdb document with the salt job id as document id and as only one document with a given id can exist in a given couchdb database, it is advised for most setups that every minion be configured to write to it own database (the value of couchdb.db may be suffixed with the minion id), otherwise multi-minion targeting can lead to losing output: · the first returning minion is able to create a document in the database · other minions fail with {'error': 'HTTP Error 409: Conflict'} salt.returners.couchdb_return.ensure_views() This function makes sure that all the views that should exist in the design docu‐ ment do exist. salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_fun(fun) Return a dict with key being minion and value being the job details of the last run of function 'fun'. salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_jid(jid) Get the document with a given JID. salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_jids() List all the jobs that we have.. salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_minions() Return a list of minion identifiers from a request of the view. salt.returners.couchdb_return.get_valid_salt_views() Returns a dict object of views that should be part of the salt design document. salt.returners.couchdb_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.couchdb_return.returner(ret) Take in the return and shove it into the couchdb database. salt.returners.couchdb_return.set_salt_view() Helper function that sets the salt design document. Uses get_valid_salt_views and some hardcoded values. salt.returners.django_return A returner that will inform a Django system that returns are available using Django's sig‐ nal system. https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/topics/signals/ It is up to the Django developer to register necessary handlers with the signals provided by this returner and process returns as necessary. The easiest way to use signals is to import them from this returner directly and then use a decorator to register them. An example Django module that registers a function called 'returner_callback' with this module's 'returner' function: import salt.returners.django_return from django.dispatch import receiver @receiver(salt.returners.django_return, sender=returner) def returner_callback(sender, ret): print('I received {0} from {1}'.format(ret, sender)) salt.returners.django_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom ID salt.returners.django_return.returner(ret) Signal a Django server that a return is available salt.returners.django_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid salt.returners.elasticsearch_return Return data to an elasticsearch server for indexing. maintainer Jurnell Cockhren <@sophicware.com>, Arnold Bechtoldt <‐ @arnoldbechtoldt.com> maturity New depends elasticsearch-py platform all To enable this returner the elasticsearch python client must be installed on the desired minions (all or some subset). Please see documentation of elasticsearch execution module for a valid connection configu‐ ration. WARNING: The index that you wish to store documents will be created by Elasticsearch automati‐ cally if doesn't exist yet. It is highly recommended to create predefined index tem‐ plates with appropriate mapping(s) that will be used by Elasticsearch upon index cre‐ ation. Otherwise you will have problems as described in #20826. To use the returner per salt call: salt '*' test.ping --return elasticsearch In order to have the returner apply to all minions: ext_job_cache: elasticsearch Minion configuration: debug_returner_payload': False Output the payload being posted to the log file in debug mode doc_type: 'default' Document type to use for normal return messages functions_blacklist Optional list of functions that should not be returned to elasticsearch index_date: False Use a dated index (e.g. <index>-2016.11.29) master_event_index: 'salt-master-event-cache' Index to use when returning master events master_event_doc_type: 'efault' Document type to use got master events master_job_cache_index: 'salt-master-job-cache' Index to use for master job cache master_job_cache_doc_type: 'default' Document type to use for master job cache number_of_shards: 1 Number of shards to use for the indexes number_of_replicas: 0 Number of replicas to use for the indexes NOTE: The following options are valid for 'state.apply', 'state.sls' and 'state.highstate' functions only. states_count: False Count the number of states which succeeded or failed and return it in top-level item called 'counts'. States reporting None (i.e. changes would be made but it ran in test mode) are counted as successes. states_order_output: False Prefix the state UID (e.g. file_|-yum_configured_|-/etc/yum.conf_|-managed) with a zero-padded version of the '__run_num__' value to allow for easier sorting. Also store the state function (i.e. file.managed) into a new key '_func'. Change the index to be '<index>-ordered' (e.g. salt-state_apply-ordered). states_single_index: False Store results for state.apply, state.sls and state.highstate in the salt-state_apply index (or -ordered/-<date>) indexes if enabled elasticsearch: hosts: - "10.10.10.10:9200" - "10.10.10.11:9200" - "10.10.10.12:9200" index_date: True number_of_shards: 5 number_of_replicas: 1 debug_returner_payload: True states_count: True states_order_output: True states_single_index: True functions_blacklist: - test.ping - saltutil.find_job salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.event_return(events) Return events to Elasticsearch Requires that the event_return configuration be set in master config. salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid New in version 2015.8.1. salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.returner(ret) Process the return from Salt salt.returners.elasticsearch_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid id New in version 2015.8.1. salt.returners.etcd_return Return data to an etcd server or cluster depends · python-etcd In order to return to an etcd server, a profile should be created in the master configura‐ tion file: my_etcd_config: etcd.host: 127.0.0.1 etcd.port: 4001 It is technically possible to configure etcd without using a profile, but this is not con‐ sidered to be a best practice, especially when multiple etcd servers or clusters are available. etcd.host: 127.0.0.1 etcd.port: 4001 Additionally, two more options must be specified in the top-level configuration in order to use the etcd returner: etcd.returner: my_etcd_config etcd.returner_root: /salt/return The etcd.returner option specifies which configuration profile to use. The etcd.returner_root option specifies the path inside etcd to use as the root of the returner system. Once the etcd options are configured, the returner may be used: CLI Example: salt '*' test.ping --return etcd A username and password can be set: etcd.username: larry # Optional; requires etcd.password to be set etcd.password: 123pass # Optional; requires etcd.username to be set You can also set a TTL (time to live) value for the returner: etcd.ttl: 5 Authentication with username and password, and ttl, currently requires the master branch of python-etcd. You may also specify different roles for read and write operations. First, create the pro‐ files as specified above. Then add: etcd.returner_read_profile: my_etcd_read etcd.returner_write_profile: my_etcd_write salt.returners.etcd_return.get_fun() Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.etcd_return.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.etcd_return.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.etcd_return.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.etcd_return.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.etcd_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.etcd_return.returner(ret) Return data to an etcd server or cluster salt.returners.etcd_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid salt.returners.highstate_return module Return the results of a highstate (or any other state function that returns data in a com‐ patible format) via an HTML email or HTML file. New in version 2017.7.0. Similar results can be achieved by using the smtp returner with a custom template, except an attempt at writing such a template for the complex data structure returned by highstate function had proven to be a challenge, not to mention that the smtp module doesn't support sending HTML mail at the moment. The main goal of this returner was to produce an easy to read email similar to the output of highstate outputter used by the CLI. This returner could be very useful during scheduled executions, but could also be useful for communicating the results of a manual execution. Returner configuration is controlled in a standard fashion either via highstate group or an alternatively named group. salt '*' state.highstate --return highstate To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config config-name' salt '*' state.highstate --return highstate --return_config simple Here is an example of what the configuration might look like: simple.highstate: report_failures: True report_changes: True report_everything: False failure_function: pillar.items success_function: pillar.items report_format: html report_delivery: smtp smtp_success_subject: 'success minion {id} on host {host}' smtp_failure_subject: 'failure minion {id} on host {host}' smtp_server: smtp.example.com smtp_recipients: @example.com, @example.com smtp_sender: @example.com The report_failures, report_changes, and report_everything flags provide filtering of the results. If you want an email to be sent every time, then report_everything is your choice. If you want to be notified only when changes were successfully made use report_changes. And report_failures will generate an email if there were failures. The configuration allows you to run a salt module function in case of success (suc‐ cess_function) or failure (failure_function). Any salt function, including ones defined in the _module folder of your salt repo, could be used here and its output will be displayed under the 'extra' heading of the email. Supported values for report_format are html, json, and yaml. The latter two are typically used for debugging purposes, but could be used for applying a template at some later stage. The values for report_delivery are smtp or file. In case of file delivery the only other applicable option is file_output. In case of smtp delivery, smtp_* options demonstrated by the example above could be used to customize the email. As you might have noticed, the success and failure subjects contain {id} and {host} val‐ ues. Any other grain name could be used. As opposed to using {{grains['id']}}, which will be rendered by the master and contain master's values at the time of pillar generation, these will contain minion values at the time of execution. salt.returners.highstate_return.returner(ret) Check highstate return information and possibly fire off an email or save a file. salt.returners.hipchat_return Return salt data via hipchat. New in version 2015.5.0. The following fields can be set in the minion conf file: hipchat.room_id (required) hipchat.api_key (required) hipchat.api_version (required) hipchat.api_url (optional) hipchat.from_name (required) hipchat.color (optional) hipchat.notify (optional) hipchat.profile (optional) hipchat.url (optional) NOTE: When using Hipchat's API v2, api_key needs to be assigned to the room with the "Label" set to what you would have been set in the hipchat.from_name field. The v2 API disre‐ gards the from_name in the data sent for the room notification and uses the Label assigned through the Hipchat control panel. Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: hipchat.room_id hipchat.api_key hipchat.api_version hipchat.api_url hipchat.from_name Hipchat settings may also be configured as: hipchat: room_id: RoomName api_url: https://hipchat.myteam.con api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx api_version: v1 from_name: @email.com alternative.hipchat: room_id: RoomName api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx api_version: v1 from_name: @email.com hipchat_profile: hipchat.api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx hipchat.api_version: v1 hipchat.from_name: @email.com hipchat: profile: hipchat_profile room_id: RoomName alternative.hipchat: profile: hipchat_profile room_id: RoomName hipchat: room_id: RoomName api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx api_version: v1 api_url: api.hipchat.com from_name: @email.com To use the HipChat returner, append '--return hipchat' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return hipchat To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return hipchat --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return hipchat --return_kwargs '{"room_id": "another-room"}' salt.returners.hipchat_return.event_return(events) Return event data to hipchat salt.returners.hipchat_return.returner(ret) Send an hipchat message with the return data from a job salt.returners.influxdb_return Return data to an influxdb server. New in version 2015.8.0. To enable this returner the minion will need the python client for influxdb installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config, these are the defaults: influxdb.db: 'salt' influxdb.user: 'salt' influxdb.password: 'salt' influxdb.host: 'localhost' influxdb.port: 8086 Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.influxdb.db: 'salt' alternative.influxdb.user: 'salt' alternative.influxdb.password: 'salt' alternative.influxdb.host: 'localhost' alternative.influxdb.port: 6379 To use the influxdb returner, append '--return influxdb' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return influxdb To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return influxdb --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return influxdb --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}' salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_fun(fun) Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.influxdb_return.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.influxdb_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.influxdb_return.returner(ret) Return data to a influxdb data store salt.returners.influxdb_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid salt.returners.kafka_return Return data to a Kafka topic maintainer Christer Edwards (@gmail.com) maturity 0.1 depends kafka-python platform all To enable this returner install kafka-python and enable the following settings in the min‐ ion config: returner.kafka.hostnames: · "server1" · "server2" · "server3" returner.kafka.topic: 'topic' To use the kafka returner, append '--return kafka' to the Salt command, eg; salt '*' test.ping --return kafka salt.returners.kafka_return.returner(ret) Return information to a Kafka server salt.returners.librato_return Salt returner to return highstate stats to Librato To enable this returner the minion will need the Librato client importable on the Python path and the following values configured in the minion or master config. The Librato python client can be found at: https://github.com/librato/python-librato librato.email: @librato.com librato.api_token: abc12345def This return supports multi-dimension metrics for Librato. To enable support for more met‐ rics, the tags JSON object can be modified to include other tags. Adding EC2 Tags example: If ec2_tags:region were desired within the tags for multi-dimen‐ sion. The tags could be modified to include the ec2 tags. Multiple dimensions are added simply by adding more tags to the submission. pillar_data = __salt__['pillar.raw']() q.add(metric.name, value, tags={'Name': ret['id'],'Region': pillar_data['ec2_tags']['Name' ↲ ]}) salt.returners.librato_return.returner(ret) Parse the return data and return metrics to Librato. salt.returners.local The local returner is used to test the returner interface, it just prints the return data to the console to verify that it is being passed properly To use the local returner, append '--return local' to the salt command. ex: salt '*' test.ping --return local salt.returners.local.event_return(event) Print event return data to the terminal to verify functionality salt.returners.local.returner(ret) Print the return data to the terminal to verify functionality salt.returners.local_cache Return data to local job cache salt.returners.local_cache.clean_old_jobs() Clean out the old jobs from the job cache salt.returners.local_cache.get_endtime(jid) Retrieve the stored endtime for a given job Returns False if no endtime is present salt.returners.local_cache.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.local_cache.get_jids() Return a dict mapping all job ids to job information salt.returners.local_cache.get_jids_filter(count, filter_find_job=True) Return a list of all jobs information filtered by the given criteria. :param int count: show not more than the count of most recent jobs :param bool fil‐ ter_find_jobs: filter out 'saltutil.find_job' jobs salt.returners.local_cache.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.local_cache.load_reg() Load the register from msgpack files salt.returners.local_cache.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None, recurse_count=0) Return a job id and prepare the job id directory. This is the function responsible for making sure jids don't collide (unless it is passed a jid). So do what you have to do to make sure that stays the case salt.returners.local_cache.returner(load) Return data to the local job cache salt.returners.local_cache.save_load(jid, clear_load, minions=None, recurse_count=0) Save the load to the specified jid minions argument is to provide a pre-computed list of matched minions for the job, for cases when this function can't compute that list itself (such as for salt-ssh) salt.returners.local_cache.save_minions(jid, minions, syndic_id=None) Save/update the serialized list of minions for a given job salt.returners.local_cache.save_reg(data) Save the register to msgpack files salt.returners.local_cache.update_endtime(jid, time) Update (or store) the end time for a given job Endtime is stored as a plain text string salt.returners.mattermost_returner module Return salt data via mattermost New in version 2017.7.0. The following fields can be set in the minion conf file: mattermost.hook (required) mattermost.username (optional) mattermost.channel (optional) Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: mattermost.channel mattermost.hook mattermost.username mattermost settings may also be configured as: mattermost: channel: RoomName hook: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx username: user To use the mattermost returner, append '--return mattermost' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return mattermost To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{'key:': 'value'}' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return mattermost --return_kwargs '{'channel': '#random'}' salt.returners.mattermost_returner.event_return(events) Send the events to a mattermost room. Parameters events -- List of events Returns Boolean if messages were sent successfully. salt.returners.mattermost_returner.post_message(channel, message, username, api_url, hook) Send a message to a mattermost room. Parameters · channel -- The room name. · message -- The message to send to the mattermost room. · username -- Specify who the message is from. · hook -- The mattermost hook, if not specified in the configuration. Returns Boolean if message was sent successfully. salt.returners.mattermost_returner.returner(ret) Send an mattermost message with the data salt.returners.memcache_return Return data to a memcache server To enable this returner the minion will need the python client for memcache installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config, these are the defaults. memcache.host: 'localhost' memcache.port: '11211' Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. alternative.memcache.host: 'localhost' alternative.memcache.port: '11211' python2-memcache uses 'localhost' and '11211' as syntax on connection. To use the memcache returner, append '--return memcache' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return memcache To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return memcache --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return memcache --return_kwargs '{"host": "hostname.domain.com"}' salt.returners.memcache_return.get_fun(fun) Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.memcache_return.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.memcache_return.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.memcache_return.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.memcache_return.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.memcache_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.memcache_return.returner(ret) Return data to a memcache data store salt.returners.memcache_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid salt.returners.mongo_future_return Return data to a mongodb server Required python modules: pymongo This returner will send data from the minions to a MongoDB server. To configure the set‐ tings for your MongoDB server, add the following lines to the minion config files: mongo.db: <database name> mongo.host: <server ip address> mongo.user: <MongoDB username> mongo.password: <MongoDB user password> mongo.port: 27017 You can also ask for indexes creation on the most common used fields, which should greatly improve performance. Indexes are not created by default. mongo.indexes: true Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.mongo.db: <database name> alternative.mongo.host: <server ip address> alternative.mongo.user: <MongoDB username> alternative.mongo.password: <MongoDB user password> alternative.mongo.port: 27017 This mongo returner is being developed to replace the default mongodb returner in the future and should not be considered API stable yet. To use the mongo returner, append '--return mongo' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return mongo To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return mongo --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return mongo --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}' salt.returners.mongo_future_return.event_return(events) Return events to Mongodb server salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_fun(fun) Return the most recent jobs that have executed the named function salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_jid(jid) Return the return information associated with a jid salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_jids() Return a list of job ids salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_load(jid) Return the load associated with a given job id salt.returners.mongo_future_return.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.mongo_future_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.mongo_future_return.returner(ret) Return data to a mongodb server salt.returners.mongo_future_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load for a given job id salt.returners.mongo_return Return data to a mongodb server Required python modules: pymongo This returner will send data from the minions to a MongoDB server. To configure the set‐ tings for your MongoDB server, add the following lines to the minion config files. mongo.db: <database name> mongo.host: <server ip address> mongo.user: <MongoDB username> mongo.password: <MongoDB user password> mongo.port: 27017 Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. alternative.mongo.db: <database name> alternative.mongo.host: <server ip address> alternative.mongo.user: <MongoDB username> alternative.mongo.password: <MongoDB user password> alternative.mongo.port: 27017 To use the mongo returner, append '--return mongo' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return mongo_return To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return mongo_return --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return mongo --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}' To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return mongo --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}' salt.returners.mongo_return.get_fun(fun) Return the most recent jobs that have executed the named function salt.returners.mongo_return.get_jid(jid) Return the return information associated with a jid salt.returners.mongo_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.mongo_return.returner(ret) Return data to a mongodb server salt.returners.multi_returner Read/Write multiple returners salt.returners.multi_returner.clean_old_jobs() Clean out the old jobs from all returners (if you have it) salt.returners.multi_returner.get_jid(jid) Merge the return data from all returners salt.returners.multi_returner.get_jids() Return all job data from all returners salt.returners.multi_returner.get_load(jid) Merge the load data from all returners salt.returners.multi_returner.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Call both with prep_jid on all returners in multi_returner TODO: finish this, what do do when you get different jids from 2 returners... since our jids are time based, this make this problem hard, because they aren't unique, meaning that we have to make sure that no one else got the jid and if they did we spin to get a new one, which means "locking" the jid in 2 returners is non-trivial salt.returners.multi_returner.returner(load) Write return to all returners in multi_returner salt.returners.multi_returner.save_load(jid, clear_load, minions=None) Write load to all returners in multi_returner salt.returners.mysql Return data to a mysql server maintainer Dave Boucha <@saltstack.com>, Seth House <@saltstack.com> maturity mature depends python-mysqldb platform all To enable this returner, the minion will need the python client for mysql installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config. These are the defaults: mysql.host: 'salt' mysql.user: 'salt' mysql.pass: 'salt' mysql.db: 'salt' mysql.port: 3306 SSL is optional. The defaults are set to None. If you do not want to use SSL, either exclude these options or set them to None. mysql.ssl_ca: None mysql.ssl_cert: None mysql.ssl_key: None Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration with alterna‐ tive.. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. As stated above, SSL configuration is optional. The following ssl options are simply for illustration purposes: alternative.mysql.host: 'salt' alternative.mysql.user: 'salt' alternative.mysql.pass: 'salt' alternative.mysql.db: 'salt' alternative.mysql.port: 3306 alternative.mysql.ssl_ca: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.pem' alternative.mysql.ssl_cert: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.crt' alternative.mysql.ssl_key: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.key' Should you wish the returner data to be cleaned out every so often, set keep_jobs to the number of hours for the jobs to live in the tables. Setting it to 0 or leaving it unset will cause the data to stay in the tables. Should you wish to archive jobs in a different table for later processing, set ar‐ chive_jobs to True. Salt will create 3 archive tables · jids_archive · salt_returns_archive · salt_events_archive and move the contents of jids, salt_returns, and salt_events that are more than keep_jobs hours old to these tables. Use the following mysql database schema: CREATE DATABASE `salt` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 DEFAULT COLLATE utf8_general_ci; USE `salt`; -- -- Table structure for table `jids` -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `jids`; CREATE TABLE `jids` ( `jid` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `load` mediumtext NOT NULL, UNIQUE KEY `jid` (`jid`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8; CREATE INDEX jid ON jids(jid) USING BTREE; -- -- Table structure for table `salt_returns` -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `salt_returns`; CREATE TABLE `salt_returns` ( `fun` varchar(50) NOT NULL, `jid` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `return` mediumtext NOT NULL, `id` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `success` varchar(10) NOT NULL, `full_ret` mediumtext NOT NULL, `alter_time` TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, KEY `id` (`id`), KEY `jid` (`jid`), KEY `fun` (`fun`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8; -- -- Table structure for table `salt_events` -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `salt_events`; CREATE TABLE `salt_events` ( `id` BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `tag` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `data` mediumtext NOT NULL, `alter_time` TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, `master_id` varchar(255) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`id`), KEY `tag` (`tag`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8; Required python modules: MySQLdb To use the mysql returner, append '--return mysql' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return mysql To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return mysql --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return mysql --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}' salt.returners.mysql.clean_old_jobs() Called in the master's event loop every loop_interval. Archives and/or deletes the events and job details from the database. :return: salt.returners.mysql.event_return(events) Return event to mysql server Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config. salt.returners.mysql.get_fun(fun) Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.mysql.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.mysql.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.mysql.get_jids_filter(count, filter_find_job=True) Return a list of all job ids :param int count: show not more than the count of most recent jobs :param bool filter_find_jobs: filter out 'saltutil.find_job' jobs salt.returners.mysql.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.mysql.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.mysql.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.mysql.returner(ret) Return data to a mysql server salt.returners.mysql.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid id salt.returners.nagios_return Return salt data to Nagios The following fields can be set in the minion conf file: nagios.url (required) nagios.token (required) nagios.service (optional) nagios.check_type (optional) Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: nagios.url nagios.token nagios.service Nagios settings may also be configured as: nagios: url: http://localhost/nrdp token: r4nd0mt0k3n service: service-check alternative.nagios: url: http://localhost/nrdp token: r4nd0mt0k3n service: another-service-check To use the Nagios returner, append '--return nagios' to the salt command. ex: .. code-block:: bash salt '*' test.ping --return nagios To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt com ↲ mand. ex: salt '*' test.ping --return nagios --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return nagios --return_kwargs '{"service": "service-name"}' salt.returners.nagios_return.returner(ret) Send a message to Nagios with the data salt.returners.odbc Return data to an ODBC compliant server. This driver was developed with Microsoft SQL Server in mind, but theoretically could be used to return data to any compliant ODBC data‐ base as long as there is a working ODBC driver for it on your minion platform. maintainer C. R. Oldham (@saltstack.com) maturity New depends unixodbc, pyodbc, freetds (for SQL Server) platform all To enable this returner the minion will need On Linux: unixodbc (http://www.unixodbc.org) pyodbc (pip install pyodbc) The FreeTDS ODBC driver for SQL Server (http://www.freetds.org) or another compatible ODBC driver On Windows: TBD unixODBC and FreeTDS need to be configured via /etc/odbcinst.ini and /etc/odbc.ini. /etc/odbcinst.ini: [TDS] Description=TDS Driver=/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/odbc/libtdsodbc.so (Note the above Driver line needs to point to the location of the FreeTDS shared library. This example is for Ubuntu 14.04.) /etc/odbc.ini: [TS] Description = "Salt Returner" Driver=TDS Server = <your server ip or fqdn> Port = 1433 Database = salt Trace = No Also you need the following values configured in the minion or master config. Configure as you see fit: returner.odbc.dsn: 'TS' returner.odbc.user: 'salt' returner.odbc.passwd: 'salt' Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.returner.odbc.dsn: 'TS' alternative.returner.odbc.user: 'salt' alternative.returner.odbc.passwd: 'salt' Running the following commands against Microsoft SQL Server in the desired database as the appropriate user should create the database tables correctly. Replace with equivalent SQL for other ODBC-compliant servers -- -- Table structure for table 'jids' -- if OBJECT_ID('dbo.jids', 'U') is not null DROP TABLE dbo.jids CREATE TABLE dbo.jids ( jid varchar(255) PRIMARY KEY, load varchar(MAX) NOT NULL ); -- -- Table structure for table 'salt_returns' -- IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.salt_returns', 'U') IS NOT NULL DROP TABLE dbo.salt_returns; CREATE TABLE dbo.salt_returns ( added datetime not null default (getdate()), fun varchar(100) NOT NULL, jid varchar(255) NOT NULL, retval varchar(MAX) NOT NULL, id varchar(255) NOT NULL, success bit default(0) NOT NULL, full_ret varchar(MAX) ); CREATE INDEX salt_returns_added on dbo.salt_returns(added); CREATE INDEX salt_returns_id on dbo.salt_returns(id); CREATE INDEX salt_returns_jid on dbo.salt_returns(jid); CREATE INDEX salt_returns_fun on dbo.salt_returns(fun); To use this returner, append '--return odbc' to the salt command. .. code-block:: bash salt '*' status.diskusage --return odbc To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt com ↲ mand. .. versionadded:: 2015.5.0 .. code-block:: bash salt '*' test.ping --return odbc --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return odbc --return_kwargs '{"dsn": "dsn-name"}' salt.returners.odbc.get_fun(fun) Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.odbc.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.odbc.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.odbc.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.odbc.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.odbc.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.odbc.returner(ret) Return data to an odbc server salt.returners.odbc.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid id salt.returners.pgjsonb Return data to a PostgreSQL server with json data stored in Pg's jsonb data type maintainer Dave Boucha <@saltstack.com>, Seth House <@saltstack.com>, C. R. Oldham <@saltstack.com> maturity Stable depends python-psycopg2 platform all NOTE: There are three PostgreSQL returners. Any can function as an external master job cache. but each has different features. SaltStack recommends returners.pgjsonb if you are working with a version of PostgreSQL that has the appropriate native binary JSON types. Otherwise, review returners.postgres and returners.postgres_local_cache to see which module best suits your particular needs. To enable this returner, the minion will need the python client for PostgreSQL installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config. These are the defaults: returner.pgjsonb.host: 'salt' returner.pgjsonb.user: 'salt' returner.pgjsonb.pass: 'salt' returner.pgjsonb.db: 'salt' returner.pgjsonb.port: 5432 SSL is optional. The defaults are set to None. If you do not want to use SSL, either exclude these options or set them to None. returner.pgjsonb.ssl_ca: None returner.pgjsonb.ssl_cert: None returner.pgjsonb.ssl_key: None Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration with alterna‐ tive.. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. As stated above, SSL configuration is optional. The following ssl options are simply for illustration purposes: alternative.pgjsonb.host: 'salt' alternative.pgjsonb.user: 'salt' alternative.pgjsonb.pass: 'salt' alternative.pgjsonb.db: 'salt' alternative.pgjsonb.port: 5432 alternative.pgjsonb.ssl_ca: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.pem' alternative.pgjsonb.ssl_cert: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.crt' alternative.pgjsonb.ssl_key: '/etc/pki/mysql/certs/localhost.key' Use the following Pg database schema: CREATE DATABASE salt WITH ENCODING 'utf-8'; -- -- Table structure for table `jids` -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS jids; CREATE TABLE jids ( jid varchar(255) NOT NULL primary key, load jsonb NOT NULL ); CREATE INDEX idx_jids_jsonb on jids USING gin (load) WITH (fastupdate=on); -- -- Table structure for table `salt_returns` -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_returns; CREATE TABLE salt_returns ( fun varchar(50) NOT NULL, jid varchar(255) NOT NULL, return jsonb NOT NULL, id varchar(255) NOT NULL, success varchar(10) NOT NULL, full_ret jsonb NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT NOW()); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_id ON salt_returns (id); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_jid ON salt_returns (jid); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_fun ON salt_returns (fun); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_return ON salt_returns USING gin (return) with (fastupdate=on); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_full_ret ON salt_returns USING gin (full_ret) with (fastupdate=on); -- -- Table structure for table `salt_events` -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_events; DROP SEQUENCE IF EXISTS seq_salt_events_id; CREATE SEQUENCE seq_salt_events_id; CREATE TABLE salt_events ( id BIGINT NOT NULL UNIQUE DEFAULT nextval('seq_salt_events_id'), tag varchar(255) NOT NULL, data jsonb NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT NOW(), master_id varchar(255) NOT NULL); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_events_tag on salt_events (tag); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_events_data ON salt_events USING gin (data) with (fastupdate=on); Required python modules: Psycopg2 To use this returner, append '--return pgjsonb' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return pgjsonb To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return pgjsonb --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return pgjsonb --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}' salt.returners.pgjsonb.event_return(events) Return event to Pg server Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config. salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_fun(fun) Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.pgjsonb.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.pgjsonb.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.pgjsonb.returner(ret) Return data to a Pg server salt.returners.pgjsonb.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid id salt.returners.postgres Return data to a postgresql server NOTE: There are three PostgreSQL returners. Any can function as an external master job cache. but each has different features. SaltStack recommends returners.pgjsonb if you are working with a version of PostgreSQL that has the appropriate native binary JSON types. Otherwise, review returners.postgres and returners.postgres_local_cache to see which module best suits your particular needs. maintainer None maturity New depends psycopg2 platform all To enable this returner the minion will need the psycopg2 installed and the following val‐ ues configured in the minion or master config: returner.postgres.host: 'salt' returner.postgres.user: 'salt' returner.postgres.passwd: 'salt' returner.postgres.db: 'salt' returner.postgres.port: 5432 Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.returner.postgres.host: 'salt' alternative.returner.postgres.user: 'salt' alternative.returner.postgres.passwd: 'salt' alternative.returner.postgres.db: 'salt' alternative.returner.postgres.port: 5432 Running the following commands as the postgres user should create the database correctly: psql << EOF CREATE ROLE salt WITH PASSWORD 'salt'; CREATE DATABASE salt WITH OWNER salt; EOF psql -h localhost -U salt << EOF -- -- Table structure for table 'jids' -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS jids; CREATE TABLE jids ( jid varchar(20) PRIMARY KEY, load text NOT NULL ); -- -- Table structure for table 'salt_returns' -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_returns; CREATE TABLE salt_returns ( fun varchar(50) NOT NULL, jid varchar(255) NOT NULL, return text NOT NULL, full_ret text, id varchar(255) NOT NULL, success varchar(10) NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now() ); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_id ON salt_returns (id); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_jid ON salt_returns (jid); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_fun ON salt_returns (fun); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_returns_updated ON salt_returns (alter_time); -- -- Table structure for table `salt_events` -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_events; DROP SEQUENCE IF EXISTS seq_salt_events_id; CREATE SEQUENCE seq_salt_events_id; CREATE TABLE salt_events ( id BIGINT NOT NULL UNIQUE DEFAULT nextval('seq_salt_events_id'), tag varchar(255) NOT NULL, data text NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT NOW(), master_id varchar(255) NOT NULL ); CREATE INDEX idx_salt_events_tag on salt_events (tag); EOF Required python modules: psycopg2 To use the postgres returner, append '--return postgres' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return postgres To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return postgres --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return postgres --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}' salt.returners.postgres.event_return(events) Return event to Pg server Requires that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config. salt.returners.postgres.get_fun(fun) Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.postgres.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.postgres.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.postgres.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.postgres.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.postgres.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.postgres.returner(ret) Return data to a postgres server salt.returners.postgres.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid id salt.returners.postgres_local_cache Use a postgresql server for the master job cache. This helps the job cache to cope with scale. NOTE: There are three PostgreSQL returners. Any can function as an external master job cache. but each has different features. SaltStack recommends returners.pgjsonb if you are working with a version of PostgreSQL that has the appropriate native binary JSON types. Otherwise, review returners.postgres and returners.postgres_local_cache to see which module best suits your particular needs. maintainer @gmail.com maturity Stable depends psycopg2 platform all To enable this returner the minion will need the psycopg2 installed and the following val‐ ues configured in the master config: master_job_cache: postgres_local_cache master_job_cache.postgres.host: 'salt' master_job_cache.postgres.user: 'salt' master_job_cache.postgres.passwd: 'salt' master_job_cache.postgres.db: 'salt' master_job_cache.postgres.port: 5432 Running the following command as the postgres user should create the database correctly: psql << EOF CREATE ROLE salt WITH PASSWORD 'salt'; CREATE DATABASE salt WITH OWNER salt; EOF In case the postgres database is a remote host, you'll need this command also: ALTER ROLE salt WITH LOGIN; and then: psql -h localhost -U salt << EOF -- -- Table structure for table 'jids' -- DROP TABLE IF EXISTS jids; CREATE TABLE jids ( jid varchar(20) PRIMARY KEY, started TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now(), tgt_type text NOT NULL, cmd text NOT NULL, tgt text NOT NULL, kwargs text NOT NULL, ret text NOT NULL, username text NOT NULL, arg text NOT NULL, fun text NOT NULL ); -- -- Table structure for table 'salt_returns' -- -- note that 'success' must not have NOT NULL constraint, since -- some functions don't provide it. DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_returns; CREATE TABLE salt_returns ( added TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now(), fun text NOT NULL, jid varchar(20) NOT NULL, return text NOT NULL, id text NOT NULL, success boolean ); CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (added); CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (id); CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (jid); CREATE INDEX ON salt_returns (fun); DROP TABLE IF EXISTS salt_events; CREATE TABLE salt_events ( id SERIAL, tag text NOT NULL, data text NOT NULL, alter_time TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE DEFAULT now(), master_id text NOT NULL ); CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (tag); CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (data); CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (id); CREATE INDEX ON salt_events (master_id); EOF Required python modules: psycopg2 salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.clean_old_jobs() Clean out the old jobs from the job cache salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.event_return(events) Return event to a postgres server Require that configuration be enabled via 'event_return' option in master config. salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids For master job cache this also formats the output and returns a string salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Return a job id and prepare the job id directory This is the function responsible for making sure jids don't collide (unless its passed a jid). So do what you have to do to make sure that stays the case salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.returner(load) Return data to a postgres server salt.returners.postgres_local_cache.save_load(jid, clear_load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid id salt.returners.pushover_returner Return salt data via pushover (http://www.pushover.net) New in version 2016.3.0. The following fields can be set in the minion conf file: pushover.user (required) pushover.token (required) pushover.title (optional) pushover.device (optional) pushover.priority (optional) pushover.expire (optional) pushover.retry (optional) pushover.profile (optional) Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.pushover.user alternative.pushover.token alternative.pushover.title alternative.pushover.device alternative.pushover.priority alternative.pushover.expire alternative.pushover.retry PushOver settings may also be configured as: pushover: user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx token: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx title: Salt Returner device: phone priority: -1 expire: 3600 retry: 5 alternative.pushover: user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx token: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx title: Salt Returner device: phone priority: 1 expire: 4800 retry: 2 pushover_profile: pushover.token: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx pushover: user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx profile: pushover_profile alternative.pushover: user: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx profile: pushover_profile To use the PushOver returner, append '--return pushover' to the salt command. ex: .. code-block:: bash salt '*' test.ping --return pushover To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt com ↲ mand. ex: salt '*' test.ping --return pushover --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return pushover --return_kwargs '{"title": "Salt is awesome!"}' salt.returners.pushover_returner.returner(ret) Send an PushOver message with the data salt.returners.rawfile_json Take data from salt and "return" it into a raw file containing the json, with one line per event. Add the following to the minion or master configuration file. rawfile_json.filename: <path_to_output_file> Default is /var/log/salt/events. Common use is to log all events on the master. This can generate a lot of noise, so you may wish to configure batch processing and/or configure the event_return_whitelist or event_return_blacklist to restrict the events that are written. salt.returners.rawfile_json.event_return(event) Write event return data to a file on the master. salt.returners.rawfile_json.returner(ret) Write the return data to a file on the minion. salt.returners.redis_return Return data to a redis server To enable this returner the minion will need the python client for redis installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config, these are the defaults: redis.db: '0' redis.host: 'salt' redis.port: 6379 Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.redis.db: '0' alternative.redis.host: 'salt' alternative.redis.port: 6379 To use the redis returner, append '--return redis' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return redis To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return redis --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return redis --return_kwargs '{"db": "another-salt"}' salt.returners.redis_return.clean_old_jobs() Clean out minions's return data for old jobs. Normally, hset 'ret:<jid>' are saved with a TTL, and will eventually get cleaned by redis.But for jobs with some very late minion return, the corresponding hset's TTL will be refreshed to a too late timestamp, we'll do manually cleaning here. salt.returners.redis_return.get_fun(fun) Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.redis_return.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned when the specified job id was executed salt.returners.redis_return.get_jids() Return a dict mapping all job ids to job information salt.returners.redis_return.get_load(jid) Return the load data that marks a specified jid salt.returners.redis_return.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.redis_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.redis_return.returner(ret) Return data to a redis data store salt.returners.redis_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid salt.returners.sentry_return Salt returner that reports execution results back to sentry. The returner will inspect the payload to identify errors and flag them as such. Pillar needs something like: raven: servers: - http://192.168.1.1 - https://sentry.example.com public_key: deadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeef secret_key: beefdeadbeefdeadbeefdeadbeefdead project: 1 tags: - os - master - saltversion - cpuarch or using a dsn: raven: dsn: https://aaaa:@app.getsentry.com/12345 tags: - os - master - saltversion - cpuarch https://pypi.python.org/pypi/raven must be installed. The pillar can be hidden on sentry return by setting hide_pillar: true. The tags list (optional) specifies grains items that will be used as sentry tags, allowing tagging of events in the sentry ui. To report only errors to sentry, set report_errors_only: true. salt.returners.sentry_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.sentry_return.returner(ret) Log outcome to sentry. The returner tries to identify errors and report them as such. All other messages will be reported at info level. Failed states will be appended as separate list for convenience. salt.returners.slack_returner Return salt data via slack New in version 2015.5.0. The following fields can be set in the minion conf file: slack.channel (required) slack.api_key (required) slack.username (required) slack.as_user (required to see the profile picture of your bot) slack.profile (optional) slack.changes(optional, only show changes and failed states) slack.yaml_format(optional, format the json in yaml format) Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: slack.channel slack.api_key slack.username slack.as_user Slack settings may also be configured as: slack: channel: RoomName api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx username: user as_user: true alternative.slack: room_id: RoomName api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx from_name: @email.com slack_profile: slack.api_key: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx slack.from_name: @email.com slack: profile: slack_profile channel: RoomName alternative.slack: profile: slack_profile channel: RoomName To use the Slack returner, append '--return slack' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return slack To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return slack --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return slack --return_kwargs '{"channel": "#random"}' salt.returners.slack_returner.returner(ret) Send an slack message with the data salt.returners.sms_return Return data by SMS. New in version 2015.5.0. maintainer Damian Myerscough maturity new depends twilio platform all To enable this returner the minion will need the python twilio library installed and the following values configured in the minion or master config: twilio.sid: 'XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX' twilio.token: 'XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX' twilio.to: '+1415XXXXXXX' twilio.from: '+1650XXXXXXX' To use the sms returner, append '--return sms' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return sms salt.returners.sms_return.returner(ret) Return a response in an SMS message salt.returners.smtp_return Return salt data via email The following fields can be set in the minion conf file. Fields are optional unless noted otherwise. · from (required) The name/address of the email sender. · to (required) The names/addresses of the email recipients; comma-delimited. For example: @example.com,@example.com. · host (required) The SMTP server hostname or address. · port The SMTP server port; defaults to 25. · username The username used to authenticate to the server. If specified a password is also required. It is recommended but not required to also use TLS with this option. · password The password used to authenticate to the server. · tls Whether to secure the connection using TLS; defaults to False · subject The email subject line. · fields Which fields from the returned data to include in the subject line of the email; comma-delimited. For example: id,fun. Please note, the subject line is not encrypted. · gpgowner A user's ~/.gpg directory. This must contain a gpg public key matching the address the mail is sent to. If left unset, no encryption will be used. Requires python-gnupg to be installed. · template The path to a file to be used as a template for the email body. · renderer A Salt renderer, or render-pipe, to use to render the email template. Default jinja. Below is an example of the above settings in a Salt Minion configuration file: smtp.from: @example.net smtp.to: @example.com smtp.host: localhost smtp.port: 1025 Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location. For example: alternative.smtp.username: saltdev alternative.smtp.password: saltdev alternative.smtp.tls: True To use the SMTP returner, append '--return smtp' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return smtp To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return smtp --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return smtp --return_kwargs '{"to": "@domain.com"}' An easy way to test the SMTP returner is to use the development SMTP server built into Python. The command below will start a single-threaded SMTP server that prints any email it receives to the console. python -m smtpd -n -c DebuggingServer localhost:1025 New in version 2016.11.0. It is possible to send emails with selected Salt events by configuring event_return option for Salt Master. For example: event_return: smtp event_return_whitelist: - salt/key smtp.from: @example.net smtp.to: @example.com smtp.host: localhost smtp.subject: 'Salt Master {{act}}ed key from Minion ID: {{id}}' smtp.template: /srv/salt/templates/email.j2 Also you need to create additional file /srv/salt/templates/email.j2 with email body tem‐ plate: act: {{act}} id: {{id}} result: {{result}} This configuration enables Salt Master to send an email when accepting or rejecting min‐ ions keys. salt.returners.smtp_return.event_return(events) Return event data via SMTP salt.returners.smtp_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.smtp_return.returner(ret) Send an email with the data salt.returners.splunk module Send json response data to Splunk via the HTTP Event Collector Requires the following con‐ fig values to be specified in config or pillar: splunk_http_forwarder: token: <splunk_http_forwarder_token> indexer: <hostname/IP of Splunk indexer> sourcetype: <Destination sourcetype for data> index: <Destination index for data> Run a test by using salt-call test.ping --return splunk Written by Scott Pack (github.com/scottjpack) class salt.returners.splunk.http_event_collector(token, http_event_server, host='', http_event_port='8088', http_event_server_ssl=True, max_bytes=100000) batchEvent(payload, eventtime='') flushBatch() sendEvent(payload, eventtime='') salt.returners.splunk.returner(ret) Send a message to Splunk via the HTTP Event Collector salt.returners.sqlite3 Insert minion return data into a sqlite3 database maintainer Mickey Malone <@gmail.com> maturity New depends None platform All Sqlite3 is a serverless database that lives in a single file. In order to use this returner the database file must exist, have the appropriate schema defined, and be acces‐ sible to the user whom the minion process is running as. This returner requires the fol‐ lowing values configured in the master or minion config: sqlite3.database: /usr/lib/salt/salt.db sqlite3.timeout: 5.0 Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.sqlite3.database: /usr/lib/salt/salt.db alternative.sqlite3.timeout: 5.0 Use the commands to create the sqlite3 database and tables: sqlite3 /usr/lib/salt/salt.db << EOF -- -- Table structure for table 'jids' -- CREATE TABLE jids ( jid TEXT PRIMARY KEY, load TEXT NOT NULL ); -- -- Table structure for table 'salt_returns' -- CREATE TABLE salt_returns ( fun TEXT KEY, jid TEXT KEY, id TEXT KEY, fun_args TEXT, date TEXT NOT NULL, full_ret TEXT NOT NULL, success TEXT NOT NULL ); EOF To use the sqlite returner, append '--return sqlite3' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return sqlite3 To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return sqlite3 --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return sqlite3 --return_kwargs '{"db": "/var/lib/salt/another-salt.db ↲ "}' salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_fun(fun) Return a dict of the last function called for all minions salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_jid(jid) Return the information returned from a specified jid salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_jids() Return a list of all job ids salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_load(jid) Return the load from a specified jid salt.returners.sqlite3_return.get_minions() Return a list of minions salt.returners.sqlite3_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.sqlite3_return.returner(ret) Insert minion return data into the sqlite3 database salt.returners.sqlite3_return.save_load(jid, load, minions=None) Save the load to the specified jid salt.returners.syslog_return Return data to the host operating system's syslog facility To use the syslog returner, append '--return syslog' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return syslog The following fields can be set in the minion conf file: syslog.level (optional, Default: LOG_INFO) syslog.facility (optional, Default: LOG_USER) syslog.tag (optional, Default: salt-minion) syslog.options (list, optional, Default: []) Available levels, facilities, and options can be found in the syslog docs for your python version. NOTE: The default tag comes from sys.argv[0] which is usually "salt-minion" but could be dif‐ ferent based on the specific environment. Configuration example: syslog.level: 'LOG_ERR' syslog.facility: 'LOG_DAEMON' syslog.tag: 'mysalt' syslog.options: - LOG_PID Of course you can also nest the options: syslog: level: 'LOG_ERR' facility: 'LOG_DAEMON' tag: 'mysalt' options: - LOG_PID Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: alternative.syslog.level: 'LOG_WARN' alternative.syslog.facility: 'LOG_NEWS' To use the alternative configuration, append --return_config alternative to the salt com‐ mand. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return syslog --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return syslog --return_kwargs '{"level": "LOG_DEBUG"}' NOTE: Syslog server implementations may have limits on the maximum record size received by the client. This may lead to job return data being truncated in the syslog server's logs. For example, for rsyslog on RHEL-based systems, the default maximum record size is approximately 2KB (which return data can easily exceed). This is configurable in rsyslog.conf via the $MaxMessageSize config parameter. Please consult your syslog impl‐ mentation's documentation to determine how to adjust this limit. salt.returners.syslog_return.prep_jid(nocache=False, passed_jid=None) Do any work necessary to prepare a JID, including sending a custom id salt.returners.syslog_return.returner(ret) Return data to the local syslog salt.returners.xmpp_return Return salt data via xmpp depends sleekxmpp >= 1.3.1 The following fields can be set in the minion conf file: xmpp.jid (required) xmpp.password (required) xmpp.recipient (required) xmpp.profile (optional) Alternative configuration values can be used by prefacing the configuration. Any values not found in the alternative configuration will be pulled from the default location: xmpp.jid xmpp.password xmpp.recipient xmpp.profile XMPP settings may also be configured as: xmpp: jid: @xmpp.domain.com/resource password: password recipient: @xmpp.example.com alternative.xmpp: jid: @xmpp.domain.com/resource password: password recipient: @xmpp.example.com xmpp_profile: xmpp.jid: @xmpp.domain.com/resource xmpp.password: password xmpp: profile: xmpp_profile recipient: @xmpp.example.com alternative.xmpp: profile: xmpp_profile recipient: @xmpp.example.com To use the XMPP returner, append '--return xmpp' to the salt command. salt '*' test.ping --return xmpp To use the alternative configuration, append '--return_config alternative' to the salt command. New in version 2015.5.0. salt '*' test.ping --return xmpp --return_config alternative To override individual configuration items, append --return_kwargs '{"key:": "value"}' to the salt command. New in version 2016.3.0. salt '*' test.ping --return xmpp --return_kwargs '{"recipient": "someone-else@xmpp.example ↲ .com"}' class salt.returners.xmpp_return.SendMsgBot(jid, password, recipient, msg) start(event) salt.returners.xmpp_return.returner(ret) Send an xmpp message with the data salt.returners.zabbix_return module Return salt data to Zabbix The following Type: "Zabbix trapper" with "Type of information" Text items are required: Key: salt.trap.info Key: salt.trap.average Key: salt.trap.warning Key: salt.trap.high Key: salt.trap.disaster To use the Zabbix returner, append '--return zabbix' to the salt command. ex: salt '*' test.ping --return zabbix salt.returners.zabbix_return.returner(ret) salt.returners.zabbix_return.zabbix_send(key, host, output) salt.returners.zabbix_return.zbx() Renderers The Salt state system operates by gathering information from common data types such as lists, dictionaries, and strings that would be familiar to any developer. SLS files are translated from whatever data templating format they are written in back into Python data types to be consumed by Salt. By default SLS files are rendered as Jinja templates and then parsed as YAML documents. But since the only thing the state system cares about is raw data, the SLS files can be any structured format that can be dreamed up. Currently there is support for Jinja + YAML, Mako + YAML, Wempy + YAML, Jinja + json, Mako + json and Wempy + json. Renderers can be written to support any template type. This means that the Salt states could be managed by XML files, HTML files, Puppet files, or any format that can be trans‐ lated into the Pythonic data structure used by the state system. Multiple Renderers A default renderer is selected in the master configuration file by providing a value to the renderer key. When evaluating an SLS, more than one renderer can be used. When rendering SLS files, Salt checks for the presence of a Salt-specific shebang line. The shebang line directly calls the name of the renderer as it is specified within Salt. One of the most common reasons to use multiple renderers is to use the Python or py ren‐ derer. Below, the first line is a shebang that references the py renderer. #!py def run(): ''' Install the python-mako package ''' return {'include': ['python'], 'python-mako': {'pkg': ['installed']}} Composing Renderers A renderer can be composed from other renderers by connecting them in a series of pipes(|). In fact, the default Jinja + YAML renderer is implemented by connecting a YAML renderer to a Jinja renderer. Such renderer configuration is specified as: jinja | yaml. Other renderer combinations are possible: yaml i.e, just YAML, no templating. mako | yaml pass the input to the mako renderer, whose output is then fed into the yaml ren‐ derer. jinja | mako | yaml This one allows you to use both jinja and mako templating syntax in the input and then parse the final rendered output as YAML. The following is a contrived example SLS file using the jinja | mako | yaml renderer: #!jinja|mako|yaml An_Example: cmd.run: - name: | echo "Using Salt ${grains['saltversion']}" \ "from path {{grains['saltpath']}}." - cwd: / <%doc> ${...} is Mako's notation, and so is this comment. </%doc> {# Similarly, {{...}} is Jinja's notation, and so is this comment. #} For backward compatibility, jinja | yaml can also be written as yaml_jinja, and similarly, the yaml_mako, yaml_wempy, json_jinja, json_mako, and json_wempy renderers are all sup‐ ported. Keep in mind that not all renderers can be used alone or with any other renderers. For example, the template renderers shouldn't be used alone as their outputs are just strings, which still need to be parsed by another renderer to turn them into highstate data struc‐ tures. For example, it doesn't make sense to specify yaml | jinja because the output of the YAML renderer is a highstate data structure (a dict in Python), which cannot be used as the input to a template renderer. Therefore, when combining renderers, you should know what each renderer accepts as input and what it returns as output. Writing Renderers A custom renderer must be a Python module placed in the renderers directory and the module implement the render function. The render function will be passed the path of the SLS file as an argument. The purpose of the render function is to parse the passed file and to return the Python data structure derived from the file. Custom renderers must be placed in a _renderers directory within the file_roots specified by the master config file. Custom renderers are distributed when any of the following are run: · state.apply · saltutil.sync_renderers · saltutil.sync_all Any custom renderers which have been synced to a minion, that are named the same as one of Salt's default set of renderers, will take the place of the default renderer with the same name. Examples The best place to find examples of renderers is in the Salt source code. Documentation for renderers included with Salt can be found here: https://github.com/saltstack/salt/blob/develop/salt/renderers Here is a simple YAML renderer example: import yaml from salt.utils.yamlloader import SaltYamlSafeLoader def render(yaml_data, saltenv='', sls='', **kws): if not isinstance(yaml_data, basestring): yaml_data = yaml_data.read() data = yaml.load( yaml_data, Loader=SaltYamlSafeLoader ) return data if data else {} Full List of Renderers renderer modules ┌──────────┬──────────────────────────────────┐ │cheetah │ Cheetah Renderer for Salt │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │dson │ DSON Renderer for Salt │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │genshi │ Genshi Renderer for Salt │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │gpg │ Renderer that will decrypt GPG │ │ │ ciphers │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │hjson │ Hjson Renderer for Salt │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │jinja │ Jinja loading utils to enable a │ │ │ more powerful backend for jinja │ │ │ templates │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │json │ JSON Renderer for Salt │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │json5 │ JSON5 Renderer for Salt │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │mako │ Mako Renderer for Salt │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │msgpack │ │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │pass │ Pass Renderer for Salt │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │py │ Pure python state renderer │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │pydsl │ A Python-based DSL │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │pyobjects │ Python renderer that includes a │ │ │ Pythonic Object based interface │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │stateconf │ A flexible renderer that takes a │ │ │ templating engine and a data │ │ │ format │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │wempy │ │ └──────────┴──────────────────────────────────┘ │yaml │ YAML Renderer for Salt │ ├──────────┼──────────────────────────────────┤ │yamlex │ │ └──────────┴──────────────────────────────────┘ salt.renderers.cheetah Cheetah Renderer for Salt salt.renderers.cheetah.render(cheetah_data, saltenv='base', sls='', method='xml', **kws) Render a Cheetah template. Return type A Python data structure salt.renderers.dson DSON Renderer for Salt This renderer is intended for demonstration purposes. Information on the DSON spec can be found here. This renderer requires Dogeon (installable via pip) salt.renderers.dson.render(dson_input, saltenv='base', sls='', **kwargs) Accepts DSON data as a string or as a file object and runs it through the JSON parser. Return type A Python data structure salt.renderers.genshi Genshi Renderer for Salt salt.renderers.genshi.render(genshi_data, saltenv='base', sls='', method='xml', **kws) Render a Genshi template. A method should be passed in as part of the kwargs. If no method is passed in, xml is assumed. Valid methods are: Note that the text method will call NewTextTemplate. If oldtext is desired, it must be called explicitly Return type A Python data structure salt.renderers.gpg Renderer that will decrypt GPG ciphers Any key in the SLS file can be a GPG cipher, and this renderer will decrypt it before passing it off to Salt. This allows you to safely store secrets in source control, in such a way that only your Salt master can decrypt them and distribute them only to the minions that need them. The typical use-case would be to use ciphers in your pillar data, and keep a secret key on your master. You can put the public key in source control so that developers can add new secrets quickly and easily. This renderer requires the gpg binary. No python libraries are required as of the 2015.8.0 release. Setup To set things up, first generate a keypair. On the master, run the following: # mkdir -p /etc/salt/gpgkeys # chmod 0700 /etc/salt/gpgkeys # gpg --gen-key --homedir /etc/salt/gpgkeys Do not supply a password for the keypair, and use a name that makes sense for your appli‐ cation. Be sure to back up the gpgkeys directory someplace safe! NOTE: Unfortunately, there are some scenarios - for example, on virtual machines which don’t have real hardware - where insufficient entropy causes key generation to be extremely slow. In these cases, there are usually means of increasing the system entropy. On vir‐ tualised Linux systems, this can often be achieved by installing the rng-tools package. Export the Public Key # gpg --homedir /etc/salt/gpgkeys --armor --export <KEY-NAME> > exported_pubkey.gpg Import the Public Key To encrypt secrets, copy the public key to your local machine and run: $ gpg --import exported_pubkey.gpg To generate a cipher from a secret: $ echo -n "supersecret" | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r <KEY-name> To apply the renderer on a file-by-file basis add the following line to the top of any pillar with gpg data in it: #!yaml|gpg Now with your renderer configured, you can include your ciphers in your pillar data like so: #!yaml|gpg a-secret: | -----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE----- Version: GnuPG v1 hQEMAweRHKaPCfNeAQf9GLTN16hCfXAbPwU6BbBK0unOc7i9/etGuVc5CyU9Q6um QuetdvQVLFO/HkrC4lgeNQdM6D9E8PKonMlgJPyUvC8ggxhj0/IPFEKmrsnv2k6+ cnEfmVexS7o/U1VOVjoyUeliMCJlAz/30RXaME49Cpi6No2+vKD8a4q4nZN1UZcG RhkhC0S22zNxOXQ38TBkmtJcqxnqT6YWKTUsjVubW3bVC+u2HGqJHu79wmwuN8tz m4wBkfCAd8Eyo2jEnWQcM4TcXiF01XPL4z4g1/9AAxh+Q4d8RIRP4fbw7ct4nCJv Gr9v2DTF7HNigIMl4ivMIn9fp+EZurJNiQskLgNbktJGAeEKYkqX5iCuB1b693hJ FKlwHiJt5yA8X2dDtfk8/Ph1Jx2TwGS+lGjlZaNqp3R1xuAZzXzZMLyZDe5+i3RJ skqmFTbOiA===Eqsm -----END PGP MESSAGE----- Encrypted CLI Pillar Data New in version 2016.3.0. Functions like state.highstate and state.sls allow for pillar data to be passed on the CLI. salt myminion state.highstate pillar="{'mypillar': 'foo'}" Starting with the 2016.3.0 release of Salt, it is now possible for this pillar data to be GPG-encrypted, and to use the GPG renderer to decrypt it. Replacing Newlines To pass encrypted pillar data on the CLI, the ciphertext must have its newlines replaced with a literal backslash-n (\n), as newlines are not supported within Salt CLI arguments. There are a number of ways to do this: With awk or Perl: # awk ciphertext=`echo -n "supersecret" | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r ↲ @domain.com | awk '{printf "%s\\n",$0} END {print ""}'` # Perl ciphertext=`echo -n "supersecret" | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r ↲ @domain.com | perl -pe 's/\n/\\n/g'` With Python: import subprocess secret, stderr = subprocess.Popen( ['gpg', '--armor', '--batch', '--trust-model', 'always', '--encrypt', '-r', '@domain.com'], stdin=subprocess.PIPE, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE).communicate(input='supersecret') if secret: print(secret.replace('\n', r'\n')) else: raise ValueError('No ciphertext found: {0}'.format(stderr)) ciphertext=`python /path/to/script.py` The ciphertext can be included in the CLI pillar data like so: salt myminion state.sls secretstuff pillar_enc=gpg pillar="{secret_pillar: '$ciphertext'}" The pillar_enc=gpg argument tells Salt that there is GPG-encrypted pillar data, so that the CLI pillar data is passed through the GPG renderer, which will iterate recursively though the CLI pillar dictionary to decrypt any encrypted values. Encrypting the Entire CLI Pillar Dictionary If several values need to be encrypted, it may be more convenient to encrypt the entire CLI pillar dictionary. Again, this can be done in several ways: With awk or Perl: # awk ciphertext=`echo -n "{'secret_a': 'CorrectHorseBatteryStaple', 'secret_b': 'GPG is fun!'}" ↲ | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r @domain.com | awk '{printf "%s\\n",$0} END {print ""}'` # Perl ciphertext=`echo -n "{'secret_a': 'CorrectHorseBatteryStaple', 'secret_b': 'GPG is fun!'}" ↲ | gpg --armor --batch --trust-model always --encrypt -r @domain.com | perl -pe 's/\n/\\n/g'` With Python: import subprocess pillar_data = {'secret_a': 'CorrectHorseBatteryStaple', 'secret_b': 'GPG is fun!'} secret, stderr = subprocess.Popen( ['gpg', '--armor', '--batch', '--trust-model', 'always', '--encrypt', '-r', '@domain.com'], stdin=subprocess.PIPE, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE).communicate(input=repr(pillar_data)) if secret: print(secret.replace('\n', r'\n')) else: raise ValueError('No ciphertext found: {0}'.format(stderr)) ciphertext=`python /path/to/script.py` With the entire pillar dictionary now encrypted, it can be included in the CLI pillar data like so: salt myminion state.sls secretstuff pillar_enc=gpg pillar="$ciphertext" salt.renderers.gpg.render(gpg_data, saltenv='base', sls='', argline='', **kwargs) Create a gpg object given a gpg_keydir, and then use it to try to decrypt the data to be rendered. salt.renderers.hjson Hjson Renderer for Salt http://laktak.github.io/hjson/ salt.renderers.hjson.render(hjson_data, saltenv='base', sls='', **kws) Accepts HJSON as a string or as a file object and runs it through the HJSON parser. Return type A Python data structure salt.renderers.jinja Jinja loading utils to enable a more powerful backend for jinja templates For Jinja usage information see Understanding Jinja. salt.renderers.jinja.render(template_file, saltenv='base', sls='', argline='', con‐ text=None, tmplpath=None, **kws) Render the template_file, passing the functions and grains into the Jinja rendering system. Return type string class salt.utils.jinja.SerializerExtension(environment) Yaml and Json manipulation. Format filters Allows jsonifying or yamlifying any data structure. For example, this dataset: data = { 'foo': True, 'bar': 42, 'baz': [1, 2, 3], 'qux': 2.0 } yaml = {{ data|yaml }} json = {{ data|json }} python = {{ data|python }} will be rendered as: yaml = {bar: 42, baz: [1, 2, 3], foo: true, qux: 2.0} json = {"baz": [1, 2, 3], "foo": true, "bar": 42, "qux": 2.0} python = {'bar': 42, 'baz': [1, 2, 3], 'foo': True, 'qux': 2.0} The yaml filter takes an optional flow_style parameter to control the default-flow-style parameter of the YAML dumper. {{ data|yaml(False) }} will be rendered as: bar: 42 baz: - 1 - 2 - 3 foo: true qux: 2.0 Load filters Strings and variables can be deserialized with load_yaml and load_json tags and filters. It allows one to manipulate data directly in templates, easily: {%- set yaml_src = "{foo: it works}"|load_yaml %} {%- set json_src = "{'bar': 'for real'}"|load_json %} Dude, {{ yaml_src.foo }} {{ json_src.bar }}! will be rendered as: Dude, it works for real! Load tags Salt implements load_yaml and load_json tags. They work like the import tag, except that the document is also deserialized. Syntaxes are {% load_yaml as [VARIABLE] %}[YOUR DATA]{% endload %} and {% load_json as [VARIABLE] %}[YOUR DATA]{% endload %} For example: {% load_yaml as yaml_src %} foo: it works {% endload %} {% load_json as json_src %} { "bar": "for real" } {% endload %} Dude, {{ yaml_src.foo }} {{ json_src.bar }}! will be rendered as: Dude, it works for real! Import tags External files can be imported and made available as a Jinja variable. {% import_yaml "myfile.yml" as myfile %} {% import_json "defaults.json" as defaults %} {% import_text "completeworksofshakespeare.txt" as poems %} Catalog import_* and load_* tags will automatically expose their target variable to import. This feature makes catalog of data to handle. for example: # doc1.sls {% load_yaml as var1 %} foo: it works {% endload %} {% load_yaml as var2 %} bar: for real {% endload %} # doc2.sls {% from "doc1.sls" import var1, var2 as local2 %} {{ var1.foo }} {{ local2.bar }} ** Escape Filters ** New in version 2017.7.0. Allows escaping of strings so they can be interpreted literally by another func‐ tion. For example: regex_escape = {{ 'https://example.com?foo=bar%20baz' | regex_escape }} will be rendered as: regex_escape = https\:\/\/example\.com\?foo\=bar\%20baz ** Set Theory Filters ** New in version 2017.7.0. Performs set math using Jinja filters. For example: unique = {{ ['foo', 'foo', 'bar'] | unique }} will be rendered as: unique = ['foo', 'bar'] salt.renderers.json JSON Renderer for Salt salt.renderers.json.render(json_data, saltenv='base', sls='', **kws) Accepts JSON as a string or as a file object and runs it through the JSON parser. Return type A Python data structure salt.renderers.json5 JSON5 Renderer for Salt New in version 2016.3.0. JSON5 is an unofficial extension to JSON. See http://json5.org/ for more information. This renderer requires the json5 python bindings, installable via pip. salt.renderers.json5.render(json_data, saltenv='base', sls='', **kws) Accepts JSON as a string or as a file object and runs it through the JSON parser. Return type A Python data structure salt.renderers.mako Mako Renderer for Salt salt.renderers.mako.render(template_file, saltenv='base', sls='', context=None, tmplpath=None, **kws) Render the template_file, passing the functions and grains into the Mako rendering system. Return type string salt.renderers.msgpack salt.renderers.msgpack.render(msgpack_data, saltenv='base', sls='', **kws) Accepts a message pack string or a file object, renders said data back to a python dict. Return type A Python data structure salt.renderers.pass module Pass Renderer for Salt [pass](https://www.passwordstore.org/) New in version 2017.7.0. # Setup __Note__: <user> needs to be replaced with the user salt-master will be running as 1. Have private gpg loaded into user's gpg keyring * Example salt code `` ` load_private_gpg_key: cmd.run: · name: gpg --import <location_of_private_gpg_key> · unless: gpg --list-keys '<gpg_name>' `` ` 1. Said private key's public key should have been used when encrypting pass entries that are of interest for pillar data 1. Fetch and keep local pass git repo up-to-date · Example salt code `` ` update_pass: git.latest: · force_reset: True · name: <git_repo> · target: /<user>/.password-store · identity: <location_of_ssh_private_key> · require: - cmd: load_private_gpg_key `` ` 1. Install pass binary * Example salt code `` ` pass: pkg.installed `` ` salt.renderers.pass.render(pass_info, saltenv='base', sls='', argline='', **kwargs) Fetch secret from pass based on pass_path salt.renderers.py Pure python state renderer The SLS file should contain a function called run which returns high state data. The highstate data is a dictionary containing identifiers as keys, and execution dictionaries as values. For example the following state declaration in YAML: common_packages: pkg.installed: - pkgs: - curl - vim tranlastes to: {'common_packages': {'pkg.installed': [{'pkgs': ['curl', 'vim']}]}} In this module, a few objects are defined for you, giving access to Salt's execution func‐ tions, grains, pillar, etc. They are: · __salt__ - Execution functions (i.e. __salt__['test.echo']('foo')) · __grains__ - Grains (i.e. __grains__['os']) · __pillar__ - Pillar data (i.e. __pillar__['foo']) · __opts__ - Minion configuration options · __env__ - The effective salt fileserver environment (i.e. base). Also referred to as a "saltenv". __env__ should not be modified in a pure python SLS file. To use a different environment, the environment should be set when executing the state. This can be done in a couple different ways: · Using the saltenv argument on the salt CLI (i.e. salt '*' state.sls foo.bar.baz saltenv=env_name). · By adding a saltenv argument to an individual state within the SLS file. In other words, adding a line like this to the state's data structure: {'saltenv': 'env_name'} · __sls__ - The SLS path of the file. For example, if the root of the base environment is /srv/salt, and the SLS file is /srv/salt/foo/bar/baz.sls, then __sls__ in that file will be foo.bar.baz. The global contet data (same as context `` {{ data }}` ` for states written with Jinja + YAML. The following YAML + Jinja state dec‐ laration: {% if data['id'] == 'mysql1' %} highstate_run: local.state.apply: - tgt: mysql1 {% endif %} Translate to: if data['id'] == 'mysql1': return {'highstate_run': {'local.state.apply': [{'tgt': 'mysql1'}]}} #!py def run(): config = {} if __grains__['os'] == 'Ubuntu': user = 'ubuntu' group = 'ubuntu' home = '/home/{0}'.format(user) else: user = 'root' group = 'root' home = '/root/' config['s3cmd'] = { 'pkg': [ 'installed', {'name': 's3cmd'}, ], } config[home + '/.s3cfg'] = { 'file.managed': [ {'source': 'salt://s3cfg/templates/s3cfg'}, {'template': 'jinja'}, {'user': user}, {'group': group}, {'mode': 600}, {'context': { 'aws_key': __pillar__['AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID'], 'aws_secret_key': __pillar__['AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY'], }, }, ], } return config salt.renderers.py.render(template, saltenv='base', sls='', tmplpath=None, **kws) Render the python module's components Return type string salt.renderers.pydsl A Python-based DSL maintainer Jack Kuan <@gmail.com> maturity new platform all The pydsl renderer allows one to author salt formulas (.sls files) in pure Python using a DSL that's easy to write and easy to read. Here's an example: #!pydsl apache = state('apache') apache.pkg.installed() apache.service.running() state('/var/www/index.html') \ .file('managed', source='salt://webserver/index.html') \ .require(pkg='apache') Notice that any Python code is allow in the file as it's really a Python module, so you have the full power of Python at your disposal. In this module, a few objects are defined for you, including the usual (with __ added) __salt__ dictionary, __grains__, __pillar__, __opts__, __env__, and __sls__, plus a few more: __file__ local file system path to the sls module. __pydsl__ Salt PyDSL object, useful for configuring DSL behavior per sls rendering. include Salt PyDSL function for creating include-declaration's. extend Salt PyDSL function for creating extend-declaration's. state Salt PyDSL function for creating ID-declaration's. A state ID-declaration is created with a state(id) function call. Subsequent state(id) call with the same id returns the same object. This singleton access pattern applies to all declaration objects created with the DSL. state('example') assert state('example') is state('example') assert state('example').cmd is state('example').cmd assert state('example').cmd.running is state('example').cmd.running The id argument is optional. If omitted, an UUID will be generated and used as the id. state(id) returns an object under which you can create a state-declaration object by accessing an attribute named after any state module available in Salt. state('example').cmd state('example').file state('example').pkg ... Then, a function-declaration object can be created from a state-declaration object by one of the following two ways: 1. by calling a method named after the state function on the state-declaration object. state('example').file.managed(...) 2. by directly calling the attribute named for the state-declaration, and supplying the state function name as the first argument. state('example').file('managed', ...) With either way of creating a function-declaration object, any function-arg-declaration's can be passed as keyword arguments to the call. Subsequent calls of a function-declaration will update the arg declarations. state('example').file('managed', source='salt://webserver/index.html') state('example').file.managed(source='salt://webserver/index.html') As a shortcut, the special name argument can also be passed as the first or second posi‐ tional argument depending on the first or second way of calling the state-declaration object. In the following two examples ls -la is the name argument. state('example').cmd.run('ls -la', cwd='/') state('example').cmd('run', 'ls -la', cwd='/') Finally, a requisite-declaration object with its requisite-reference's can be created by invoking one of the requisite methods (see State Requisites) on either a function-declara‐ tion object or a state-declaration object. The return value of a requisite call is also a function-declaration object, so you can chain several requisite calls together. Arguments to a requisite call can be a list of state-declaration objects and/or a set of keyword arguments whose names are state modules and values are IDs of ID-declaration's or names of name-declaration's. apache2 = state('apache2') apache2.pkg.installed() state('libapache2-mod-wsgi').pkg.installed() # you can call requisites on function declaration apache2.service.running() \ .require(apache2.pkg, pkg='libapache2-mod-wsgi') \ .watch(file='/etc/apache2/httpd.conf') # or you can call requisites on state declaration. # this actually creates an anonymous function declaration object # to add the requisites. apache2.service.require(state('libapache2-mod-wsgi').pkg, pkg='apache2') \ .watch(file='/etc/apache2/httpd.conf') # we still need to set the name of the function declaration. apache2.service.running() include-declaration objects can be created with the include function, while extend-decla‐ ration objects can be created with the extend function, whose arguments are just func‐ tion-declaration objects. include('edit.vim', 'http.server') extend(state('apache2').service.watch(file='/etc/httpd/httpd.conf') The include function, by default, causes the included sls file to be rendered as soon as the include function is called. It returns a list of rendered module objects; sls files not rendered with the pydsl renderer return None's. This behavior creates no include-dec‐ laration's in the resulting high state data structure. import types # including multiple sls returns a list. _, mod = include('a-non-pydsl-sls', 'a-pydsl-sls') assert _ is None assert isinstance(slsmods[1], types.ModuleType) # including a single sls returns a single object mod = include('a-pydsl-sls') # myfunc is a function that calls state(...) to create more states. mod.myfunc(1, 2, "three") Notice how you can define a reusable function in your pydsl sls module and then call it via the module returned by include. It's still possible to do late includes by passing the delayed=True keyword argument to include. include('edit.vim', 'http.server', delayed=True) Above will just create a include-declaration in the rendered result, and such call always returns None. Special integration with the cmd state Taking advantage of rendering a Python module, PyDSL allows you to declare a state that calls a pre-defined Python function when the state is executed. greeting = "hello world" def helper(something, *args, **kws): print greeting # hello world print something, args, kws # test123 ['a', 'b', 'c'] {'x': 1, 'y': 2} state().cmd.call(helper, "test123", 'a', 'b', 'c', x=1, y=2) The cmd.call state function takes care of calling our helper function with the arguments we specified in the states, and translates the return value of our function into a struc‐ ture expected by the state system. See salt.states.cmd.call() for more information. Implicit ordering of states Salt states are explicitly ordered via requisite-declaration's. However, with pydsl it's possible to let the renderer track the order of creation for function-declaration objects, and implicitly add require requisites for your states to enforce the ordering. This fea‐ ture is enabled by setting the ordered option on __pydsl__. NOTE: this feature is only available if your minions are using Python >= 2.7. include('some.sls.file') A = state('A').cmd.run(cwd='/var/tmp') extend(A) __pydsl__.set(ordered=True) for i in range(10): i = str(i) state(i).cmd.run('echo '+i, cwd='/') state('1').cmd.run('echo one') state('2').cmd.run(name='echo two') Notice that the ordered option needs to be set after any extend calls. This is to prevent pydsl from tracking the creation of a state function that's passed to an extend call. Above example should create states from 0 to 9 that will output 0, one, two, 3, ... 9, in that order. It's important to know that pydsl tracks the creations of function-declaration objects, and automatically adds a require requisite to a function-declaration object that requires the last function-declaration object created before it in the sls file. This means later calls (perhaps to update the function's function-arg-declaration) to a previously created function declaration will not change the order. Render time state execution When Salt processes a salt formula file, the file is rendered to salt's high state data representation by a renderer before the states can be executed. In the case of the pydsl renderer, the .sls file is executed as a python module as it is being rendered which makes it easy to execute a state at render time. In pydsl, executing one or more states at ren‐ der time can be done by calling a configured ID-declaration object. #!pydsl s = state() # save for later invocation # configure it s.cmd.run('echo at render time', cwd='/') s.file.managed('target.txt', source='salt://source.txt') s() # execute the two states now Once an ID-declaration is called at render time it is detached from the sls module as if it was never defined. NOTE: If implicit ordering is enabled (i.e., via __pydsl__.set(ordered=True)) then the first invocation of a ID-declaration object must be done before a new function-declaration is created. Integration with the stateconf renderer The salt.renderers.stateconf renderer offers a few interesting features that can be lever‐ aged by the pydsl renderer. In particular, when using with the pydsl renderer, we are interested in stateconf's sls namespacing feature (via dot-prefixed id declarations), as well as, the automatic start and goal states generation. Now you can use pydsl with stateconf like this: #!pydsl|stateconf -ps include('xxx', 'yyy') # ensure that states in xxx run BEFORE states in this file. extend(state('.start').stateconf.require(stateconf='xxx::goal')) # ensure that states in yyy run AFTER states in this file. extend(state('.goal').stateconf.require_in(stateconf='yyy::start')) __pydsl__.set(ordered=True) ... -s enables the generation of a stateconf start state, and -p lets us pipe high state data rendered by pydsl to stateconf. This example shows that by require-ing or require_in-ing the included sls' start or goal states, it's possible to ensure that the included sls files can be made to execute before or after a state in the including sls file. Importing custom Python modules To use a custom Python module inside a PyDSL state, place the module somewhere that it can be loaded by the Salt loader, such as _modules in the /srv/salt directory. Then, copy it to any minions as necessary by using saltutil.sync_modules. To import into a PyDSL SLS, one must bypass the Python importer and insert it manually by getting a reference from Python's sys.modules dictionary. For example: #!pydsl|stateconf -ps def main(): my_mod = sys.modules['salt.loaded.ext.module.my_mod'] salt.renderers.pydsl.render(template, saltenv='base', sls='', tmplpath=None, ren‐ dered_sls=None, **kws) salt.renderers.pyobjects Python renderer that includes a Pythonic Object based interface maintainer Evan Borgstrom <@borgstrom.ca> Let's take a look at how you use pyobjects in a state file. Here's a quick example that ensures the /tmp directory is in the correct state. #!pyobjects File.managed("/tmp", user='root', group='root', mode='1777') Nice and Pythonic! By using the "shebang" syntax to switch to the pyobjects renderer we can now write our state data using an object based interface that should feel at home to python developers. You can import any module and do anything that you'd like (with caution, importing sqlalchemy, django or other large frameworks has not been tested yet). Using the pyobjects renderer is exactly the same as using the built-in Python renderer with the exception that pyobjects provides you with an object based interface for generating state data. Creating state data Pyobjects takes care of creating an object for each of the available states on the minion. Each state is represented by an object that is the CamelCase version of its name (i.e. File, Service, User, etc), and these objects expose all of their available state functions (i.e. File.managed, Service.running, etc). The name of the state is split based upon underscores (_), then each part is capitalized and finally the parts are joined back together. Some examples: · postgres_user becomes PostgresUser · ssh_known_hosts becomes SshKnownHosts Context Managers and requisites How about something a little more complex. Here we're going to get into the core of how to use pyobjects to write states. #!pyobjects with Pkg.installed("nginx"): Service.running("nginx", enable=True) with Service("nginx", "watch_in"): File.managed("/etc/nginx/conf.d/mysite.conf", owner='root', group='root', mode='0444', source='salt://nginx/mysite.conf') The objects that are returned from each of the magic method calls are setup to be used a Python context managers (with) and when you use them as such all declarations made within the scope will automatically use the enclosing state as a requisite! The above could have also been written use direct requisite statements as. #!pyobjects Pkg.installed("nginx") Service.running("nginx", enable=True, require=Pkg("nginx")) File.managed("/etc/nginx/conf.d/mysite.conf", owner='root', group='root', mode='0444', source='salt://nginx/mysite.conf', watch_in=Service("nginx")) You can use the direct requisite statement for referencing states that are generated out‐ side of the current file. #!pyobjects # some-other-package is defined in some other state file Pkg.installed("nginx", require=Pkg("some-other-package")) The last thing that direct requisites provide is the ability to select which of the Salt‐ Stack requisites you want to use (require, require_in, watch, watch_in, use & use_in) when using the requisite as a context manager. #!pyobjects with Service("my-service", "watch_in"): ... The above example would cause all declarations inside the scope of the context manager to automatically have their watch_in set to Service("my-service"). Including and Extending To include other states use the include() function. It takes one name per state to include. To extend another state use the extend() function on the name when creating a state. #!pyobjects include('http', 'ssh') Service.running(extend('apache'), watch=[File('/etc/httpd/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf')]) Importing from other state files Like any Python project that grows you will likely reach a point where you want to create reusability in your state tree and share objects between state files, Map Data (described below) is a perfect example of this. To facilitate this Python's import statement has been augmented to allow for a special case when working with a Salt state tree. If you specify a Salt url (salt://...) as the target for importing from then the pyobjects renderer will take care of fetching the file for you, parsing it with all of the pyobjects features available and then place the requested objects in the global scope of the template being rendered. This works for all types of import statements; import X, from X import Y, and from X import Y as Z. #!pyobjects import salt://myfile.sls from salt://something/data.sls import Object from salt://something/data.sls import Object as Other See the Map Data section for a more practical use. Caveats: · Imported objects are ALWAYS put into the global scope of your template, regardless of where your import statement is. Salt object In the spirit of the object interface for creating state data pyobjects also provides a simple object interface to the __salt__ object. A function named salt exists in scope for your sls files and will dispatch its attributes to the __salt__ dictionary. The following lines are functionally equivalent: #!pyobjects ret = salt.cmd.run(bar) ret = __salt__['cmd.run'](bar) Pillar, grain, mine & config data Pyobjects provides shortcut functions for calling pillar.get, grains.get, mine.get & con‐ fig.get on the __salt__ object. This helps maintain the readability of your state files. Each type of data can be access by a function of the same name: pillar(), grains(), mine() and config(). The following pairs of lines are functionally equivalent: #!pyobjects value = pillar('foo:bar:baz', 'qux') value = __salt__['pillar.get']('foo:bar:baz', 'qux') value = grains('pkg:apache') value = __salt__['grains.get']('pkg:apache') value = mine('os:Fedora', 'network.interfaces', 'grain') value = __salt__['mine.get']('os:Fedora', 'network.interfaces', 'grain') value = config('foo:bar:baz', 'qux') value = __salt__['config.get']('foo:bar:baz', 'qux') Map Data When building complex states or formulas you often need a way of building up a map of data based on grain data. The most common use of this is tracking the package and service name differences between distributions. To build map data using pyobjects we provide a class named Map that you use to build your own classes with inner classes for each set of values for the different grain matches. #!pyobjects class Samba(Map): merge = 'samba:lookup' # NOTE: priority is new to 2017.7.0 priority = ('os_family', 'os') class Ubuntu: __grain__ = 'os' service = 'smbd' class Debian: server = 'samba' client = 'samba-client' service = 'samba' class RHEL: __match__ = 'RedHat' server = 'samba' client = 'samba' service = 'smb' NOTE: By default, the os_family grain will be used as the target for matching. This can be overridden by specifying a __grain__ attribute. If a __match__ attribute is defined for a given class, then that value will be matched against the targeted grain, otherwise the class name's value will be be matched. Given the above example, the following is true: 1. Minions with an os_family of Debian will be assigned the attributes defined in the Debian class. 2. Minions with an os grain of Ubuntu will be assigned the attributes defined in the Ubuntu class. 3. Minions with an os_family grain of RedHat will be assigned the attributes defined in the RHEL class. That said, sometimes a minion may match more than one class. For instance, in the above example, Ubuntu minions will match both the Debian and Ubuntu classes, since Ubuntu has an os_family grain of Debian an an os grain of Ubuntu. As of the 2017.7.0 release, the order is dictated by the order of declaration, with classes defined later overriding earlier ones. Addtionally, 2017.7.0 adds support for explicitly defining the ordering using an optional attribute called priority. Given the above example, os_family matches will be processed first, with os matches processed after. This would have the effect of assigning smbd as the service attribute on Ubuntu minions. If the priority item was not defined, or if the order of the items in the priority tuple were reversed, Ubuntu minions would have a service attribute of samba, since os_family matches would have been processed second. To use this new data you can import it into your state file and then access your attributes. To access the data in the map you simply access the attribute name on the base class that is extending Map. Assuming the above Map was in the file samba/map.sls, you could do the following. #!pyobjects from salt://samba/map.sls import Samba with Pkg.installed("samba", names=[Samba.server, Samba.client]): Service.running("samba", name=Samba.service) class salt.renderers.pyobjects.PyobjectsModule(name, attrs) This provides a wrapper for bare imports. salt.renderers.pyobjects.load_states() This loads our states into the salt __context__ salt.renderers.pyobjects.render(template, saltenv='base', sls='', salt_data=True, **kwargs) salt.renderers.stateconf maintainer Jack Kuan <@gmail.com> maturity new platform all This module provides a custom renderer that processes a salt file with a specified tem‐ plating engine (e.g. Jinja) and a chosen data renderer (e.g. YAML), extracts arguments for any stateconf.set state, and provides the extracted arguments (including Salt-specific args, such as require, etc) as template context. The goal is to make writing reusable/con‐ figurable/parameterized salt files easier and cleaner. To use this renderer, either set it as the default renderer via the renderer option in master/minion's config, or use the shebang line in each individual sls file, like so: #!stateconf. Note, due to the way this renderer works, it must be specified as the first renderer in a render pipeline. That is, you cannot specify #!mako|yaml|stateconf, for example. Instead, you specify them as renderer arguments: #!stateconf mako . yaml. Here's a list of features enabled by this renderer. · Prefixes any state id (declaration or reference) that starts with a dot (.) to avoid duplicated state ids when the salt file is included by other salt files. For example, in the salt://some/file.sls, a state id such as .sls_params will be turned into some.file::sls_params. Example: #!stateconf yaml . jinja .vim: pkg.installed Above will be translated into: some.file::vim: pkg.installed: - name: vim Notice how that if a state under a dot-prefixed state id has no name argument then one will be added automatically by using the state id with the leading dot stripped off. The leading dot trick can be used with extending state ids as well, so you can include relatively and extend relatively. For example, when extending a state in salt://some/other_file.sls, e.g.: #!stateconf yaml . jinja include: - .file extend: .file::sls_params: stateconf.set: - name1: something Above will be pre-processed into: include: - some.file extend: some.file::sls_params: stateconf.set: - name1: something · Adds a sls_dir context variable that expands to the directory containing the rendering salt file. So, you can write salt://{{sls_dir}}/... to reference templates files used by your salt file. · Recognizes the special state function, stateconf.set, that configures a default list of named arguments usable within the template context of the salt file. Example: #!stateconf yaml . jinja .sls_params: stateconf.set: - name1: value1 - name2: value2 - name3: - value1 - value2 - value3 - require_in: - cmd: output # --- end of state config --- .output: cmd.run: - name: | echo 'name1={{sls_params.name1}} name2={{sls_params.name2}} name3[1]={{sls_params.name3[1]}} ' This even works with include + extend so that you can override the default configured arguments by including the salt file and then extend the stateconf.set states that come from the included salt file. (IMPORTANT: Both the included and the extending sls files must use the stateconf renderer for this ``extend`` to work!) Notice that the end of configuration marker (# --- end of state config --) is needed to separate the use of 'stateconf.set' form the rest of your salt file. The regex that matches such marker can be configured via the stateconf_end_marker option in your master or minion config file. Sometimes, it is desirable to set a default argument value that's based on earlier argu‐ ments in the same stateconf.set. For example, it may be tempting to do something like this: #!stateconf yaml . jinja .apache: stateconf.set: - host: localhost - port: 1234 - url: 'http://{{host}}:{{port}}/' # --- end of state config --- .test: cmd.run: - name: echo '{{apache.url}}' - cwd: / However, this won't work. It can however be worked around like so: #!stateconf yaml . jinja .apache: stateconf.set: - host: localhost - port: 1234 {# - url: 'http://{{host}}:{{port}}/' #} # --- end of state config --- # {{ apache.setdefault('url', "http://%(host)s:%(port)s/" % apache) }} .test: cmd.run: - name: echo '{{apache.url}}' - cwd: / · Adds support for relative include and exclude of .sls files. Example: #!stateconf yaml . jinja include: - .apache - .db.mysql - ..app.django exclude: - sls: .users If the above is written in a salt file at salt://some/where.sls then it will include salt://some/apache.sls, salt://some/db/mysql.sls and salt://app/django.sls, and exclude salt://some/users.ssl. Actually, it does that by rewriting the above include and exclude into: include: - some.apache - some.db.mysql - app.django exclude: - sls: some.users · Optionally (enabled by default, disable via the -G renderer option, e.g. in the shebang line: #!stateconf -G), generates a stateconf.set goal state (state id named as .goal by default, configurable via the master/minion config option, stateconf_goal_state) that requires all other states in the salt file. Note, the .goal state id is subject to dot-prefix rename rule mentioned earlier. Such goal state is intended to be required by some state in an including salt file. For example, in your webapp salt file, if you include a sls file that is supposed to setup Tomcat, you might want to make sure that all states in the Tomcat sls file will be exe‐ cuted before some state in the webapp sls file. · Optionally (enable via the -o renderer option, e.g. in the shebang line: #!stateconf -o), orders the states in a sls file by adding a require requisite to each state such that every state requires the state defined just before it. The order of the states here is the order they are defined in the sls file. (Note: this feature is only available if your minions are using Python >= 2.7. For Python2.6, it should also work if you install the ordereddict module from PyPI) By enabling this feature, you are basically agreeing to author your sls files in a way that gives up the explicit (or implicit?) ordering imposed by the use of require, watch, require_in or watch_in requisites, and instead, you rely on the order of states you define in the sls files. This may or may not be a better way for you. However, if there are many states defined in a sls file, then it tends to be easier to see the order they will be executed with this feature. You are still allowed to use all the requisites, with a few restrictions. You cannot require or watch a state defined after the current state. Similarly, in a state, you cannot require_in or watch_in a state defined before it. Breaking any of the two restrictions above will result in a state loop. The renderer will check for such incor‐ rect uses if this feature is enabled. Additionally, names declarations cannot be used with this feature because the way they are compiled into low states make it impossible to guarantee the order in which they will be executed. This is also checked by the renderer. As a workaround for not being able to use names, you can achieve the same effect, by generate your states with the template engine available within your sls file. Finally, with the use of this feature, it becomes possible to easily make an included sls file execute all its states after some state (say, with id X) in the including sls file. All you have to do is to make state, X, require_in the first state defined in the included sls file. When writing sls files with this renderer, one should avoid using what can be defined in a name argument of a state as the state's id. That is, avoid writing states like this: /path/to/some/file: file.managed: - source: salt://some/file cp /path/to/some/file file2: cmd.run: - cwd: / - require: - file: /path/to/some/file Instead, define the state id and the name argument separately for each state. Also, the ID should be something meaningful and easy to reference within a requisite (which is a good habit anyway, and such extra indirection would also makes the sls file easier to modify later). Thus, the above states should be written like this: add-some-file: file.managed: - name: /path/to/some/file - source: salt://some/file copy-files: cmd.run: - name: cp /path/to/some/file file2 - cwd: / - require: - file: add-some-file Moreover, when referencing a state from a requisite, you should reference the state's id plus the state name rather than the state name plus its name argument. (Yes, in the above example, you can actually require the file: /path/to/some/file, instead of the file: add-some-file). The reason is that this renderer will re-write or rename state id's and their references for state id's prefixed with .. So, if you reference name then there's no way to reliably rewrite such reference. salt.renderers.wempy salt.renderers.wempy.render(template_file, saltenv='base', sls='', argline='', con‐ text=None, **kws) Render the data passing the functions and grains into the rendering system Return type string salt.renderers.yaml Understanding YAML The default renderer for SLS files is the YAML renderer. YAML is a markup language with many powerful features. However, Salt uses a small subset of YAML that maps over very com‐ monly used data structures, like lists and dictionaries. It is the job of the YAML ren‐ derer to take the YAML data structure and compile it into a Python data structure for use by Salt. Though YAML syntax may seem daunting and terse at first, there are only three very simple rules to remember when writing YAML for SLS files. Rule One: Indentation YAML uses a fixed indentation scheme to represent relationships between data layers. Salt requires that the indentation for each level consists of exactly two spaces. Do not use tabs. Rule Two: Colons Python dictionaries are, of course, simply key-value pairs. Users from other languages may recognize this data type as hashes or associative arrays. Dictionary keys are represented in YAML as strings terminated by a trailing colon. Values are represented by either a string following the colon, separated by a space: my_key: my_value In Python, the above maps to: {'my_key': 'my_value'} Dictionaries can be nested: first_level_dict_key: second_level_dict_key: value_in_second_level_dict And in Python: {'first_level_dict_key': {'second_level_dict_key': 'value_in_second_level_dict' } Rule Three: Dashes To represent lists of items, a single dash followed by a space is used. Multiple items are a part of the same list as a function of their having the same level of indentation. - list_value_one - list_value_two - list_value_three Lists can be the value of a key-value pair. This is quite common in Salt: my_dictionary: - list_value_one - list_value_two - list_value_three Reference YAML Renderer for Salt For YAML usage information see Understanding YAML. salt.renderers.yaml.get_yaml_loader(argline) Return the ordered dict yaml loader salt.renderers.yaml.render(yaml_data, saltenv='base', sls='', argline='', **kws) Accepts YAML as a string or as a file object and runs it through the YAML parser. Return type A Python data structure salt.renderers.yamlex YAMLEX renderer is a replacement of the YAML renderer. It's 100% YAML with a pinch of Salt magic: · All mappings are automatically OrderedDict · All strings are automatically str obj · data aggregation with !aggregation yaml tag, based on the salt.utils.aggregation module. · data aggregation over documents for pillar Instructed aggregation within the !aggregation and the !reset tags: #!yamlex foo: !aggregate first foo: !aggregate second bar: !aggregate {first: foo} bar: !aggregate {second: bar} baz: !aggregate 42 qux: !aggregate default !reset qux: !aggregate my custom data is roughly equivalent to foo: [first, second] bar: {first: foo, second: bar} baz: [42] qux: [my custom data] Reference salt.renderers.yamlex.render(sls_data, saltenv='base', sls='', **kws) Accepts YAML_EX as a string or as a file object and runs it through the YAML_EX parser. Return type A Python data structure

USING SALT

This section describes the fundamental components and concepts that you need to understand to use Salt. Grains Salt comes with an interface to derive information about the underlying system. This is called the grains interface, because it presents salt with grains of information. Grains are collected for the operating system, domain name, IP address, kernel, OS type, memory, and many other system properties. The grains interface is made available to Salt modules and components so that the right salt minion commands are automatically available on the right systems. Grain data is relatively static, though if system information changes (for example, if network settings are changed), or if a new value is assigned to a custom grain, grain data is refreshed. NOTE: Grains resolve to lowercase letters. For example, FOO, and foo target the same grain. Listing Grains Available grains can be listed by using the 'grains.ls' module: salt '*' grains.ls Grains data can be listed by using the 'grains.items' module: salt '*' grains.items Grains in the Minion Config Grains can also be statically assigned within the minion configuration file. Just add the option grains and pass options to it: grains: roles: - webserver - memcache deployment: datacenter4 cabinet: 13 cab_u: 14-15 Then status data specific to your servers can be retrieved via Salt, or used inside of the State system for matching. It also makes targeting, in the case of the example above, sim‐ ply based on specific data about your deployment. Grains in /etc/salt/grains If you do not want to place your custom static grains in the minion config file, you can also put them in /etc/salt/grains on the minion. They are configured in the same way as in the above example, only without a top-level grains: key: roles: - webserver - memcache deployment: datacenter4 cabinet: 13 cab_u: 14-15 NOTE: Grains in /etc/salt/grains are ignored if you specify the same grains in the minion config. NOTE: Grains are static, and since they are not often changed, they will need a grains refresh when they are updated. You can do this by calling: salt minion saltutil.refresh_modules NOTE: You can equally configure static grains for Proxy Minions. As multiple Proxy Minion processes can run on the same machine, you need to index the files using the Minion ID, under /etc/salt/proxy.d/<minion ID>/grains. For example, the grains for the Proxy Min‐ ion router1 can be defined under /etc/salt/proxy.d/router1/grains, while the grains for the Proxy Minion switch7 can be put in /etc/salt/proxy.d/switch7/grains. Matching Grains in the Top File With correctly configured grains on the Minion, the top file used in Pillar or during Highstate can be made very efficient. For example, consider the following configuration: 'node_type:webserver': - match: grain - webserver 'node_type:postgres': - match: grain - postgres 'node_type:redis': - match: grain - redis 'node_type:lb': - match: grain - lb For this example to work, you would need to have defined the grain node_type for the min‐ ions you wish to match. This simple example is nice, but too much of the code is similar. To go one step further, Jinja templating can be used to simplify the top file. {% set the_node_type = salt['grains.get']('node_type', '') %} {% if the_node_type %} 'node_type:{{ the_node_type }}': - match: grain - {{ the_node_type }} {% endif %} Using Jinja templating, only one match entry needs to be defined. NOTE: The example above uses the grains.get function to account for minions which do not have the node_type grain set. Writing Grains The grains are derived by executing all of the "public" functions (i.e. those which do not begin with an underscore) found in the modules located in the Salt's core grains code, followed by those in any custom grains modules. The functions in a grains module must return a Python dict, where the dictionary keys are the names of grains, and each key's value is that value for that grain. Custom grains modules should be placed in a subdirectory named _grains located under the file_roots specified by the master config file. The default path would be /srv/salt/_grains. Custom grains modules will be distributed to the minions when state.highstate is run, or by executing the saltutil.sync_grains or saltutil.sync_all functions. Grains modules are easy to write, and (as noted above) only need to return a dictionary. For example: def yourfunction(): # initialize a grains dictionary grains = {} # Some code for logic that sets grains like grains['yourcustomgrain'] = True grains['anothergrain'] = 'somevalue' return grains The name of the function does not matter and will not factor into the grains data at all; only the keys/values returned become part of the grains. When to Use a Custom Grain Before adding new grains, consider what the data is and remember that grains should (for the most part) be static data. If the data is something that is likely to change, consider using Pillar or an execution module instead. If it's a simple set of key/value pairs, pillar is a good match. If com‐ piling the information requires that system commands be run, then putting this information in an execution module is likely a better idea. Good candidates for grains are data that is useful for targeting minions in the top file or the Salt CLI. The name and data structure of the grain should be designed to support many platforms, operating systems or applications. Also, keep in mind that Jinja templat‐ ing in Salt supports referencing pillar data as well as invoking functions from execution modules, so there's no need to place information in grains to make it available to Jinja templates. For example: ... ... {{ salt['module.function_name']('argument_1', 'argument_2') }} {{ pillar['my_pillar_key'] }} ... ... WARNING: Custom grains will not be available in the top file until after the first highstate. To make custom grains available on a minion's first highstate, it is recommended to use this example to ensure that the custom grains are synced when the minion starts. Loading Custom Grains If you have multiple functions specifying grains that are called from a main function, be sure to prepend grain function names with an underscore. This prevents Salt from including the loaded grains from the grain functions in the final grain data structure. For example, consider this custom grain file: #!/usr/bin/env python def _my_custom_grain(): my_grain = {'foo': 'bar', 'hello': 'world'} return my_grain def main(): # initialize a grains dictionary grains = {} grains['my_grains'] = _my_custom_grain() return grains The output of this example renders like so: # salt-call --local grains.items local: ---------- <Snipped for brevity> my_grains: ---------- foo: bar hello: world However, if you don't prepend the my_custom_grain function with an underscore, the func‐ tion will be rendered twice by Salt in the items output: once for the my_custom_grain call itself, and again when it is called in the main function: # salt-call --local grains.items local: ---------- <Snipped for brevity> foo: bar <Snipped for brevity> hello: world <Snipped for brevity> my_grains: ---------- foo: bar hello: world Precedence Core grains can be overridden by custom grains. As there are several ways of defining cus‐ tom grains, there is an order of precedence which should be kept in mind when defining them. The order of evaluation is as follows: 1. Core grains. 2. Custom grains in /etc/salt/grains. 3. Custom grains in /etc/salt/minion. 4. Custom grain modules in _grains directory, synced to minions. Each successive evaluation overrides the previous ones, so any grains defined by custom grains modules synced to minions that have the same name as a core grain will override that core grain. Similarly, grains from /etc/salt/minion override both core grains and custom grain modules, and grains in _grains will override any grains of the same name. Examples of Grains The core module in the grains package is where the main grains are loaded by the Salt min‐ ion and provides the principal example of how to write grains: https://github.com/saltstack/salt/blob/develop/salt/grains/core.py Syncing Grains Syncing grains can be done a number of ways, they are automatically synced when state.highstate is called, or (as noted above) the grains can be manually synced and reloaded by calling the saltutil.sync_grains or saltutil.sync_all functions. NOTE: When the grains_cache is set to False, the grains dictionary is built and stored in memory on the minion. Every time the minion restarts or saltutil.refresh_grains is run, the grain dictionary is rebuilt from scratch. Storing Static Data in the Pillar Pillar is an interface for Salt designed to offer global values that can be distributed to minions. Pillar data is managed in a similar way as the Salt State Tree. Pillar was added to Salt in version 0.9.8 NOTE: Storing sensitive data Pillar data is compiled on the master. Additionally, pillar data for a given minion is only accessible by the minion for which it is targeted in the pillar configuration. This makes pillar useful for storing sensitive data specific to a particular minion. Declaring the Master Pillar The Salt Master server maintains a pillar_roots setup that matches the structure of the file_roots used in the Salt file server. Like file_roots, the pillar_roots option maps environments to directories. The pillar data is then mapped to minions based on matchers in a top file which is laid out in the same way as the state top file. Salt pillars can use the same matcher types as the standard top file. conf_master:pillar_roots is configured just like file_roots. For example: pillar_roots: base: - /srv/pillar This example configuration declares that the base environment will be located in the /srv/pillar directory. It must not be in a subdirectory of the state tree. The top file used matches the name of the top file used for States, and has the same structure: /srv/pillar/top.sls base: '*': - packages In the above top file, it is declared that in the base environment, the glob matching all minions will have the pillar data found in the packages pillar available to it. Assuming the pillar_roots value of /srv/pillar taken from above, the packages pillar would be located at /srv/pillar/packages.sls. Any number of matchers can be added to the base environment. For example, here is an expanded version of the Pillar top file stated above: /srv/pillar/top.sls: base: '*': - packages 'web*': - vim In this expanded top file, minions that match web* will have access to the /srv/pil‐ lar/packages.sls file, as well as the /srv/pillar/vim.sls file. Another example shows how to use other standard top matching types to deliver specific salt pillar data to minions with different properties. Here is an example using the grains matcher to target pillars to minions by their os grain: dev: 'os:Debian': - match: grain - servers /srv/pillar/packages.sls {% if grains['os'] == 'RedHat' %} apache: httpd git: git {% elif grains['os'] == 'Debian' %} apache: apache2 git: git-core {% endif %} company: Foo Industries IMPORTANT: See Is Targeting using Grain Data Secure? for important security information. The above pillar sets two key/value pairs. If a minion is running RedHat, then the apache key is set to httpd and the git key is set to the value of git. If the minion is running Debian, those values are changed to apache2 and git-core respectively. All minions that have this pillar targeting to them via a top file will have the key of company with a value of Foo Industries. Consequently this data can be used from within modules, renderers, State SLS files, and more via the shared pillar dict: apache: pkg.installed: - name: {{ pillar['apache'] }} git: pkg.installed: - name: {{ pillar['git'] }} Finally, the above states can utilize the values provided to them via Pillar. All pillar values targeted to a minion are available via the 'pillar' dictionary. As seen in the above example, Jinja substitution can then be utilized to access the keys and values in the Pillar dictionary. Note that you cannot just list key/value-information in top.sls. Instead, target a minion to a pillar file and then list the keys and values in the pillar. Here is an example top file that illustrates this point: base: '*': - common_pillar And the actual pillar file at '/srv/pillar/common_pillar.sls': foo: bar boo: baz NOTE: When working with multiple pillar environments, assuming that each pillar environment has its own top file, the jinja placeholder {{ saltenv }} can be used in place of the environment name: {{ saltenv }}: '*': - common_pillar Yes, this is {{ saltenv }}, and not {{ pillarenv }}. The reason for this is because the Pillar top files are parsed using some of the same code which parses top files when running states, so the pillar environment takes the place of {{ saltenv }} in the jinja context. Pillar Namespace Flattening The separate pillar SLS files all merge down into a single dictionary of key-value pairs. When the same key is defined in multiple SLS files, this can result in unexpected behavior if care is not taken to how the pillar SLS files are laid out. For example, given a top.sls containing the following: base: '*': - packages - services with packages.sls containing: bind: bind9 and services.sls containing: bind: named Then a request for the bind pillar key will only return named. The bind9 value will be lost, because services.sls was evaluated later. NOTE: Pillar files are applied in the order they are listed in the top file. Therefore con‐ flicting keys will be overwritten in a 'last one wins' manner! For example, in the above scenario conflicting key values in services will overwrite those in packages because it's at the bottom of the list. It can be better to structure your pillar files with more hierarchy. For example the pack‐ age.sls file could be configured like so: packages: bind: bind9 This would make the packages pillar key a nested dictionary containing a bind key. Pillar Dictionary Merging If the same pillar key is defined in multiple pillar SLS files, and the keys in both files refer to nested dictionaries, then the content from these dictionaries will be recursively merged. For example, keeping the top.sls the same, assume the following modifications to the pil‐ lar SLS files: packages.sls: bind: package-name: bind9 version: 9.9.5 services.sls: bind: port: 53 listen-on: any The resulting pillar dictionary will be: $ salt-call pillar.get bind local: ---------- listen-on: any package-name: bind9 port: 53 version: 9.9.5 Since both pillar SLS files contained a bind key which contained a nested dictionary, the pillar dictionary's bind key contains the combined contents of both SLS files' bind keys. Including Other Pillars New in version 0.16.0. Pillar SLS files may include other pillar files, similar to State files. Two syntaxes are available for this purpose. The simple form simply includes the additional pillar as if it were part of the same file: include: - users The full include form allows two additional options -- passing default values to the tem‐ plating engine for the included pillar file as well as an optional key under which to nest the results of the included pillar: include: - users: defaults: sudo: ['bob', 'paul'] key: users With this form, the included file (users.sls) will be nested within the 'users' key of the compiled pillar. Additionally, the 'sudo' value will be available as a template variable to users.sls. In-Memory Pillar Data vs. On-Demand Pillar Data Since compiling pillar data is computationally expensive, the minion will maintain a copy of the pillar data in memory to avoid needing to ask the master to recompile and send it a copy of the pillar data each time pillar data is requested. This in-memory pillar data is what is returned by the pillar.item, pillar.get, and pillar.raw functions. Also, for those writing custom execution modules, or contributing to Salt's existing exe‐ cution modules, the in-memory pillar data is available as the __pillar__ dunder dictio‐ nary. The in-memory pillar data is generated on minion start, and can be refreshed using the saltutil.refresh_pillar function: salt '*' saltutil.refresh_pillar This function triggers the minion to asynchronously refresh the in-memory pillar data and will always return None. In contrast to in-memory pillar data, certain actions trigger pillar data to be compiled to ensure that the most up-to-date pillar data is available. These actions include: · Running states · Running pillar.items Performing these actions will not refresh the in-memory pillar data. So, if pillar data is modified, and then states are run, the states will see the updated pillar data, but pil‐ lar.item, pillar.get, and pillar.raw will not see this data unless refreshed using saltutil.refresh_pillar. How Pillar Environments Are Handled When multiple pillar environments are used, the default behavior is for the pillar data from all environments to be merged together. The pillar dictionary will therefore contain keys from all configured environments. The pillarenv minion config option can be used to force the minion to only consider pillar configuration from a single environment. This can be useful in cases where one needs to run states with alternate pillar data, either in a testing/QA environment or to test changes to the pillar data before pushing them live. For example, assume that the following is set in the minion config file: pillarenv: base This would cause that minion to ignore all other pillar environments besides base when compiling the in-memory pillar data. Then, when running states, the pillarenv CLI argument can be used to override the minion's pillarenv config value: salt '*' state.apply mystates pillarenv=testing The above command will run the states with pillar data sourced exclusively from the test‐ ing environment, without modifying the in-memory pillar data. NOTE: When running states, the pillarenv CLI option does not require a pillarenv option to be set in the minion config file. When pillarenv is left unset, as mentioned above all configured environments will be combined. Running states with pillarenv=testing in this case would still restrict the states' pillar data to just that of the testing pillar environment. Starting in the 2017.7.0 release, it is possible to pin the pillarenv to the effective saltenv, using the pillarenv_from_saltenv minion config option. When this is set to True, if a specific saltenv is specified when running states, the pillarenv will be the same. This essentially makes the following two commands equivalent: salt '*' state.apply mystates saltenv=dev salt '*' state.apply mystates saltenv=dev pillarenv=dev However, if a pillarenv is specified, it will override this behavior. So, the following command will use the qa pillar environment but source the SLS files from the dev saltenv: salt '*' state.apply mystates saltenv=dev pillarenv=qa So, if a pillarenv is set in the minion config file, pillarenv_from_saltenv will be ignored, and passing a pillarenv on the CLI will temporarily override pil‐ larenv_from_saltenv. Viewing Pillar Data To view pillar data, use the pillar execution module. This module includes several func‐ tions, each of them with their own use. These functions include: · pillar.item - Retrieves the value of one or more keys from the in-memory pillar datj. · pillar.items - Compiles a fresh pillar dictionary and returns it, leaving the in-memory pillar data untouched. If pillar keys are passed to this function however, this function acts like pillar.item and returns their values from the in-memory pillar data. · pillar.raw - Like pillar.items, it returns the entire pillar dictionary, but from the in-memory pillar data instead of compiling fresh pillar data. · pillar.get - Described in detail below. The pillar.get Function New in version 0.14.0. The pillar.get function works much in the same way as the get method in a python dict, but with an enhancement: nested dictonaries can be traversed using a colon as a delimiter. If a structure like this is in pillar: foo: bar: baz: qux Extracting it from the raw pillar in an sls formula or file template is done this way: {{ pillar['foo']['bar']['baz'] }} Now, with the new pillar.get function the data can be safely gathered and a default can be set, allowing the template to fall back if the value is not available: {{ salt['pillar.get']('foo:bar:baz', 'qux') }} This makes handling nested structures much easier. NOTE: pillar.get() vs salt['pillar.get']() It should be noted that within templating, the pillar variable is just a dictionary. This means that calling pillar.get() inside of a template will just use the default dictionary .get() function which does not include the extra : delimiter functionality. It must be called using the above syntax (salt['pillar.get']('foo:bar:baz', 'qux')) to get the salt function, instead of the default dictionary behavior. Setting Pillar Data at the Command Line Pillar data can be set at the command line like the following example: salt '*' state.apply pillar='{"cheese": "spam"}' This will add a pillar key of cheese with its value set to spam. NOTE: Be aware that when sending sensitive data via pillar on the command-line that the pub‐ lication containing that data will be received by all minions and will not be restricted to the targeted minions. This may represent a security concern in some cases. Pillar Encryption Salt's renderer system can be used to decrypt pillar data. This allows for pillar items to be stored in an encrypted state, and decrypted during pillar compilation. Encrypted Pillar SLS New in version 2017.7.0. Consider the following pillar SLS file: secrets: vault: foo: | -----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE----- hQEMAw2B674HRhwSAQgAhTrN8NizwUv/VunVrqa4/X8t6EUulrnhKcSeb8sZS4th W1Qz3K2NjL4lkUHCQHKZVx/VoZY7zsddBIFvvoGGfj8+2wjkEDwFmFjGE4DEsS74 ZLRFIFJC1iB/O0AiQ+oU745skQkU6OEKxqavmKMrKo3rvJ8ZCXDC470+i2/Hqrp7 +KWGmaDOO422JaSKRm5D9bQZr9oX7KqnrPG9I1+UbJyQSJdsdtquPWmeIpamEVHb VMDNQRjSezZ1yKC4kCWm3YQbBF76qTHzG1VlLF5qOzuGI9VkyvlMaLfMibriqY73 zBbPzf6Bkp2+Y9qyzuveYMmwS4sEOuZL/PetqisWe9JGAWD/O+slQ2KRu9hNww06 KMDPJRdyj5bRuBVE4hHkkP23KrYr7SuhW2vpe7O/MvWEJ9uDNegpMLhTWruGngJh iFndxegN9w== =bAuo -----END PGP MESSAGE----- bar: this was unencrypted already baz: | -----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE----- hQEMAw2B674HRhwSAQf+Ne+IfsP2IcPDrUWct8sTJrga47jQvlPCmO+7zJjOVcqz gLjUKvMajrbI/jorBWxyAbF+5E7WdG9WHHVnuoywsyTB9rbmzuPqYCJCe+ZVyqWf 9qgJ+oUjcvYIFmH3h7H68ldqbxaAUkAOQbTRHdr253wwaTIC91ZeX0SCj64HfTg7 Izwk383CRWonEktXJpientApQFSUWNeLUWagEr/YPNFA3vzpPF5/Ia9X8/z/6oO2 q+D5W5mVsns3i2HHbg2A8Y+pm4TWnH6mTSh/gdxPqssi9qIrzGQ6H1tEoFFOEq1V kJBe0izlfudqMq62XswzuRB4CYT5Iqw1c97T+1RqENJCASG0Wz8AGhinTdlU5iQl JkLKqBxcBz4L70LYWyHhYwYROJWjHgKAywX5T67ftq0wi8APuZl9olnOkwSK+wrY 1OZi =7epf -----END PGP MESSAGE----- qux: - foo - bar - | -----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE----- hQEMAw2B674HRhwSAQgAg1YCmokrweoOI1c9HO0BLamWBaFPTMblOaTo0WJLZoTS ksbQ3OJAMkrkn3BnnM/djJc5C7vNs86ZfSJ+pvE8Sp1Rhtuxh25EKMqGOn/SBedI gR6N5vGUNiIpG5Tf3DuYAMNFDUqw8uY0MyDJI+ZW3o3xrMUABzTH0ew+Piz85FDA YrVgwZfqyL+9OQuu6T66jOIdwQNRX2NPFZqvon8liZUPus5VzD8E5cAL9OPxQ3sF f7/zE91YIXUTimrv3L7eCgU1dSxKhhfvA2bEUi+AskMWFXFuETYVrIhFJAKnkFmE uZx+O9R9hADW3hM5hWHKH9/CRtb0/cC84I9oCWIQPdI+AaPtICxtsD2N8Q98hhhd 4M7I0sLZhV+4ZJqzpUsOnSpaGyfh1Zy/1d3ijJi99/l+uVHuvmMllsNmgR+ZTj0= =LrCQ -----END PGP MESSAGE----- When the pillar data is compiled, the results will be decrypted: # salt myminion pillar.items myminion: ---------- secrets: ---------- vault: ---------- bar: this was unencrypted already baz: rosebud foo: supersecret qux: - foo - bar - baz Salt must be told what portions of the pillar data to decrypt. This is done using the decrypt_pillar config option: decrypt_pillar: - 'secrets:vault': gpg The notation used to specify the pillar item(s) to be decrypted is the same as the one used in pillar.get function. If a different delimiter is needed, it can be specified using the decrypt_pillar_delimiter config option: decrypt_pillar: - 'secrets|vault': gpg decrypt_pillar_delimiter: '|' The name of the renderer used to decrypt a given pillar item can be omitted, and if so it will fall back to the value specified by the decrypt_pillar_default config option, which defaults to gpg. So, the first example above could be rewritten as: decrypt_pillar: - 'secrets:vault' Encrypted Pillar Data on the CLI New in version 2016.3.0. The following functions support passing pillar data on the CLI via the pillar argument: · pillar.items · state.apply · state.highstate · state.sls Triggerring decryption of this CLI pillar data can be done in one of two ways: 1. Using the pillar_enc argument: # salt myminion pillar.items pillar_enc=gpg pillar='{foo: "-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----\ ↲ n\nhQEMAw2B674HRhwSAQf+OvPqEdDoA2fk15I5dYUTDoj1yf/pVolAma6iU4v8Zixn\nRDgWsaAnFz99FEiFACsAGDEFdZaVOxG80T0Lj+PnW4pVy0OXmXHnY2KjV9zx8FLS\nQxfvmhRR4t23WSFybozfMm0lsN8r1vfBBjbK+A72l0oxN78d1rybJ6PWNZiXi+aC\nmqIeunIbAKQ21w/OvZHhxH7cnIiGQIHc7N9nQH7ibyoKQzQMSZeilSMGr2abAHun\nmLzscr4wKMb+81Z0/fdBfP6g3bLWMJga3hSzSldU9ovu7KR8rDJI1qOlENj3Wm8C\nwTpDOB33kWIKMqiAjY3JFtb5MCHrafyggwQL7cX1+tI+AbSO6kZpbcDfzetb77LZ\nxc5NWnnGK4pGoqq4MAmZshw98RpecSHKMosto2gtiuWCuo9Zn5cV/FbjZ9CTWrQ=\n=0hO/\n-----END PGP MESSAGE-----"}' The newlines in this example are specified using a literal \n. Newlines can be replaced with a literal \n using sed: $ echo -n bar | gpg --armor --trust-model always --encrypt -r @domain.tld | sed ':a ↲ ;N;$!ba;s/\n/\\n/g' NOTE: Using pillar_enc will perform the decryption minion-side, so for this to work it will be necessary to set up the keyring in /etc/salt/gpgkeys on the minion just as one would typically do on the master. The easiest way to do this is to first export the keys from the master: # gpg --homedir /etc/salt/gpgkeys --export-secret-key -a @domain.tld >/tmp/keyp ↲ air.gpg Then, copy the file to the minion, setup the keyring, and import: # mkdir -p /etc/salt/gpgkeys # chmod 0700 /etc/salt/gpgkeys # gpg --homedir /etc/salt/gpgkeys --list-keys # gpg --homedir /etc/salt/gpgkeys --import --allow-secret-key-import keypair.gpg The --list-keys command is run create a keyring in the newly-created directory. Pillar data which is decrypted minion-side will still be securely transferred to the master, since the data sent between minion and master is encrypted with the master's public key. 2. Use the decrypt_pillar option. This is less flexible in that the pillar key passed on the CLI must be pre-configured on the master, but it doesn't require a keyring to be setup on the minion. One other caveat to this method is that pillar decryption on the master happens at the end of pillar compilation, so if the encrypted pillar data being passed on the CLI needs to be referenced by pillar or ext_pillar during pillar compila‐ tion, it must be decrypted minion-side. Adding New Renderers for Decryption Those looking to add new renderers for decryption should look at the gpg renderer for an example of how to do so. The function that performs the decryption should be recursive and be able to traverse a mutable type such as a dictionary, and modify the values in-place. Once the renderer has been written, decrypt_pillar_renderers should be modified so that Salt allows it to be used for decryption. If the renderer is being submitted upstream to the Salt project, the renderer should be added in salt/renderers/. Additionally, the following should be done: · Both occurrences of decrypt_pillar_renderers in salt/config/__init__.py should be updated to include the name of the new renderer so that it is included in the default value for this config option. · The documentation for the decrypt_pillar_renderers config option in the master config file and minion config file should be updated to show the correct new default value. · The commented example for the decrypt_pillar_renderers config option in the master con‐ fig template should be updated to show the correct new default value. Master Config in Pillar For convenience the data stored in the master configuration file can be made available in all minion's pillars. This makes global configuration of services and systems very easy but may not be desired if sensitive data is stored in the master configuration. This option is disabled by default. To enable the master config from being added to the pillar set pillar_opts to True in the minion config file: pillar_opts: True Minion Config in Pillar Minion configuration options can be set on pillars. Any option that you want to modify, should be in the first level of the pillars, in the same way you set the options in the config file. For example, to configure the MySQL root password to be used by MySQL Salt execution module, set the following pillar variable: mysql.pass: hardtoguesspassword Master Provided Pillar Error By default if there is an error rendering a pillar, the detailed error is hidden and replaced with: Rendering SLS 'my.sls' failed. Please see master log for details. The error is protected because it's possible to contain templating data which would give that minion information it shouldn't know, like a password! To have the master provide the detailed error that could potentially carry protected data set pillar_safe_render_error to False: pillar_safe_render_error: False Pillar Walkthrough NOTE: This walkthrough assumes that the reader has already completed the initial Salt walk‐ through. Pillars are tree-like structures of data defined on the Salt Master and passed through to minions. They allow confidential, targeted data to be securely sent only to the relevant minion. NOTE: Grains and Pillar are sometimes confused, just remember that Grains are data about a minion which is stored or generated from the minion. This is why information like the OS and CPU type are found in Grains. Pillar is information about a minion or many min‐ ions stored or generated on the Salt Master. Pillar data is useful for: Highly Sensitive Data: Information transferred via pillar is guaranteed to only be presented to the min‐ ions that are targeted, making Pillar suitable for managing security information, such as cryptographic keys and passwords. Minion Configuration: Minion modules such as the execution modules, states, and returners can often be configured via data stored in pillar. Variables: Variables which need to be assigned to specific minions or groups of minions can be defined in pillar and then accessed inside sls formulas and template files. Arbitrary Data: Pillar can contain any basic data structure in dictionary format, so a key/value store can be defined making it easy to iterate over a group of values in sls formu‐ las. Pillar is therefore one of the most important systems when using Salt. This walkthrough is designed to get a simple Pillar up and running in a few minutes and then to dive into the capabilities of Pillar and where the data is available. Setting Up Pillar The pillar is already running in Salt by default. To see the minion's pillar data: salt '*' pillar.items NOTE: Prior to version 0.16.2, this function is named pillar.data. This function name is still supported for backwards compatibility. By default, the contents of the master configuration file are not loaded into pillar for all minions. This default is stored in the pillar_opts setting, which defaults to False. The contents of the master configuration file can be made available to minion pillar files. This makes global configuration of services and systems very easy, but note that this may not be desired or appropriate if sensitive data is stored in the master's config‐ uration file. To enable the master configuration file to be available to a minion's pillar files, set pillar_opts to True in the minion configuration file. Similar to the state tree, the pillar is comprised of sls files and has a top file. The default location for the pillar is in /srv/pillar. NOTE: The pillar location can be configured via the pillar_roots option inside the master configuration file. It must not be in a subdirectory of the state tree or file_roots. If the pillar is under file_roots, any pillar targeting can be bypassed by minions. To start setting up the pillar, the /srv/pillar directory needs to be present: mkdir /srv/pillar Now create a simple top file, following the same format as the top file used for states: /srv/pillar/top.sls: base: '*': - data This top file associates the data.sls file to all minions. Now the /srv/pillar/data.sls file needs to be populated: /srv/pillar/data.sls: info: some data To ensure that the minions have the new pillar data, issue a command to them asking that they fetch their pillars from the master: salt '*' saltutil.refresh_pillar Now that the minions have the new pillar, it can be retrieved: salt '*' pillar.items The key info should now appear in the returned pillar data. More Complex Data Unlike states, pillar files do not need to define formulas. This example sets up user data with a UID: /srv/pillar/users/init.sls: users: thatch: 1000 shouse: 1001 utahdave: 1002 redbeard: 1003 NOTE: The same directory lookups that exist in states exist in pillar, so the file users/init.sls can be referenced with users in the top file. The top file will need to be updated to include this sls file: /srv/pillar/top.sls: base: '*': - data - users Now the data will be available to the minions. To use the pillar data in a state, you can use Jinja: /srv/salt/users/init.sls {% for user, uid in pillar.get('users', {}).items() %} {{user}}: user.present: - uid: {{uid}} {% endfor %} This approach allows for users to be safely defined in a pillar and then the user data is applied in an sls file. Parameterizing States With Pillar Pillar data can be accessed in state files to customise behavior for each minion. All pil‐ lar (and grain) data applicable to each minion is substituted into the state files through templating before being run. Typical uses include setting directories appropriate for the minion and skipping states that don't apply. A simple example is to set up a mapping of package names in pillar for separate Linux dis‐ tributions: /srv/pillar/pkg/init.sls: pkgs: {% if grains['os_family'] == 'RedHat' %} apache: httpd vim: vim-enhanced {% elif grains['os_family'] == 'Debian' %} apache: apache2 vim: vim {% elif grains['os'] == 'Arch' %} apache: apache vim: vim {% endif %} The new pkg sls needs to be added to the top file: /srv/pillar/top.sls: base: '*': - data - users - pkg Now the minions will auto map values based on respective operating systems inside of the pillar, so sls files can be safely parameterized: /srv/salt/apache/init.sls: apache: pkg.installed: - name: {{ pillar['pkgs']['apache'] }} Or, if no pillar is available a default can be set as well: NOTE: The function pillar.get used in this example was added to Salt in version 0.14.0 /srv/salt/apache/init.sls: apache: pkg.installed: - name: {{ salt['pillar.get']('pkgs:apache', 'httpd') }} In the above example, if the pillar value pillar['pkgs']['apache'] is not set in the min‐ ion's pillar, then the default of httpd will be used. NOTE: Under the hood, pillar is just a Python dict, so Python dict methods such as get and items can be used. Pillar Makes Simple States Grow Easily One of the design goals of pillar is to make simple sls formulas easily grow into more flexible formulas without refactoring or complicating the states. A simple formula: /srv/salt/edit/vim.sls: vim: pkg.installed: [] /etc/vimrc: file.managed: - source: salt://edit/vimrc - mode: 644 - user: root - group: root - require: - pkg: vim Can be easily transformed into a powerful, parameterized formula: /srv/salt/edit/vim.sls: vim: pkg.installed: - name: {{ pillar['pkgs']['vim'] }} /etc/vimrc: file.managed: - source: {{ pillar['vimrc'] }} - mode: 644 - user: root - group: root - require: - pkg: vim Where the vimrc source location can now be changed via pillar: /srv/pillar/edit/vim.sls: {% if grains['id'].startswith('dev') %} vimrc: salt://edit/dev_vimrc {% elif grains['id'].startswith('qa') %} vimrc: salt://edit/qa_vimrc {% else %} vimrc: salt://edit/vimrc {% endif %} Ensuring that the right vimrc is sent out to the correct minions. The pillar top file must include a reference to the new sls pillar file: /srv/pillar/top.sls: base: '*': - pkg - edit.vim Setting Pillar Data on the Command Line Pillar data can be set on the command line when running state.apply <salt.mod‐ ules.state.apply_() like so: salt '*' state.apply pillar='{"foo": "bar"}' salt '*' state.apply my_sls_file pillar='{"hello": "world"}' Nested pillar values can also be set via the command line: salt '*' state.sls my_sls_file pillar='{"foo": {"bar": "baz"}}' NOTE: If a key is passed on the command line that already exists on the minion, the key that is passed in will overwrite the entire value of that key, rather than merging only the specified value set via the command line. The example below will swap the value for vim with telnet in the previously specified list, notice the nested pillar dict: salt '*' state.apply edit.vim pillar='{"pkgs": {"vim": "telnet"}}' This will attempt to install telnet on your minions, feel free to uninstall the package or replace telnet value with anything else. NOTE: Be aware that when sending sensitive data via pillar on the command-line that the pub‐ lication containing that data will be received by all minions and will not be restricted to the targeted minions. This may represent a security concern in some cases. More On Pillar Pillar data is generated on the Salt master and securely distributed to minions. Salt is not restricted to the pillar sls files when defining the pillar but can retrieve data from external sources. This can be useful when information about an infrastructure is stored in a separate location. Reference information on pillar and the external pillar interface can be found in the Salt documentation: Pillar Minion Config in Pillar Minion configuration options can be set on pillars. Any option that you want to modify, should be in the first level of the pillars, in the same way you set the options in the config file. For example, to configure the MySQL root password to be used by MySQL Salt execution module: mysql.pass: hardtoguesspassword This is very convenient when you need some dynamic configuration change that you want to be applied on the fly. For example, there is a chicken and the egg problem if you do this: mysql-admin-passwd: mysql_user.present: - name: root - password: somepasswd mydb: mysql_db.present The second state will fail, because you changed the root password and the minion didn't notice it. Setting mysql.pass in the pillar, will help to sort out the issue. But always change the root admin password in the first place. This is very helpful for any module that needs credentials to apply state changes: mysql, keystone, etc. Targeting Minions Targeting minions is specifying which minions should run a command or execute a state by matching against hostnames, or system information, or defined groups, or even combinations thereof. For example the command salt web1 apache.signal restart to restart the Apache httpd server specifies the machine web1 as the target and the command will only be run on that one min‐ ion. Similarly when using States, the following top file specifies that only the web1 minion should execute the contents of webserver.sls: base: 'web1': - webserver The simple target specifications, glob, regex, and list will cover many use cases, and for some will cover all use cases, but more powerful options exist. Targeting with Grains The Grains interface was built into Salt to allow minions to be targeted by system proper‐ ties. So minions running on a particular operating system can be called to execute a func‐ tion, or a specific kernel. Calling via a grain is done by passing the -G option to salt, specifying a grain and a glob expression to match the value of the grain. The syntax for the target is the grain key followed by a glob expression: "os:Arch*". salt -G 'os:Fedora' test.ping Will return True from all of the minions running Fedora. To discover what grains are available and what the values are, execute the grains.item salt function: salt '*' grains.items More info on using targeting with grains can be found here. Compound Targeting New in version 0.9.5. Multiple target interfaces can be used in conjunction to determine the command targets. These targets can then be combined using and or or statements. This is well defined with an example: salt -C 'G@os:Debian and webser* or E@db.*' test.ping In this example any minion who's id starts with webser and is running Debian, or any min‐ ion who's id starts with db will be matched. The type of matcher defaults to glob, but can be specified with the corresponding letter followed by the @ symbol. In the above example a grain is used with G@ as well as a regu‐ lar expression with E@. The webser* target does not need to be prefaced with a target type specifier because it is a glob. More info on using compound targeting can be found here. Node Group Targeting New in version 0.9.5. For certain cases, it can be convenient to have a predefined group of minions on which to execute commands. This can be accomplished using what are called nodegroups. Nodegroups allow for predefined compound targets to be declared in the master configuration file, as a sort of shorthand for having to type out complicated compound expressions. nodegroups: group1: '@foo.domain.com,bar.domain.com,baz.domain.com and bl*.domain.com' group2: 'G@os:Debian and foo.domain.com' group3: 'G@os:Debian and N@group1' Advanced Targeting Methods There are many ways to target individual minions or groups of minions in Salt: Matching the minion id Each minion needs a unique identifier. By default when a minion starts for the first time it chooses its FQDN as that identifier. The minion id can be overridden via the minion's id configuration setting. TIP: minion id and minion keys The minion id is used to generate the minion's public/private keys and if it ever changes the master must then accept the new key as though the minion was a new host. Globbing The default matching that Salt utilizes is shell-style globbing around the minion id. This also works for states in the top file. NOTE: You must wrap salt calls that use globbing in single-quotes to prevent the shell from expanding the globs before Salt is invoked. Match all minions: salt '*' test.ping Match all minions in the example.net domain or any of the example domains: salt '*.example.net' test.ping salt '*.example.*' test.ping Match all the webN minions in the example.net domain (web1.example.net, web2.example.net … webN.example.net): salt 'web?.example.net' test.ping Match the web1 through web5 minions: salt 'web[1-5]' test.ping Match the web1 and web3 minions: salt 'web[1,3]' test.ping Match the web-x, web-y, and web-z minions: salt 'web-[x-z]' test.ping NOTE: For additional targeting methods please review the compound matchers documentation. Regular Expressions Minions can be matched using Perl-compatible regular expressions (which is globbing on steroids and a ton of caffeine). Match both web1-prod and web1-devel minions: salt -E 'web1-(prod|devel)' test.ping When using regular expressions in a State's top file, you must specify the matcher as the first option. The following example executes the contents of webserver.sls on the above-mentioned minions. base: 'web1-(prod|devel)': - match: pcre - webserver Lists At the most basic level, you can specify a flat list of minion IDs: salt -L 'web1,web2,web3' test.ping Targeting using Grains Grain data can be used when targeting minions. For example, the following matches all CentOS minions: salt -G 'os:CentOS' test.ping Match all minions with 64-bit CPUs, and return number of CPU cores for each matching min‐ ion: salt -G 'cpuarch:x86_64' grains.item num_cpus Additionally, globs can be used in grain matches, and grains that are nested in a dictio‐ nary can be matched by adding a colon for each level that is traversed. For example, the following will match hosts that have a grain called ec2_tags, which itself is a dict with a key named environment, which has a value that contains the word production: salt -G 'ec2_tags:environment:*production*' IMPORTANT: See Is Targeting using Grain Data Secure? for important security information. Targeting using Pillar Pillar data can be used when targeting minions. This allows for ultimate control and flex‐ ibility when targeting minions. NOTE: To start using Pillar targeting it is required to make a Pillar data cache on Salt Mas‐ ter for each Minion via following commands: salt '*' saltutil.refresh_pillar or salt '*' saltutil.sync_all. Also Pillar data cache will be populated during the highstate run. Once Pillar data changes, you must refresh the cache by running above commands for this targeting method to work correctly. Example: salt -I 'somekey:specialvalue' test.ping Like with Grains, it is possible to use globbing as well as match nested values in Pillar, by adding colons for each level that is being traversed. The below example would match minions with a pillar named foo, which is a dict containing a key bar, with a value begin‐ ning with baz: salt -I 'foo:bar:baz*' test.ping Subnet/IP Address Matching Minions can easily be matched based on IP address, or by subnet (using CIDR notation). salt -S 192.168.40.20 test.ping salt -S 2001:db8::/64 test.ping Ipcidr matching can also be used in compound matches salt -C 'S@10.0.0.0/24 and G@os:Debian' test.ping It is also possible to use in both pillar and state-matching '172.16.0.0/12': - match: ipcidr - internal Compound matchers Compound matchers allow very granular minion targeting using any of Salt's matchers. The default matcher is a glob match, just as with CLI and top file matching. To match using anything other than a glob, prefix the match string with the appropriate letter from the table below, followed by an @ sign. ┌───────┬───────────────────┬──────────────────────────────┬────────────────┐ │Letter │ Match Type │ Example │ Alt Delimiter? │ ├───────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┼────────────────┤ │G │ Grains glob │ G@os:Ubuntu │ Yes │ ├───────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┼────────────────┤ │E │ PCRE Minion ID │ E@web\d+\.(dev|qa|prod)\.loc │ No │ ├───────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┼────────────────┤ │P │ Grains PCRE │ P@os:(RedHat|Fedora|CentOS) │ Yes │ ├───────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┼────────────────┤ │L │ List of minions │ @minion1.example.com,min‐ │ No │ │ │ │ ion3.domain.com or │ │ │ │ │ bl*.domain.com │ │ ├───────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┼────────────────┤ │I │ Pillar glob │ I@pdata:foobar │ Yes │ ├───────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┼────────────────┤ │J │ Pillar PCRE │ J@pdata:^(foo|bar)$ │ Yes │ ├───────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┼────────────────┤ │S │ Subnet/IP address │ S@192.168.1.0/24 or │ No │ │ │ │ S@192.168.1.100 │ │ ├───────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────────────┼────────────────┤ │R │ Range cluster │ R@%foo.bar │ No │ └───────┴───────────────────┴──────────────────────────────┴────────────────┘ Matchers can be joined using boolean and, or, and not operators. For example, the following string matches all Debian minions with a hostname that begins with webserv, as well as any minions that have a hostname which matches the regular expression web-dc1-srv.*: salt -C 'webserv* and G@os:Debian or E@web-dc1-srv.*' test.ping That same example expressed in a top file looks like the following: base: 'webserv* and G@os:Debian or E@web-dc1-srv.*': - match: compound - webserver New in version 2015.8.0. Excluding a minion based on its ID is also possible: salt -C 'not web-dc1-srv' test.ping Versions prior to 2015.8.0 a leading not was not supported in compound matches. Instead, something like the following was required: salt -C '* and not G@kernel:Darwin' test.ping Excluding a minion based on its ID was also possible: salt -C '* and not web-dc1-srv' test.ping Precedence Matching Matchers can be grouped together with parentheses to explicitly declare precedence amongst groups. salt -C '( ms-1 or G@id:ms-3 ) and G@id:ms-3' test.ping NOTE: Be certain to note that spaces are required between the parentheses and targets. Fail‐ ing to obey this rule may result in incorrect targeting! Alternate Delimiters New in version 2015.8.0. Matchers that target based on a key value pair use a colon (:) as a delimiter. Matchers with a Yes in the Alt Delimiters column in the previous table support specifying an alter‐ nate delimiter character. This is done by specifying an alternate delimiter character between the leading matcher character and the @ pattern separator character. This avoids incorrect interpretation of the pattern in the case that : is part of the grain or pillar data structure traversal. salt -C 'J|@foo|bar|^foo:bar$ or J!@gitrepo!https://github.com:example/project.git' test.p ↲ ing Node groups Nodegroups are declared using a compound target specification. The compound target docu‐ mentation can be found here. The nodegroups master config file parameter is used to define nodegroups. Here's an exam‐ ple nodegroup configuration within /etc/salt/master: nodegroups: group1: '@foo.domain.com,bar.domain.com,baz.domain.com or bl*.domain.com' group2: 'G@os:Debian and foo.domain.com' group3: 'G@os:Debian and N@group1' group4: - 'G@foo:bar' - 'or' - 'G@foo:baz' NOTE: The L within group1 is matching a list of minions, while the G in group2 is matching specific grains. See the compound matchers documentation for more details. As of the 2017.7.0 release of Salt, group names can also be prepended with a dash. This brings the usage in line with many other areas of Salt. For example: nodegroups: - group1: '@foo.domain.com,bar.domain.com,baz.domain.com or bl*.domain.com' New in version 2015.8.0. NOTE: Nodegroups can reference other nodegroups as seen in group3. Ensure that you do not have circular references. Circular references will be detected and cause partial expansion with a logged error message. New in version 2015.8.0. Compound nodegroups can be either string values or lists of string values. When the node‐ group is A string value will be tokenized by splitting on whitespace. This may be a prob‐ lem if whitespace is necessary as part of a pattern. When a nodegroup is a list of strings then tokenization will happen for each list element as a whole. To match a nodegroup on the CLI, use the -N command-line option: salt -N group1 test.ping NOTE: The N@ classifier cannot be used in compound matches within the CLI or top file, it is only recognized in the nodegroups master config file parameter. To match a nodegroup in your top file, make sure to put - match: nodegroup on the line directly following the nodegroup name. base: group1: - match: nodegroup - webserver NOTE: When adding or modifying nodegroups to a master configuration file, the master must be restarted for those changes to be fully recognized. A limited amount of functionality, such as targeting with -N from the command-line may be available without a restart. Defining Nodegroups as Lists of Minion IDs A simple list of minion IDs would traditionally be defined like this: nodegroups: group1: L@host1,host2,host3 They can now also be defined as a YAML list, like this: nodegroups: group1: - host1 - host2 - host3 New in version 2016.11.0. Batch Size The -b (or --batch-size) option allows commands to be executed on only a specified number of minions at a time. Both percentages and finite numbers are supported. salt '*' -b 10 test.ping salt -G 'os:RedHat' --batch-size 25% apache.signal restart This will only run test.ping on 10 of the targeted minions at a time and then restart apache on 25% of the minions matching os:RedHat at a time and work through them all until the task is complete. This makes jobs like rolling web server restarts behind a load bal‐ ancer or doing maintenance on BSD firewalls using carp much easier with salt. The batch system maintains a window of running minions, so, if there are a total of 150 minions targeted and the batch size is 10, then the command is sent to 10 minions, when one minion returns then the command is sent to one additional minion, so that the job is constantly running on 10 minions. New in version 2016.3. The --batch-wait argument can be used to specify a number of seconds to wait after a min‐ ion returns, before sending the command to a new minion. SECO Range SECO range is a cluster-based metadata store developed and maintained by Yahoo! The Range project is hosted here: https://github.com/ytoolshed/range Learn more about range here: https://github.com/ytoolshed/range/wiki/ Prerequisites To utilize range support in Salt, a range server is required. Setting up a range server is outside the scope of this document. Apache modules are included in the range distribution. With a working range server, cluster files must be defined. These files are written in YAML and define hosts contained inside a cluster. Full documentation on writing YAML range files is here: https://github.com/ytoolshed/range/wiki/%22yamlfile%22-module-file-spec Additionally, the Python seco range libraries must be installed on the salt master. One can verify that they have been installed correctly via the following command: python -c 'import seco.range' If no errors are returned, range is installed successfully on the salt master. Preparing Salt Range support must be enabled on the salt master by setting the hostname and port of the range server inside the master configuration file: range_server: my.range.server.com:80 Following this, the master must be restarted for the change to have an effect. Targeting with Range Once a cluster has been defined, it can be targeted with a salt command by using the -R or --range flags. For example, given the following range YAML file being served from a range server: $ cat /etc/range/test.yaml CLUSTER: host1..100.test.com APPS: - frontend - backend - mysql One might target host1 through host100 in the test.com domain with Salt as follows: salt --range %test:CLUSTER test.ping The following salt command would target three hosts: frontend, backend, and mysql: salt --range %test:APPS test.ping The Salt Mine The Salt Mine is used to collect arbitrary data from Minions and store it on the Master. This data is then made available to all Minions via the salt.modules.mine module. Mine data is gathered on the Minion and sent back to the Master where only the most recent data is maintained (if long term data is required use returners or the external job cache). Mine vs Grains Mine data is designed to be much more up-to-date than grain data. Grains are refreshed on a very limited basis and are largely static data. Mines are designed to replace slow peer publishing calls when Minions need data from other Minions. Rather than having a Minion reach out to all the other Minions for a piece of data, the Salt Mine, running on the Mas‐ ter, can collect it from all the Minions every Mine Interval, resulting in almost fresh data at any given time, with much less overhead. Mine Functions To enable the Salt Mine the mine_functions option needs to be applied to a Minion. This option can be applied via the Minion's configuration file, or the Minion's Pillar. The mine_functions option dictates what functions are being executed and allows for arguments to be passed in. The list of functions are available in the salt.module. If no arguments are passed, an empty list must be added like in the test.ping function in the example below: mine_functions: test.ping: [] network.ip_addrs: interface: eth0 cidr: '10.0.0.0/8' In the example above salt.modules.network.ip_addrs has additional filters to help narrow down the results. In the above example IP addresses are only returned if they are on a eth0 interface and in the 10.0.0.0/8 IP range. Mine Functions Aliases Function aliases can be used to provide friendly names, usage intentions or to allow mul‐ tiple calls of the same function with different arguments. There is a different syntax for passing positional and key-value arguments. Mixing positional and key-value arguments is not supported. New in version 2014.7.0. mine_functions: network.ip_addrs: [eth0] networkplus.internal_ip_addrs: [] internal_ip_addrs: mine_function: network.ip_addrs cidr: 192.168.0.0/16 ip_list: - mine_function: grains.get - ip_interfaces Mine Interval The Salt Mine functions are executed when the Minion starts and at a given interval by the scheduler. The default interval is every 60 minutes and can be adjusted for the Minion via the mine_interval option: mine_interval: 60 Mine in Salt-SSH As of the 2015.5.0 release of salt, salt-ssh supports mine.get. Because the Minions cannot provide their own mine_functions configuration, we retrieve the args for specified mine functions in one of three places, searched in the following order: 1. Roster data 2. Pillar 3. Master config The mine_functions are formatted exactly the same as in normal salt, just stored in a dif‐ ferent location. Here is an example of a flat roster containing mine_functions: test: host: 104.237.131.248 user: root mine_functions: cmd.run: ['echo "hello!"'] network.ip_addrs: interface: eth0 NOTE: Because of the differences in the architecture of salt-ssh, mine.get calls are somewhat inefficient. Salt must make a new salt-ssh call to each of the Minions in question to retrieve the requested data, much like a publish call. However, unlike publish, it must run the requested function as a wrapper function, so we can retrieve the function args from the pillar of the Minion in question. This results in a non-trivial delay in retrieving the requested data. Minions Targeting with Mine The mine.get function supports various methods of Minions targeting to fetch Mine data from particular hosts, such as glob or regular expression matching on Minion id (name), grains, pillars and compound matches. See the salt.modules.mine module documentation for the reference. NOTE: Pillar data needs to be cached on Master for pillar targeting to work with Mine. Read the note in relevant section. Example One way to use data from Salt Mine is in a State. The values can be retrieved via Jinja and used in the SLS file. The following example is a partial HAProxy configuration file and pulls IP addresses from all Minions with the "web" grain to add them to the pool of load balanced servers. /srv/pillar/top.sls: base: 'G@roles:web': - web /srv/pillar/web.sls: mine_functions: network.ip_addrs: [eth0] Then trigger the minions to refresh their pillar data by running: salt '*' saltutil.refresh_pillar Verify that the results are showing up in the pillar on the minions by executing the fol‐ lowing and checking for network.ip_addrs in the output: salt '*' pillar.items Which should show that the function is present on the minion, but not include the output: minion1.example.com: ---------- mine_functions: ---------- network.ip_addrs: - eth0 Mine data is typically only updated on the master every 60 minutes, this can be modified by setting: /etc/salt/minion.d/mine.conf: mine_interval: 5 To force the mine data to update immediately run: salt '*' mine.update Setup the salt.states.file.managed state in /srv/salt/haproxy.sls: haproxy_config: file.managed: - name: /etc/haproxy/config - source: salt://haproxy_config - template: jinja Create the Jinja template in /srv/salt/haproxy_config: <...file contents snipped...> {% for server, addrs in salt['mine.get']('roles:web', 'network.ip_addrs', tgt_type='grain' ↲ ) | dictsort() %} server {{ server }} {{ addrs[0] }}:80 check {% endfor %} <...file contents snipped...> In the above example, server will be expanded to the minion_id. NOTE: The expr_form argument will be renamed to tgt_type in the 2017.7.0 release of Salt. Runners Salt runners are convenience applications executed with the salt-run command. Salt runners work similarly to Salt execution modules however they execute on the Salt master itself instead of remote Salt minions. A Salt runner can be a simple client call or a complex application. SEE ALSO: The full list of runners Writing Salt Runners A Salt runner is written in a similar manner to a Salt execution module. Both are Python modules which contain functions and each public function is a runner which may be executed via the salt-run command. For example, if a Python module named test.py is created in the runners directory and con‐ tains a function called foo, the test runner could be invoked with the following command: # salt-run test.foo Runners have several options for controlling output. Any print statement in a runner is automatically also fired onto the master event bus where. For example: def a_runner(outputter=None, display_progress=False): print('Hello world') ... The above would result in an event fired as follows: Event fired at Tue Jan 13 15:26:45 2015 ************************* Tag: salt/run/20150113152644070246/print Data: {'_stamp': '2015-01-13T15:26:45.078707', 'data': 'hello', 'outputter': 'pprint'} A runner may also send a progress event, which is displayed to the user during runner exe‐ cution and is also passed across the event bus if the display_progress argument to a run‐ ner is set to True. A custom runner may send its own progress event by using the __jid_event_.fire_event() method as shown here: if display_progress: __jid_event__.fire_event({'message': 'A progress message'}, 'progress') The above would produce output on the console reading: A progress message as well as an event on the event similar to: Event fired at Tue Jan 13 15:21:20 2015 ************************* Tag: salt/run/20150113152118341421/progress Data: {'_stamp': '2015-01-13T15:21:20.390053', 'message': "A progress message"} A runner could use the same approach to send an event with a customized tag onto the event bus by replacing the second argument (progress) with whatever tag is desired. However, this will not be shown on the command-line and will only be fired onto the event bus. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous A runner may be fired asynchronously which will immediately return control. In this case, no output will be display to the user if salt-run is being used from the command-line. If used programmatically, no results will be returned. If results are desired, they must be gathered either by firing events on the bus from the runner and then watching for them or by some other means. NOTE: When running a runner in asynchronous mode, the --progress flag will not deliver output to the salt-run CLI. However, progress events will still be fired on the bus. In synchronous mode, which is the default, control will not be returned until the runner has finished executing. To add custom runners, put them in a directory and add it to runner_dirs in the master configuration file. Examples Examples of runners can be found in the Salt distribution: https://github.com/saltstack/salt/blob/develop/salt/runners A simple runner that returns a well-formatted list of the minions that are responding to Salt calls could look like this: # Import salt modules import salt.client def up(): ''' Print a list of all of the minions that are up ''' client = salt.client.LocalClient(__opts__['conf_file']) minions = client.cmd('*', 'test.ping', timeout=1) for minion in sorted(minions): print minion Salt Engines New in version 2015.8.0. Salt Engines are long-running, external system processes that leverage Salt. · Engines have access to Salt configuration, execution modules, and runners (__opts__, __salt__, and __runners__). · Engines are executed in a separate process that is monitored by Salt. If a Salt engine stops, it is restarted automatically. · Engines can run on the Salt master and on Salt minions. Salt engines enhance and replace the external processes functionality. Configuration Salt engines are configured under an engines top-level section in your Salt master or Salt minion configuration. Provide a list of engines and parameters under this section. engines: - logstash: host: log.my_network.com port: 5959 proto: tcp Salt engines must be in the Salt path, or you can add the engines_dirs option in your Salt master configuration with a list of directories under which Salt attempts to find Salt engines. This option should be formatted as a list of directories to search, such as: engines_dirs: - /home/bob/engines Writing an Engine An example Salt engine, https://github.com/saltstack/salt/blob/develop/salt/engines/test.py, is available in the Salt source. To develop an engine, the only requirement is that your module implement the start() function. Understanding YAML The default renderer for SLS files is the YAML renderer. YAML is a markup language with many powerful features. However, Salt uses a small subset of YAML that maps over very com‐ monly used data structures, like lists and dictionaries. It is the job of the YAML ren‐ derer to take the YAML data structure and compile it into a Python data structure for use by Salt. Though YAML syntax may seem daunting and terse at first, there are only three very simple rules to remember when writing YAML for SLS files. Rule One: Indentation YAML uses a fixed indentation scheme to represent relationships between data layers. Salt requires that the indentation for each level consists of exactly two spaces. Do not use tabs. Rule Two: Colons Python dictionaries are, of course, simply key-value pairs. Users from other languages may recognize this data type as hashes or associative arrays. Dictionary keys are represented in YAML as strings terminated by a trailing colon. Values are represented by either a string following the colon, separated by a space: my_key: my_value In Python, the above maps to: {'my_key': 'my_value'} Alternatively, a value can be associated with a key through indentation. my_key: my_value NOTE: The above syntax is valid YAML but is uncommon in SLS files because most often, the value for a key is not singular but instead is a list of values. In Python, the above maps to: {'my_key': 'my_value'} Dictionaries can be nested: first_level_dict_key: second_level_dict_key: value_in_second_level_dict And in Python: { 'first_level_dict_key': { 'second_level_dict_key': 'value_in_second_level_dict' } } Rule Three: Dashes To represent lists of items, a single dash followed by a space is used. Multiple items are a part of the same list as a function of their having the same level of indentation. - list_value_one - list_value_two - list_value_three Lists can be the value of a key-value pair. This is quite common in Salt: my_dictionary: - list_value_one - list_value_two - list_value_three In Python, the above maps to: {'my_dictionary': ['list_value_one', 'list_value_two', 'list_value_three']} Learning More One easy way to learn more about how YAML gets rendered into Python data structures is to use an online YAML parser to see the Python output. One excellent choice for experimenting with YAML parsing is: http://yaml-online-parser.appspot.com/ Templating Jinja statements and expressions are allowed by default in SLS files. See Understanding Jinja. Understanding Jinja Jinja is the default templating language in SLS files. Jinja in States Jinja is evaluated before YAML, which means it is evaluated before the States are run. The most basic usage of Jinja in state files is using control structures to wrap condi‐ tional or redundant state elements: {% if grains['os'] != 'FreeBSD' %} tcsh: pkg: - installed {% endif %} motd: file.managed: {% if grains['os'] == 'FreeBSD' %} - name: /etc/motd {% elif grains['os'] == 'Debian' %} - name: /etc/motd.tail {% endif %} - source: salt://motd In this example, the first if block will only be evaluated on minions that aren't running FreeBSD, and the second block changes the file name based on the os grain. Writing if-else blocks can lead to very redundant state files however. In this case, using pillars, or using a previously defined variable might be easier: {% set motd = ['/etc/motd'] %} {% if grains['os'] == 'Debian' %} {% set motd = ['/etc/motd.tail', '/var/run/motd'] %} {% endif %} {% for motdfile in motd %} {{ motdfile }}: file.managed: - source: salt://motd {% endfor %} Using a variable set by the template, the for loop will iterate over the list of MOTD files to update, adding a state block for each file. The filter_by function can also be used to set variables based on grains: {% set auditd = salt['grains.filter_by']({ 'RedHat': { 'package': 'audit' }, 'Debian': { 'package': 'auditd' }, }) %} Include and Import Includes and imports can be used to share common, reusable state configuration between state files and between files. {% from 'lib.sls' import test %} This would import the test template variable or macro, not the test state element, from the file lib.sls. In the case that the included file performs checks against grains, or something else that requires context, passing the context into the included file is required: {% from 'lib.sls' import test with context %} Including Context During Include/Import By adding with context to the include/import directive, the current context can be passed to an included/imported template. {% import 'openssl/vars.sls' as ssl with context %} Macros Macros are helpful for eliminating redundant code. Macros are most useful as mini-tem‐ plates to repeat blocks of strings with a few parameterized variables. Be aware that stripping whitespace from the template block, as well as contained blocks, may be neces‐ sary to emulate a variable return from the macro. # init.sls {% from 'lib.sls' import pythonpkg with context %} python-virtualenv: pkg.installed: - name: {{ pythonpkg('virtualenv') }} python-fabric: pkg.installed: - name: {{ pythonpkg('fabric') }} # lib.sls {% macro pythonpkg(pkg) -%} {%- if grains['os'] == 'FreeBSD' -%} py27-{{ pkg }} {%- elif grains['os'] == 'Debian' -%} python-{{ pkg }} {%- endif -%} {%- endmacro %} This would define a macro that would return a string of the full package name, depending on the packaging system's naming convention. The whitespace of the macro was eliminated, so that the macro would return a string without line breaks, using whitespace control. Template Inheritance Template inheritance works fine from state files and files. The search path starts at the root of the state tree or pillar. Filters Saltstack extends builtin filters with these custom filters: strftime Converts any time related object into a time based string. It requires a valid strftime directives. An exhaustive list can be found in the official Python documentation. {% set curtime = None | strftime() %} Fuzzy dates require the timelib Python module is installed. {{ "2002/12/25"|strftime("%y") }} {{ "1040814000"|strftime("%Y-%m-%d") }} {{ datetime|strftime("%u") }} {{ "tomorrow"|strftime }} sequence Ensure that parsed data is a sequence. yaml_encode Serializes a single object into a YAML scalar with any necessary handling for escaping special characters. This will work for any scalar YAML data type: ints, floats, time‐ stamps, booleans, strings, unicode. It will not work for multi-objects such as sequences or maps. {%- set bar = 7 %} {%- set baz = none %} {%- set zip = true %} {%- set zap = 'The word of the day is "salty"' %} {%- load_yaml as foo %} bar: {{ bar|yaml_encode }} baz: {{ baz|yaml_encode }} baz: {{ zip|yaml_encode }} baz: {{ zap|yaml_encode }} {%- endload %} In the above case {{ bar }} and {{ foo.bar }} should be identical and {{ baz }} and {{ foo.baz }} should be identical. yaml_dquote Serializes a string into a properly-escaped YAML double-quoted string. This is useful when the contents of a string are unknown and may contain quotes or unicode that needs to be preserved. The resulting string will be emitted with opening and closing double quotes. {%- set bar = '"The quick brown fox . . ."' %} {%- set baz = 'The word of the day is "salty".' %} {%- load_yaml as foo %} bar: {{ bar|yaml_dquote }} baz: {{ baz|yaml_dquote }} {%- endload %} In the above case {{ bar }} and {{ foo.bar }} should be identical and {{ baz }} and {{ foo.baz }} should be identical. If variable contents are not guaranteed to be a string then it is better to use yaml_encode which handles all YAML scalar types. yaml_squote Similar to the yaml_dquote filter but with single quotes. Note that YAML only allows spe‐ cial escapes inside double quotes so yaml_squote is not nearly as useful (viz. you likely want to use yaml_encode or yaml_dquote). to_bool New in version 2017.7.0. Returns the logical value of an element. Example: {{ 'yes' | to_bool }} {{ 'true' | to_bool }} {{ 1 | to_bool }} {{ 'no' | to_bool }} Will be rendered as: True True True False exactly_n_true New in version 2017.7.0. Tests that exactly N items in an iterable are "truthy" (neither None, False, nor 0). Example: {{ ['yes', 0, False, 'True'] | exactly_n_true(2) }} Returns: True exactly_one_true New in version 2017.7.0. Tests that exactly one item in an iterable is "truthy" (neither None, False, nor 0). Example: {{ ['yes', False, 0, None] | exactly_one_true }} Returns: True quote New in version 2017.7.0. This text will be wrapped in quotes. regex_search New in version 2017.7.0. Scan through string looking for a location where this regular expression produces a match. Returns None in case there were no matches found Example: {{ 'abcdefabcdef' | regex_search('BC(.*)', ignorecase=True) }} Returns: ('defabcdef',) regex_match New in version 2017.7.0. If zero or more characters at the beginning of string match this regular expression, oth‐ erwise returns None. Example: {{ 'abcdefabcdef' | regex_match('BC(.*)', ignorecase=True) }} Returns: None uuid New in version 2017.7.0. Return a UUID. Example: {{ 'random' | uuid }} Returns: 3652b285-26ad-588e-a5dc-c2ee65edc804 is_list New in version 2017.7.0. Return if an object is list. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | is_list }} Returns: True is_iter New in version 2017.7.0. Return if an object is iterable. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | is_iter }} Returns: True min New in version 2017.7.0. Return the minimum value from a list. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | min }} Returns: 1 max New in version 2017.7.0. Returns the maximum value from a list. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | max }} Returns: 3 avg New in version 2017.7.0. Returns the average value of the elements of a list Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | avg }} Returns: 2 union New in version 2017.7.0. Return the union of two lists. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | union([2, 3, 4]) | join(', ') }} Returns: 1, 2, 3, 4 intersect New in version 2017.7.0. Return the intersection of two lists. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | intersect([2, 3, 4]) | join(', ') }} Returns: 2, 3 difference New in version 2017.7.0. Return the difference of two lists. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | difference([2, 3, 4]) | join(', ') }} Returns: 1 symmetric_difference New in version 2017.7.0. Return the symmetric difference of two lists. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | symmetric_difference([2, 3, 4]) | join(', ') }} Returns: 1, 4 is_sorted New in version 2017.7.0. Return is an iterable object is already sorted. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | is_sorted }} Returns: True compare_lists New in version 2017.7.0. Compare two lists and return a dictionary with the changes. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | compare_lists([1, 2, 4]) }} Returns: {'new': 4, 'old': 3} compare_dicts New in version 2017.7.0. Compare two dictionaries and return a dictionary with the changes. Example: {{ {'a': 'b'} | compare_lists({'a': 'c'}) }} Returns: {'a': {'new': 'c', 'old': 'b'}} is_hex New in version 2017.7.0. Return True if the value is hexazecimal. Example: {{ '0xabcd' | is_hex }} {{ 'xyzt' | is_hex }} Returns: True False contains_whitespace New in version 2017.7.0. Return True if a text contains whitespaces. Example: {{ 'abcd' | contains_whitespace }} {{ 'ab cd' | contains_whitespace }} Returns: False True substring_in_list New in version 2017.7.0. Return is a substring is found in a list of string values. Example: {{ 'abcd' | substring_in_list(['this', 'is', 'an abcd example']) }} Returns: True check_whitelist_blacklist New in version 2017.7.0. Check a whitelist and/or blacklist to see if the value matches it. This filter can be used with either a whitelist or a blacklist individually, or a whitelist and a blacklist can be passed simultaneously. If whitelist is used alone, value membership is checked against the whitelist only. If the value is found, the function returns True. Otherwise, it returns False. If blacklist is used alone, value membership is checked against the blacklist only. If the value is found, the function returns False. Otherwise, it returns True. If both a whitelist and a blacklist are provided, value membership in the blacklist will be examined first. If the value is not found in the blacklist, then the whitelist is checked. If the value isn't found in the whitelist, the function returns False. Whitelist Example: {{ 5 | check_whitelist_blacklist(whitelist=[5, 6, 7]) }} Returns: True Blacklist Example: {{ 5 | check_whitelist_blacklist(blacklist=[5, 6, 7]) }} False date_format New in version 2017.7.0. Converts unix timestamp into human-readable string. Example: {{ 1457456400 | date_format }} {{ 1457456400 | date_format('%d.%m.%Y %H:%M') }} Returns: 2017-03-08 08.03.2017 17:00 str_to_num New in version 2017.7.0. Converts a string to its numerical value. Example: {{ '5' | str_to_num }} Returns: 5 to_bytes New in version 2017.7.0. Converts string-type object to bytes. Example: {{ 'wall of text' | to_bytes }} NOTE: This option may have adverse effects when using the default renderer, yaml_jinja. This is due to the fact that YAML requires proper handling in regard to special characters. Please see the section on YAML ASCII support in the YAML Idiosyncracies documentation for more information. json_decode_list New in version 2017.7.0. JSON decodes as unicode, Jinja needs bytes. Example: {{ [1, 2, 3] | json_decode_list }} Returns: [1, 2, 3] json_decode_dict New in version 2017.7.0. JSON decodes as unicode, Jinja needs bytes. Example: {{ {'a': 'b'} | json_decode_dict }} Returns: {'a': 'b'} rand_str New in version 2017.7.0. New in version Oxygen: Renamed from rand_str to random_hash to more accurately describe what the filter does. Generates a random number between 1 and the number passed to the filter, and then hashes it. The default hash type is the one specified by the minion's hash_type config option, but an alternate hash type can be passed to the filter as an argument. Example: {% set num_range = 99999999 %} {{ num_range | rand_str }} {{ num_range | rand_str('sha512') }} Returns: 43ec517d68b6edd3015b3edc9a11367b d94a45acd81f8e3107d237dbc0d5d195f6a52a0d188bc0284c0763ece1eac9f9496fb6a531a296074c87b35403 ↲ 98dace1222b42e150e67c9301383fde3d66ae5 md5 New in version 2017.7.0. Return the md5 digest of a string. Example: {{ 'random' | md5 }} Returns: 7ddf32e17a6ac5ce04a8ecbf782ca509 sha256 New in version 2017.7.0. Return the sha256 digest of a string. Example: {{ 'random' | sha256 }} Returns: a441b15fe9a3cf56661190a0b93b9dec7d04127288cc87250967cf3b52894d11 sha512 New in version 2017.7.0. Return the sha512 digest of a string. Example: {{ 'random' | sha512 }} Returns: 811a90e1c8e86c7b4c0eef5b2c0bf0ec1b19c4b1b5a242e6455be93787cb473cb7bc9b0fdeb960d00d5c6881c2 ↲ 094dd63c5c900ce9057255e2a4e271fc25fef1 base64_encode New in version 2017.7.0. Encode a string as base64. Example: {{ 'random' | base64_encode }} Returns: cmFuZG9t base64_decode New in version 2017.7.0. Decode a base64-encoded string. {{ 'Z2V0IHNhbHRlZA==' | base64_decode }} Returns: get salted hmac New in version 2017.7.0. Verify a challenging hmac signature against a string / shared-secret. Returns a boolean value. Example: {{ 'get salted' | hmac('shared secret', 'eBWf9bstXg+NiP5AOwppB5HMvZiYMPzEM9W5YMm/AmQ=') }} Returns: True http_query New in version 2017.7.0. Return the HTTP reply object from a URL. Example: {{ 'http://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts/1' | http_query }} Returns: { 'body': '{ "userId": 1, "id": 1, "title": "sunt aut facere repellat provident occaecati excepturi optio reprehenderit", "body": "quia et suscipit\\nsuscipit recusandae consequuntur expedita et cum\\nreprehe ↲ nderit molestiae ut ut quas totam\\nnostrum rerum est autem sunt rem eveniet architecto" }' } Networking Filters The following networking-related filters are supported: is_ip New in version 2017.7.0. Return if a string is a valid IP Address. {{ '192.168.0.1' | is_ip }} Additionally accepts the following options: · global · link-local · loopback · multicast · private · public · reserved · site-local · unspecified Example - test if a string is a valid loopback IP address. {{ '192.168.0.1' | is_ip(options='loopback') }} is_ipv4 New in version 2017.7.0. Returns if a string is a valid IPv4 address. Supports the same options as is_ip. {{ '192.168.0.1' | is_ipv4 }} is_ipv6 New in version 2017.7.0. Returns if a string is a valid IPv6 address. Supports the same options as is_ip. {{ 'fe80::' | is_ipv6 }} ipaddr New in version 2017.7.0. From a list, returns only valid IP entries. Supports the same options as is_ip. The list can contains also IP interfaces/networks. Example: {{ ['192.168.0.1', 'foo', 'bar', 'fe80::'] | ipaddr }} Returns: ['192.168.0.1', 'fe80::'] ipv4 New in version 2017.7.0. From a list, returns only valid IPv4 entries. Supports the same options as is_ip. The list can contains also IP interfaces/networks. Example: {{ ['192.168.0.1', 'foo', 'bar', 'fe80::'] | ipv4 }} Returns: ['192.168.0.1'] ipv6 New in version 2017.7.0. From a list, returns only valid IPv6 entries. Supports the same options as is_ip. The list can contains also IP interfaces/networks. Example: {{ ['192.168.0.1', 'foo', 'bar', 'fe80::'] | ipv6 }} Returns: ['fe80::'] network_hosts New in version 2017.7.0. Return the list of hosts within a networks. This utility works for both IPv4 and IPv6. NOTE: When running this command with a large IPv6 network, the command will take a long time to gather all of the hosts. Example: {{ '192.168.0.1/30' | network_hosts }} Returns: ['192.168.0.1', '192.168.0.2'] network_size New in version 2017.7.0. Return the size of the network. This utility works for both IPv4 and IPv6. Example: {{ '192.168.0.1/8' | network_size }} Returns: 16777216 gen_mac New in version 2017.7.0. Generates a MAC address with the defined OUI prefix. Common prefixes: · 00:16:3E -- Xen · 00:18:51 -- OpenVZ · 00:50:56 -- VMware (manually generated) · 52:54:00 -- QEMU/KVM · AC:DE:48 -- PRIVATE Example: {{ '00:50' | gen_mac }} Returns: 00:50:71:52:1C mac_str_to_bytes New in version 2017.7.0. Converts a string representing a valid MAC address to bytes. Example: {{ '00:11:22:33:44:55' | mac_str_to_bytes }} NOTE: This option may have adverse effects when using the default renderer, yaml_jinja. This is due to the fact that YAML requires proper handling in regard to special characters. Please see the section on YAML ASCII support in the YAML Idiosyncracies documentation for more information. dns_check New in version 2017.7.0. Return the ip resolved by dns, but do not exit on failure, only raise an exception. Obeys system preference for IPv4/6 address resolution. Example: {{ 'www.google.com' | dns_check }} Returns: '172.217.3.196' File filters is_text_file New in version 2017.7.0. Return if a file is text. Uses heuristics to guess whether the given file is text or binary, by reading a single block of bytes from the file. If more than 30% of the chars in the block are non-text, or there are NUL ('x00') bytes in the block, assume this is a binary file. Example: {{ '/etc/salt/master' | is_text_file }} Returns: True is_binary_file New in version 2017.7.0. Return if a file is binary. Detects if the file is a binary, returns bool. Returns True if the file is a bin, False if the file is not and None if the file is not available. Example: {{ '/etc/salt/master' | is_binary_file }} Returns: False is_empty_file New in version 2017.7.0. Return if a file is empty. Example: {{ '/etc/salt/master' | is_empty_file }} Returns: False file_hashsum New in version 2017.7.0. Return the hashsum of a file. Example: {{ '/etc/salt/master' | file_hashsum }} Returns: 02d4ef135514934759634f10079653252c7ad594ea97bd385480c532bca0fdda list_files New in version 2017.7.0. Return a recursive list of files under a specific path. Example: {{ '/etc/salt/' | list_files | join('\n') }} Returns: /etc/salt/master /etc/salt/proxy /etc/salt/minion /etc/salt/pillar/top.sls /etc/salt/pillar/device1.sls path_join New in version 2017.7.0. Joins absolute paths. Example: {{ '/etc/salt/' | path_join('pillar', 'device1.sls') }} Returns: /etc/salt/pillar/device1.sls which New in version 2017.7.0. Python clone of /usr/bin/which. Example: {{ 'salt-master' | which }} Returns: /usr/local/salt/virtualenv/bin/salt-master Escape filters regex_escape New in version 2017.7.0. Allows escaping of strings so they can be interpreted literally by another function. Example: regex_escape = {{ 'https://example.com?foo=bar%20baz' | regex_escape }} will be rendered as: regex_escape = https\:\/\/example\.com\?foo\=bar\%20baz Set Theory Filters unique New in version 2017.7.0. Performs set math using Jinja filters. Example: unique = {{ ['foo', 'foo', 'bar'] | unique }} will be rendered as: unique = ['foo', 'bar'] Jinja in Files Jinja_ can be used in the same way in managed files: # redis.sls /etc/redis/redis.conf: file.managed: - source: salt://redis.conf - template: jinja - context: bind: 127.0.0.1 # lib.sls {% set port = 6379 %} # redis.conf {% from 'lib.sls' import port with context %} port {{ port }} bind {{ bind }} As an example, configuration was pulled from the file context and from an external tem‐ plate file. NOTE: Macros and variables can be shared across templates. They should not be starting with one or more underscores, and should be managed by one of the following tags: macro, set, load_yaml, load_json, import_yaml and import_json. Escaping Jinja Occasionally, it may be necessary to escape Jinja syntax. There are two ways to do this in Jinja. One is escaping individual variables or strings and the other is to escape entire blocks. To escape a string commonly used in Jinja syntax such as {{, you can use the following syntax: {{ '{{' }} For larger blocks that contain Jinja syntax that needs to be escaped, you can use raw blocks: {% raw %} some text that contains jinja characters that need to be escaped {% endraw %} See the Escaping section of Jinja's documentation to learn more. A real-word example of needing to use raw tags to escape a larger block of code is when using file.managed with the contents_pillar option to manage files that contain something like consul-template, which shares a syntax subset with Jinja. Raw blocks are necessary here because the Jinja in the pillar would be rendered before the file.managed is ever called, so the Jinja syntax must be escaped: {% raw %} - contents_pillar: | job "example-job" { <snipped> task "example" { driver = "docker" config { image = "docker-registry.service.consul:5000/example-job:{{key "nomad/jobs/e ↲ xample-job/version"}}" <snipped> {% endraw %} Calling Salt Functions The Jinja renderer provides a shorthand lookup syntax for the salt dictionary of execution function. New in version 2014.7.0. # The following two function calls are equivalent. {{ salt['cmd.run']('whoami') }} {{ salt.cmd.run('whoami') }} Debugging The show_full_context function can be used to output all variables present in the current Jinja context. New in version 2014.7.0. Context is: {{ show_full_context() }} Logs New in version 2017.7.0. Yes, in Salt, one is able to debug a complex Jinja template using the logs. For example, making the call: {%- do salt.log.error('testing jinja logging') -%} Will insert the following message in the minion logs: 2017-02-01 01:24:40,728 [salt.module.logmod][ERROR ][3779] testing jinja logging Custom Execution Modules Custom execution modules can be used to supplement or replace complex Jinja. Many tasks that require complex looping and logic are trivial when using Python in a Salt execution module. Salt execution modules are easy to write and distribute to Salt minions. Functions in custom execution modules are available in the Salt execution module dictio‐ nary just like the built-in execution modules: {{ salt['my_custom_module.my_custom_function']() }} · How to Convert Jinja Logic to an Execution Module · Writing Execution Modules Custom Jinja filters Given that all execution modules are available in the Jinja template, one can easily define a custom module as in the previous paragraph and use it as a Jinja filter. How‐ ever, please note that it will not be accessible through the pipe. For example, instead of: {{ my_variable | my_jinja_filter }} The user will need to define my_jinja_filter function under an extension module, say my_filters and use as: {{ salt.my_filters.my_jinja_filter(my_variable) }} The greatest benefit is that you are able to access thousands of existing functions, e.g.: · get the DNS AAAA records for a specific address using the dnsutil: {{ salt.dnsutil.AAAA('www.google.com') }} · retrieve a specific field value from a Redis hash: {{ salt.redis.hget('foo_hash', 'bar_field') }} · get the routes to 0.0.0.0/0 using the NAPALM route: {{ salt.route.show('0.0.0.0/0') }} Tutorials Index · Salt as a Cloud Controller · Using Cron with Salt · Automatic Updates / Frozen Deployments · ESXi Proxy Minion · Opening the Firewall up for Salt · Git Fileserver Backend Walkthrough · Halite · HTTP Modules · Using Salt at Scale · LXC Management with Salt · MinionFS Backend Walkthrough · Remote Execution Tutorial · Multi-Master-PKI Tutorial With Failover · Multi Master Tutorial · Pillar Walkthrough · Packaging External Modules for Salt · Salt Masterless Quickstart · running salt as normal user tutorial · Salt Bootstrap · Standalone Minion · How Do I Use Salt States? · States tutorial, part 1 - Basic Usage · States tutorial, part 2 - More Complex States, Requisites · States tutorial, part 3 - Templating, Includes, Extends · States tutorial, part 4 · How to Convert Jinja Logic to an Execution Module · Using Salt with Stormpath · Syslog-ng usage · The macOS (Maverick) Developer Step By Step Guide To Salt Installation · SaltStack Walk-through · Writing Salt Tests · Running Salt States and Commands in Docker Containers · Preseed Minion with Accepted Key Troubleshooting The intent of the troubleshooting section is to introduce solutions to a number of common issues encountered by users and the tools that are available to aid in developing States and Salt code. Troubleshooting the Salt Master If your Salt master is having issues such as minions not returning data, slow execution times, or a variety of other issues, the following links contain details on troubleshoot‐ ing the most common issues encountered: Troubleshooting the Salt Master Running in the Foreground A great deal of information is available via the debug logging system, if you are having issues with minions connecting or not starting run the master in the foreground: # salt-master -l debug Anyone wanting to run Salt daemons via a process supervisor such as monit, runit, or supervisord, should omit the -d argument to the daemons and run them in the foreground. What Ports does the Master Need Open? For the master, TCP ports 4505 and 4506 need to be open. If you've put both your Salt mas‐ ter and minion in debug mode and don't see an acknowledgment that your minion has con‐ nected, it could very well be a firewall interfering with the connection. See our firewall configuration page for help opening the firewall on various platforms. If you've opened the correct TCP ports and still aren't seeing connections, check that no additional access control system such as SELinux or AppArmor is blocking Salt. Too many open files The salt-master needs at least 2 sockets per host that connects to it, one for the Pub‐ lisher and one for response port. Thus, large installations may, upon scaling up the num‐ ber of minions accessing a given master, encounter: 12:45:29,289 [salt.master ][INFO ] Starting Salt worker process 38 Too many open files sock != -1 (tcp_listener.cpp:335) The solution to this would be to check the number of files allowed to be opened by the user running salt-master (root by default): [root@salt-master ~]# ulimit -n 1024 If this value is not equal to at least twice the number of minions, then it will need to be raised. For example, in an environment with 1800 minions, the nofile limit should be set to no less than 3600. This can be done by creating the file /etc/security/lim‐ its.d/99-salt.conf, with the following contents: root hard nofile 4096 root soft nofile 4096 Replace root with the user under which the master runs, if different. If your master does not have an /etc/security/limits.d directory, the lines can simply be appended to /etc/security/limits.conf. As with any change to resource limits, it is best to stay logged into your current shell and open another shell to run ulimit -n again and verify that the changes were applied correctly. Additionally, if your master is running upstart, it may be necessary to specify the nofile limit in /etc/default/salt-master if upstart isn't respecting your resource limits: limit nofile 4096 4096 NOTE: The above is simply an example of how to set these values, and you may wish to increase them even further if your Salt master is doing more than just running Salt. Salt Master Stops Responding There are known bugs with ZeroMQ versions less than 2.1.11 which can cause the Salt master to not respond properly. If you're running a ZeroMQ version greater than or equal to 2.1.9, you can work around the bug by setting the sysctls net.core.rmem_max and net.core.wmem_max to 16777216. Next, set the third field in net.ipv4.tcp_rmem and net.ipv4.tcp_wmem to at least 16777216. You can do it manually with something like: # echo 16777216 > /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max # echo 16777216 > /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max # echo "4096 87380 16777216" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_rmem # echo "4096 87380 16777216" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_wmem Or with the following Salt state: net.core.rmem_max: sysctl: - present - value: 16777216 net.core.wmem_max: sysctl: - present - value: 16777216 net.ipv4.tcp_rmem: sysctl: - present - value: 4096 87380 16777216 net.ipv4.tcp_wmem: sysctl: - present - value: 4096 87380 16777216 Live Python Debug Output If the master seems to be unresponsive, a SIGUSR1 can be passed to the salt-master threads to display what piece of code is executing. This debug information can be invaluable in tracking down bugs. To pass a SIGUSR1 to the master, first make sure the minion is running in the foreground. Stop the service if it is running as a daemon, and start it in the foreground like so: # salt-master -l debug Then pass the signal to the master when it seems to be unresponsive: # killall -SIGUSR1 salt-master When filing an issue or sending questions to the mailing list for a problem with an unre‐ sponsive daemon, be sure to include this information if possible. Live Salt-Master Profiling When faced with performance problems one can turn on master process profiling by sending it SIGUSR2. # killall -SIGUSR2 salt-master This will activate yappi profiler inside salt-master code, then after some time one must send SIGUSR2 again to stop profiling and save results to file. If run in foreground salt-master will report filename for the results, which are usually located under /tmp on Unix-based OSes and c:\temp on windows. Results can then be analyzed with kcachegrind or similar tool. Commands Time Out or Do Not Return Output Depending on your OS (this is most common on Ubuntu due to apt-get) you may sometimes encounter times where a state.apply, or other long running commands do not return output. By default the timeout is set to 5 seconds. The timeout value can easily be increased by modifying the timeout line within your /etc/salt/master configuration file. Having keys accepted for Salt minions that no longer exist or are not reachable also increases the possibility of timeouts, since the Salt master waits for those systems to return command results. Passing the -c Option to Salt Returns a Permissions Error Using the -c option with the Salt command modifies the configuration directory. When the configuration file is read it will still base data off of the root_dir setting. This can result in unintended behavior if you are expecting files such as /etc/salt/pki to be pulled from the location specified with -c. Modify the root_dir setting to address this behavior. Salt Master Doesn't Return Anything While Running jobs When a command being run via Salt takes a very long time to return (package installations, certain scripts, etc.) the master may drop you back to the shell. In most situations the job is still running but Salt has exceeded the set timeout before returning. Querying the job queue will provide the data of the job but is inconvenient. This can be resolved by either manually using the -t option to set a longer timeout when running commands (by default it is 5 seconds) or by modifying the master configuration file: /etc/salt/master and setting the timeout value to change the default timeout for all commands, and then restarting the salt-master service. Salt Master Auth Flooding In large installations, care must be taken not to overwhealm the master with authentica‐ tion requests. Several options can be set on the master which mitigate the chances of an authentication flood from causing an interruption in service. NOTE: recon_default: The average number of seconds to wait between reconnection attempts. recon_max: The maximum number of seconds to wait between reconnection attempts. recon_randomize: A flag to indicate whether the recon_default value should be randomized. acceptance_wait_time: The number of seconds to wait for a reply to each authentication request. random_reauth_delay: The range of seconds across which the minions should attempt to randomize authentication attempts. auth_timeout: The total time to wait for the authentication process to complete, regardless of the number of attempts. Running states locally To debug the states, you can use call locally. salt-call -l trace --local state.highstate The top.sls file is used to map what SLS modules get loaded onto what minions via the state system. It is located in the file defined in the file_roots variable of the salt master configura‐ tion file which is defined by found in CONFIG_DIR/master, normally /etc/salt/master The default configuration for the file_roots is: file_roots: base: - /srv/salt So the top file is defaulted to the location /srv/salt/top.sls Salt Master Umask The salt master uses a cache to track jobs as they are published and returns come back. The recommended umask for a salt-master is 022, which is the default for most users on a system. Incorrect umasks can result in permission-denied errors when the master tries to access files in its cache. Troubleshooting the Salt Minion In the event that your Salt minion is having issues, a variety of solutions and sugges‐ tions are available. Please refer to the following links for more information: Troubleshooting the Salt Minion Running in the Foreground A great deal of information is available via the debug logging system, if you are having issues with minions connecting or not starting run the minion in the foreground: # salt-minion -l debug Anyone wanting to run Salt daemons via a process supervisor such as monit, runit, or supervisord, should omit the -d argument to the daemons and run them in the foreground. What Ports does the Minion Need Open? No ports need to be opened on the minion, as it makes outbound connections to the master. If you've put both your Salt master and minion in debug mode and don't see an acknowledg‐ ment that your minion has connected, it could very well be a firewall interfering with the connection. See our firewall configuration page for help opening the firewall on various platforms. If you have netcat installed, you can check port connectivity from the minion with the nc command: $ nc -v -z salt.master.ip.addr 4505 Connection to salt.master.ip.addr 4505 port [tcp/unknown] succeeded! $ nc -v -z salt.master.ip.addr 4506 Connection to salt.master.ip.addr 4506 port [tcp/unknown] succeeded! The Nmap utility can also be used to check if these ports are open: # nmap -sS -q -p 4505-4506 salt.master.ip.addr Starting Nmap 6.40 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2013-12-29 19:44 CST Nmap scan report for salt.master.ip.addr (10.0.0.10) Host is up (0.0026s latency). PORT STATE SERVICE 4505/tcp open unknown 4506/tcp open unknown MAC Address: 00:11:22:AA:BB:CC (Intel) Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 1.64 seconds If you've opened the correct TCP ports and still aren't seeing connections, check that no additional access control system such as SELinux or AppArmor is blocking Salt. Tools like tcptraceroute can also be used to determine if an intermediate device or firewall is blocking the needed TCP ports. Using salt-call The salt-call command was originally developed for aiding in the development of new Salt modules. Since then, many applications have been developed for running any Salt module locally on a minion. These range from the original intent of salt-call (development assis‐ tance), to gathering more verbose output from calls like state.apply. When initially creating your state tree, it is generally recommended to invoke highstates by running state.apply directly from the minion with salt-call, rather than remotely from the master. This displays far more information about the execution than calling it remotely. For even more verbosity, increase the loglevel using the -l argument: # salt-call -l debug state.apply The main difference between using salt and using salt-call is that salt-call is run from the minion, and it only runs the selected function on that minion. By contrast, salt is run from the master, and requires you to specify the minions on which to run the command using salt's targeting system. Live Python Debug Output If the minion seems to be unresponsive, a SIGUSR1 can be passed to the process to display what piece of code is executing. This debug information can be invaluable in tracking down bugs. To pass a SIGUSR1 to the minion, first make sure the minion is running in the foreground. Stop the service if it is running as a daemon, and start it in the foreground like so: # salt-minion -l debug Then pass the signal to the minion when it seems to be unresponsive: # killall -SIGUSR1 salt-minion When filing an issue or sending questions to the mailing list for a problem with an unre‐ sponsive daemon, be sure to include this information if possible. Multiprocessing in Execution Modules As is outlined in github issue #6300, Salt cannot use python's multiprocessing pipes and queues from execution modules. Multiprocessing from the execution modules is perfectly viable, it is just necessary to use Salt's event system to communicate back with the process. The reason for this difficulty is that python attempts to pickle all objects in memory when communicating, and it cannot pickle function objects. Since the Salt loader system creates and manages function objects this causes the pickle operation to fail. Salt Minion Doesn't Return Anything While Running Jobs Locally When a command being run via Salt takes a very long time to return (package installations, certain scripts, etc.) the minion may drop you back to the shell. In most situations the job is still running but Salt has exceeded the set timeout before returning. Querying the job queue will provide the data of the job but is inconvenient. This can be resolved by either manually using the -t option to set a longer timeout when running commands (by default it is 5 seconds) or by modifying the minion configuration file: /etc/salt/minion and setting the timeout value to change the default timeout for all commands, and then restarting the salt-minion service. NOTE: Modifying the minion timeout value is not required when running commands from a Salt Master. It is only required when running commands locally on the minion. Running in the Foreground A great deal of information is available via the debug logging system, if you are having issues with minions connecting or not starting run the minion and/or master in the fore‐ ground: salt-master -l debug salt-minion -l debug Anyone wanting to run Salt daemons via a process supervisor such as monit, runit, or supervisord, should omit the -d argument to the daemons and run them in the foreground. What Ports do the Master and Minion Need Open? No ports need to be opened up on each minion. For the master, TCP ports 4505 and 4506 need to be open. If you've put both your Salt master and minion in debug mode and don't see an acknowledgment that your minion has connected, it could very well be a firewall. You can check port connectivity from the minion with the nc command: nc -v -z salt.master.ip 4505 nc -v -z salt.master.ip 4506 There is also a firewall configuration document that might help as well. If you've enabled the right TCP ports on your operating system or Linux distribution's firewall and still aren't seeing connections, check that no additional access control sys‐ tem such as SELinux or AppArmor is blocking Salt. Using salt-call The salt-call command was originally developed for aiding in the development of new Salt modules. Since then, many applications have been developed for running any Salt module locally on a minion. These range from the original intent of salt-call, development assis‐ tance, to gathering more verbose output from calls like state.apply. When initially creating your state tree, it is generally recommended to invoke state.apply directly from the minion with salt-call, rather than remotely from the master. This dis‐ plays far more information about the execution than calling it remotely. For even more verbosity, increase the loglevel using the -l argument: salt-call -l debug state.apply The main difference between using salt and using salt-call is that salt-call is run from the minion, and it only runs the selected function on that minion. By contrast, salt is run from the master, and requires you to specify the minions on which to run the command using salt's targeting system. Too many open files The salt-master needs at least 2 sockets per host that connects to it, one for the Pub‐ lisher and one for response port. Thus, large installations may, upon scaling up the num‐ ber of minions accessing a given master, encounter: 12:45:29,289 [salt.master ][INFO ] Starting Salt worker process 38 Too many open files sock != -1 (tcp_listener.cpp:335) The solution to this would be to check the number of files allowed to be opened by the user running salt-master (root by default): [root@salt-master ~]# ulimit -n 1024 And modify that value to be at least equal to the number of minions x 2. This setting can be changed in limits.conf as the nofile value(s), and activated upon new a login of the specified user. So, an environment with 1800 minions, would need 1800 x 2 = 3600 as a minimum. Salt Master Stops Responding There are known bugs with ZeroMQ versions less than 2.1.11 which can cause the Salt master to not respond properly. If you're running a ZeroMQ version greater than or equal to 2.1.9, you can work around the bug by setting the sysctls net.core.rmem_max and net.core.wmem_max to 16777216. Next, set the third field in net.ipv4.tcp_rmem and net.ipv4.tcp_wmem to at least 16777216. You can do it manually with something like: # echo 16777216 > /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max # echo 16777216 > /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max # echo "4096 87380 16777216" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_rmem # echo "4096 87380 16777216" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_wmem Or with the following Salt state: net.core.rmem_max: sysctl: - present - value: 16777216 net.core.wmem_max: sysctl: - present - value: 16777216 net.ipv4.tcp_rmem: sysctl: - present - value: 4096 87380 16777216 net.ipv4.tcp_wmem: sysctl: - present - value: 4096 87380 16777216 Salt and SELinux Currently there are no SELinux policies for Salt. For the most part Salt runs without issue when SELinux is running in Enforcing mode. This is because when the minion executes as a daemon the type context is changed to initrc_t. The problem with SELinux arises when using salt-call or running the minion in the foreground, since the type context stays unconfined_t. This problem is generally manifest in the rpm install scripts when using the pkg module. Until a full SELinux Policy is available for Salt the solution to this issue is to set the execution context of salt-call and salt-minion to rpm_exec_t: # CentOS 5 and RHEL 5: chcon -t system_u:system_r:rpm_exec_t:s0 /usr/bin/salt-minion chcon -t system_u:system_r:rpm_exec_t:s0 /usr/bin/salt-call # CentOS 6 and RHEL 6: chcon system_u:object_r:rpm_exec_t:s0 /usr/bin/salt-minion chcon system_u:object_r:rpm_exec_t:s0 /usr/bin/salt-call This works well, because the rpm_exec_t context has very broad control over other types. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Salt requires Python 2.6 or 2.7. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and its variants come with Python 2.4 installed by default. When installing on RHEL 5 from the EPEL repository this is handled for you. But, if you run Salt from git, be advised that its dependencies need to be installed from EPEL and that Salt needs to be run with the python26 executable. Common YAML Gotchas An extensive list of YAML idiosyncrasies has been compiled: YAML Idiosyncrasies One of Salt's strengths, the use of existing serialization systems for representing SLS data, can also backfire. YAML is a general purpose system and there are a number of things that would seem to make sense in an sls file that cause YAML issues. It is wise to be aware of these issues. While reports or running into them are generally rare they can still crop up at unexpected times. Spaces vs Tabs YAML uses spaces, period. Do not use tabs in your SLS files! If strange errors are coming up in rendering SLS files, make sure to check that no tabs have crept in! In Vim, after enabling search highlighting with: :set hlsearch, you can check with the following key sequence in normal mode(you can hit ESC twice to be sure): /, Ctrl-v, Tab, then hit Enter. Also, you can convert tabs to 2 spaces by these commands in Vim: :set tabstop=2 expandtab and then :retab. Indentation The suggested syntax for YAML files is to use 2 spaces for indentation, but YAML will fol‐ low whatever indentation system that the individual file uses. Indentation of two spaces works very well for SLS files given the fact that the data is uniform and not deeply nested. Nested Dictionaries When dicts are nested within other data structures (particularly lists), the indentation logic sometimes changes. Examples of where this might happen include context and default options from the file.managed state: /etc/http/conf/http.conf: file: - managed - source: salt://apache/http.conf - user: root - group: root - mode: 644 - template: jinja - context: custom_var: "override" - defaults: custom_var: "default value" other_var: 123 Notice that while the indentation is two spaces per level, for the values under the con‐ text and defaults options there is a four-space indent. If only two spaces are used to indent, then those keys will be considered part of the same dictionary that contains the context key, and so the data will not be loaded correctly. If using a double indent is not desirable, then a deeply-nested dict can be declared with curly braces: /etc/http/conf/http.conf: file: - managed - source: salt://apache/http.conf - user: root - group: root - mode: 644 - template: jinja - context: { custom_var: "override" } - defaults: { custom_var: "default value", other_var: 123 } Here is a more concrete example of how YAML actually handles these indentations, using the Python interpreter on the command line: >>> import yaml >>> yaml.safe_load('''mystate: ... file.managed: ... - context: ... some: var''') {'mystate': {'file.managed': [{'context': {'some': 'var'}}]}} >>> yaml.safe_load('''mystate: ... file.managed: ... - context: ... some: var''') {'mystate': {'file.managed': [{'some': 'var', 'context': None}]}} Note that in the second example, some is added as another key in the same dictionary, whereas in the first example, it's the start of a new dictionary. That's the distinction. context is a common example because it is a keyword arg for many functions, and should contain a dictionary. True/False, Yes/No, On/Off PyYAML will load these values as boolean True or False. Un-capitalized versions will also be loaded as booleans (true, false, yes, no, on, and off). This can be especially problem‐ atic when constructing Pillar data. Make sure that your Pillars which need to use the string versions of these values are enclosed in quotes. Pillars will be parsed twice by salt, so you'll need to wrap your values in multiple quotes, including double quotation marks (" ") and single quotation marks (' '). Note that spaces are included in the quota‐ tion type examples for clarity. Multiple quoting examples looks like this: - '"false"' - "'True'" - "'YES'" - '"No"' NOTE: When using multiple quotes in this manner, they must be different. Using "" "" or '' '' won't work in this case (spaces are included in examples for clarity). The '%' Sign The % symbol has a special meaning in YAML, it needs to be passed as a string literal: cheese: ssh_auth.present: - user: tbortels - source: salt://ssh_keys/chease.pub - config: '%h/.ssh/authorized_keys' Time Expressions PyYAML will load a time expression as the integer value of that, assuming HH:MM. So for example, 12:00 is loaded by PyYAML as 720. An excellent explanation for why can be found here. To keep time expressions like this from being loaded as integers, always quote them. NOTE: When using a jinja load_yaml map, items must be quoted twice. For example: {% load_yaml as wsus_schedule %} FRI_10: time: '"23:00"' day: 6 - Every Friday SAT_10: time: '"06:00"' day: 7 - Every Saturday SAT_20: time: '"14:00"' day: 7 - Every Saturday SAT_30: time: '"22:00"' day: 7 - Every Saturday SUN_10: time: '"06:00"' day: 1 - Every Sunday {% endload %} YAML does not like Double Short Decs If I can find a way to make YAML accept "Double Short Decs" then I will, since I think that double short decs would be awesome. So what is a "Double Short Dec"? It is when you declare a multiple short decs in one ID. Here is a standard short dec, it works great: vim: pkg.installed The short dec means that there are no arguments to pass, so it is not required to add any arguments, and it can save space. YAML though, gets upset when declaring multiple short decs, for the record... THIS DOES NOT WORK: vim: pkg.installed user.present Similarly declaring a short dec in the same ID dec as a standard dec does not work either... ALSO DOES NOT WORK: fred: user.present ssh_auth.present: - name: AAAAB3NzaC... - user: fred - enc: ssh-dss - require: - user: fred The correct way is to define them like this: vim: pkg.installed: [] user.present: [] fred: user.present: [] ssh_auth.present: - name: AAAAB3NzaC... - user: fred - enc: ssh-dss - require: - user: fred Alternatively, they can be defined the "old way", or with multiple "full decs": vim: pkg: - installed user: - present fred: user: - present ssh_auth: - present - name: AAAAB3NzaC... - user: fred - enc: ssh-dss - require: - user: fred YAML supports only plain ASCII According to YAML specification, only ASCII characters can be used. Within double-quotes, special characters may be represented with C-style escape sequences starting with a backslash ( \ ). Examples: - micro: "\u00b5" - copyright: "\u00A9" - A: "\x41" - alpha: "\u0251" - Alef: "\u05d0" List of usable Unicode characters will help you to identify correct numbers. Python can also be used to discover the Unicode number for a character: repr(u"Text with wrong characters i need to figure out") This shell command can find wrong characters in your SLS files: find . -name '*.sls' -exec grep --color='auto' -P -n '[^\x00-\x7F]' \{} \; Alternatively you can toggle the yaml_utf8 setting in your master configuration file. This is still an experimental setting but it should manage the right encoding conversion in salt after yaml states compilations. Underscores stripped in Integer Definitions If a definition only includes numbers and underscores, it is parsed by YAML as an integer and all underscores are stripped. To ensure the object becomes a string, it should be surrounded by quotes. More information here. Here's an example: >>> import yaml >>> yaml.safe_load('2013_05_10') 20130510 >>> yaml.safe_load('"2013_05_10"') '2013_05_10' Automatic datetime conversion If there is a value in a YAML file formatted 2014-01-20 14:23:23 or similar, YAML will automatically convert this to a Python datetime object. These objects are not msgpack serializable, and so may break core salt functionality. If values such as these are needed in a salt YAML file (specifically a configuration file), they should be formatted with surrounding strings to force YAML to serialize them as strings: >>> import yaml >>> yaml.safe_load('2014-01-20 14:23:23') datetime.datetime(2014, 1, 20, 14, 23, 23) >>> yaml.safe_load('"2014-01-20 14:23:23"') '2014-01-20 14:23:23' Additionally, numbers formatted like XXXX-XX-XX will also be converted (or YAML will attempt to convert them, and error out if it doesn't think the date is a real one). Thus, for example, if a minion were to have an ID of 4017-16-20 the minion would not start because YAML would complain that the date was out of range. The workaround is the same, surround the offending string with quotes: >>> import yaml >>> yaml.safe_load('4017-16-20') Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/yaml/__init__.py", line 93, in safe_load return load(stream, SafeLoader) File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/yaml/__init__.py", line 71, in load return loader.get_single_data() File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/yaml/constructor.py", line 39, in get_singl ↲ e_data return self.construct_document(node) File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/yaml/constructor.py", line 43, in construct ↲ _document data = self.construct_object(node) File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/yaml/constructor.py", line 88, in construct ↲ _object data = constructor(self, node) File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages/yaml/constructor.py", line 312, in construc ↲ t_yaml_timestamp return datetime.date(year, month, day) ValueError: month must be in 1..12 >>> yaml.safe_load('"4017-16-20"') '4017-16-20' Keys Limited to 1024 Characters Simple keys are limited to a single line and cannot be longer that 1024 characters. This is a limitation from PyYaml, as seen in a comment in PyYAML's code, and applies to any‐ thing parsed by YAML in Salt. Live Python Debug Output If the minion or master seems to be unresponsive, a SIGUSR1 can be passed to the processes to display where in the code they are running. If encountering a situation like this, this debug information can be invaluable. First make sure the master of minion are running in the foreground: salt-master -l debug salt-minion -l debug Then pass the signal to the master or minion when it seems to be unresponsive: killall -SIGUSR1 salt-master killall -SIGUSR1 salt-minion Also under BSD and macOS in addition to SIGUSR1 signal, debug subroutine set up for SIG‐ INFO which has an advantage of being sent by Ctrl+T shortcut. When filing an issue or sending questions to the mailing list for a problem with an unre‐ sponsive daemon this information can be invaluable. Salt 0.16.x minions cannot communicate with a 0.17.x master As of release 0.17.1 you can no longer run different versions of Salt on your Master and Minion servers. This is due to a protocol change for security purposes. The Salt team will continue to attempt to ensure versions are as backwards compatible as possible. Debugging the Master and Minion A list of common master and minion troubleshooting steps provide a starting point for resolving issues you may encounter. Frequently Asked Questions FAQ · Frequently Asked Questions · Is Salt open-core? · I think I found a bug! What should I do? · What ports should I open on my firewall? · I'm seeing weird behavior (including but not limited to packages not installing their users properly) · My script runs every time I run a state.apply. Why? · When I run test.ping, why don't the Minions that aren't responding return anything? Returning False would be helpful. · How does Salt determine the Minion's id? · I'm trying to manage packages/services but I get an error saying that the state is not available. Why? · Why aren't my custom modules/states/etc. available on my Minions? · Module X isn't available, even though the shell command it uses is installed. Why? · Can I run different versions of Salt on my Master and Minion? · Does Salt support backing up managed files? · Is it possible to deploy a file to a specific minion, without other minions having access to it? · What is the best way to restart a Salt Minion daemon using Salt after upgrade? · Upgrade without automatic restart · Restart using states · Restart using remote executions · Salting the Salt Master · Is Targeting using Grain Data Secure? · Why Did the Value for a Grain Change on Its Own? Is Salt open-core? No. Salt is 100% committed to being open-source, including all of our APIs. It is devel‐ oped under the Apache 2.0 license, allowing it to be used in both open and proprietary projects. To expand on this a little: There is much argument over the actual definition of "open core". From our standpoint, Salt is open source because 1. It is a standalone product that anyone is free to use. 2. It is developed in the open with contributions accepted from the community for the good of the project. 3. There are no features of Salt itself that are restricted to separate proprietary prod‐ ucts distributed by SaltStack, Inc. 4. Because of our Apache 2.0 license, Salt can be used as the foundation for a project or even a proprietary tool. 5. Our APIs are open and documented (any lack of documentation is an oversight as opposed to an intentional decision by SaltStack the company) and available for use by anyone. SaltStack the company does make proprietary products which use Salt and its libraries, like company is free to do, but we do so via the APIs, NOT by forking Salt and creating a different, closed-source version of it for paying customers. I think I found a bug! What should I do? The salt-users mailing list as well as the salt IRC channel can both be helpful resources to confirm if others are seeing the issue and to assist with immediate debugging. To report a bug to the Salt project, please follow the instructions in reporting a bug. What ports should I open on my firewall? Minions need to be able to connect to the Master on TCP ports 4505 and 4506. Minions do not need any inbound ports open. More detailed information on firewall settings can be found here. I'm seeing weird behavior (including but not limited to packages not installing their users properly) This is often caused by SELinux. Try disabling SELinux or putting it in permissive mode and see if the weird behavior goes away. My script runs every time I run a state.apply. Why? You are probably using cmd.run rather than cmd.wait. A cmd.wait state will only run when there has been a change in a state that it is watching. A cmd.run state will run the corresponding command every time (unless it is prevented from running by the unless or onlyif arguments). More details can be found in the documentation for the cmd states. When I run test.ping, why don't the Minions that aren't responding return anything? Returning False would be helpful. When you run test.ping the Master tells Minions to run commands/functions, and listens for the return data, printing it to the screen when it is received. If it doesn't receive anything back, it doesn't have anything to display for that Minion. There are a couple options for getting information on Minions that are not responding. One is to use the verbose (-v) option when you run salt commands, as it will display "Minion did not return" for any Minions which time out. salt -v '*' pkg.install zsh Another option is to use the manage.down runner: salt-run manage.down Also, if the Master is under heavy load, it is possible that the CLI will exit without displaying return data for all targeted Minions. However, this doesn't mean that the Min‐ ions did not return; this only means that the Salt CLI timed out waiting for a response. Minions will still send their return data back to the Master once the job completes. If any expected Minions are missing from the CLI output, the jobs.list_jobs runner can be used to show the job IDs of the jobs that have been run, and the jobs.lookup_jid runner can be used to get the return data for that job. salt-run jobs.list_jobs salt-run jobs.lookup_jid 20130916125524463507 If you find that you are often missing Minion return data on the CLI, only to find it with the jobs runners, then this may be a sign that the worker_threads value may need to be increased in the master config file. Additionally, running your Salt CLI commands with the -t option will make Salt wait longer for the return data before the CLI command exits. For instance, the below command will wait up to 60 seconds for the Minions to return: salt -t 60 '*' test.ping How does Salt determine the Minion's id? If the Minion id is not configured explicitly (using the id parameter), Salt will deter‐ mine the id based on the hostname. Exactly how this is determined varies a little between operating systems and is described in detail here. I'm trying to manage packages/services but I get an error saying that the state is not avail‐ able. Why? Salt detects the Minion's operating system and assigns the correct package or service man‐ agement module based on what is detected. However, for certain custom spins and OS deriva‐ tives this detection fails. In cases like this, an issue should be opened on our tracker, with the following information: 1. The output of the following command: salt <minion_id> grains.items | grep os 2. The contents of /etc/lsb-release, if present on the Minion. Why aren't my custom modules/states/etc. available on my Minions? Custom modules are synced to Minions when saltutil.sync_modules, or saltutil.sync_all is run. Custom modules are also synced by state.apply when run without any arguments. Similarly, custom states are synced to Minions when state.apply, saltutil.sync_states, or saltutil.sync_all is run. Custom states are also synced by state.apply when run without any arguments. Other custom types (renderers, outputters, etc.) have similar behavior, see the documenta‐ tion for the saltutil module for more information. This reactor example can be used to automatically sync custom types when the minion con‐ nects to the master, to help with this chicken-and-egg issue. Module X isn't available, even though the shell command it uses is installed. Why? This is most likely a PATH issue. Did you custom-compile the software which the module requires? RHEL/CentOS/etc. in particular override the root user's path in /etc/init.d/functions, setting it to /sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin, making software installed into /usr/local/bin unavailable to Salt when the Minion is started using the initscript. In version 2014.1.0, Salt will have a better solution for these sort of PATH-related issues, but recompiling the software to install it into a location within the PATH should resolve the issue in the meantime. Alternatively, you can create a symbolic link within the PATH using a file.symlink state. /usr/bin/foo: file.symlink: - target: /usr/local/bin/foo Can I run different versions of Salt on my Master and Minion? This depends on the versions. In general, it is recommended that Master and Minion ver‐ sions match. When upgrading Salt, the master(s) should always be upgraded first. Backwards compatibil‐ ity for minions running newer versions of salt than their masters is not guaranteed. Whenever possible, backwards compatibility between new masters and old minions will be preserved. Generally, the only exception to this policy is in case of a security vulnera‐ bility. Recent examples of backwards compatibility breakage include the 0.17.1 release (where all backwards compatibility was broken due to a security fix), and the 2014.1.0 release (which retained compatibility between 2014.1.0 masters and 0.17 minions, but broke compatibility for 2014.1.0 minions and older masters). Does Salt support backing up managed files? Yes. Salt provides an easy to use addition to your file.managed states that allow you to back up files via backup_mode, backup_mode can be configured on a per state basis, or in the minion config (note that if set in the minion config this would simply be the default method to use, you still need to specify that the file should be backed up!). Is it possible to deploy a file to a specific minion, without other minions having access to it? The Salt fileserver does not yet support access control, but it is still possible to do this. As of Salt 2015.5.0, the file_tree external pillar is available, and allows the con‐ tents of a file to be loaded as Pillar data. This external pillar is capable of assigning Pillar values both to individual minions, and to nodegroups. See the documentation for details on how to set this up. Once the external pillar has been set up, the data can be pushed to a minion via a file.managed state, using the contents_pillar argument: /etc/my_super_secret_file: file.managed: - user: secret - group: secret - mode: 600 - contents_pillar: secret_files:my_super_secret_file In this example, the source file would be located in a directory called secret_files underneath the file_tree path for the minion. The syntax for specifying the pillar vari‐ able is the same one used for pillar.get, with a colon representing a nested dictionary. WARNING: Deploying binary contents using the file.managed state is only supported in Salt 2015.8.4 and newer. What is the best way to restart a Salt Minion daemon using Salt after upgrade? Updating the salt-minion package requires a restart of the salt-minion service. But restarting the service while in the middle of a state run interrupts the process of the Minion running states and sending results back to the Master. A common way to workaround that is to schedule restarting of the Minion service using masterless mode after all other states have been applied. This allows the minion to keep Minion to Master connection alive for the Minion to report the final results to the Master, while the service is restarting in the background. Upgrade without automatic restart Doing the Minion upgrade seems to be a simplest state in your SLS file at first. But the operating systems such as Debian GNU/Linux, Ubuntu and their derivatives start the service after the package installation by default. To prevent this, we need to create policy layer which will prevent the Minion service to restart right after the upgrade: {%- if grains['os_family'] == 'Debian' %} Disable starting services: file.managed: - name: /usr/sbin/policy-rc.d - user: root - group: root - mode: 0755 - contents: - '#!/bin/sh' - exit 101 # do not touch if already exists - replace: False - prereq: - pkg: Upgrade Salt Minion {%- endif %} Upgrade Salt Minion: pkg.installed: - name: salt-minion - version: 2016.11.3{% if grains['os_family'] == 'Debian' %}+ds-1{% endif %} - order: last Enable Salt Minion: service.enabled: - name: salt-minion - require: - pkg: Upgrade Salt Minion {%- if grains['os_family'] == 'Debian' %} Enable starting services: file.absent: - name: /usr/sbin/policy-rc.d - onchanges: - pkg: Upgrade Salt Minion {%- endif %} Restart using states Now we can apply the workaround to restart the Minion in reliable way. The following example works on UNIX-like operating systems: {%- if grains['os'] != 'Windows' % Restart Salt Minion: cmd.run: - name: 'salt-call --local service.restart salt-minion' - bg: True - onchanges: - pkg: Upgrade Salt Minion {%- endif %} Note that restarting the salt-minion service on Windows operating systems is not always necessary when performing an upgrade. The installer stops the salt-minion service, removes it, deletes the contents of the \salt\bin directory, installs the new code, re-creates the salt-minion service, and starts it (by default). The restart step would be necessary dur‐ ing the upgrade process, however, if the minion config was edited after the upgrade or installation. If a minion restart is necessary, the state above can be edited as follows: Restart Salt Minion: cmd.run: {%- if grains['kernel'] == 'Windows' %} - name: 'C:\salt\salt-call.bat --local service.restart salt-minion' {%- else %} - name: 'salt-call --local service.restart salt-minion' {%- endif %} - bg: True - onchanges: - pkg: Upgrade Salt Minion However, it requires more advanced tricks to upgrade from legacy version of Salt (before 2016.3.0) on UNIX-like operating systems, where executing commands in the background is not supported: Restart Salt Minion: cmd.run: {%- if grains['kernel'] == 'Windows' %} - name: 'start powershell "Restart-Service -Name salt-minion"' {%- else %} # fork and disown the process - name: |- exec 0>&- # close stdin exec 1>&- # close stdout exec 2>&- # close stderr nohup salt-call --local service.restart salt-minion & {%- endif %} Restart using remote executions Restart the Minion from the command line: salt -G kernel:Windows cmd.run_bg 'C:\salt\salt-call.bat --local service.restart salt-mini ↲ on' salt -C 'not G@kernel:Windows' cmd.run_bg 'salt-call --local service.restart salt-minion' Salting the Salt Master In order to configure a master server via states, the Salt master can also be "salted" in order to enforce state on the Salt master as well as the Salt minions. Salting the Salt master requires a Salt minion to be installed on the same machine as the Salt master. Once the Salt minion is installed, the minion configuration file must be pointed to the local Salt master: master: 127.0.0.1 Once the Salt master has been "salted" with a Salt minion, it can be targeted just like any other minion. If the minion on the salted master is running, the minion can be tar‐ geted via any usual salt command. Additionally, the salt-call command can execute opera‐ tions to enforce state on the salted master without requiring the minion to be running. More information about salting the Salt master can be found in the salt-formula for salt itself: https://github.com/saltstack-formulas/salt-formula Is Targeting using Grain Data Secure? Because grains can be set by users that have access to the minion configuration files on the local system, grains are considered less secure than other identifiers in Salt. Use caution when targeting sensitive operations or setting pillar values based on grain data. The only grain which can be safely used is grains['id'] which contains the Minion ID. When possible, you should target sensitive operations and data using the Minion ID. If the Minion ID of a system changes, the Salt Minion's public key must be re-accepted by an administrator on the Salt Master, making it less vulnerable to impersonation attacks. Why Did the Value for a Grain Change on Its Own? This is usually the result of an upstream change in an OS distribution that replaces or removes something that Salt was using to detect the grain. Fortunately, when this occurs, you can use Salt to fix it with a command similar to the following: salt -G 'grain:ChangedValue' grains.setvals "{'grain': 'OldValue'}" (Replacing grain, ChangedValue, and OldValue with the grain and values that you want to change / set.) You should also file an issue describing the change so it can be fixed in Salt. Salt Best Practices Salt's extreme flexibility leads to many questions concerning the structure of configura‐ tion files. This document exists to clarify these points through examples and code. General rules 1. Modularity and clarity should be emphasized whenever possible. 2. Create clear relations between pillars and states. 3. Use variables when it makes sense but don't overuse them. 4. Store sensitive data in pillar. 5. Don't use grains for matching in your pillar top file for any sensitive pillars. Structuring States and Formulas When structuring Salt States and Formulas it is important to begin with the directory structure. A proper directory structure clearly defines the functionality of each state to the user via visual inspection of the state's name. Reviewing the MySQL Salt Formula it is clear to see the benefits to the end-user when reviewing a sample of the available states: /srv/salt/mysql/files/ /srv/salt/mysql/client.sls /srv/salt/mysql/map.jinja /srv/salt/mysql/python.sls /srv/salt/mysql/server.sls This directory structure would lead to these states being referenced in a top file in the following way: base: 'web*': - mysql.client - mysql.python 'db*': - mysql.server This clear definition ensures that the user is properly informed of what each state will do. Another example comes from the vim-formula: /srv/salt/vim/files/ /srv/salt/vim/absent.sls /srv/salt/vim/init.sls /srv/salt/vim/map.jinja /srv/salt/vim/nerdtree.sls /srv/salt/vim/pyflakes.sls /srv/salt/vim/salt.sls Once again viewing how this would look in a top file: /srv/salt/top.sls: base: 'web*': - vim - vim.nerdtree - vim.pyflakes - vim.salt 'db*': - vim.absent The usage of a clear top-level directory as well as properly named states reduces the overall complexity and leads a user to both understand what will be included at a glance and where it is located. In addition Formulas should be used as often as possible. NOTE: Formulas repositories on the saltstack-formulas GitHub organization should not be pointed to directly from systems that automatically fetch new updates such as GitFS or similar tooling. Instead formulas repositories should be forked on GitHub or cloned locally, where unintended, automatic changes will not take place. Structuring Pillar Files Pillars are used to store secure and insecure data pertaining to minions. When designing the structure of the /srv/pillar directory, the pillars contained within should once again be focused on clear and concise data which users can easily review, modify, and under‐ stand. The /srv/pillar/ directory is primarily controlled by top.sls. It should be noted that the pillar top.sls is not used as a location to declare variables and their values. The top.sls is used as a way to include other pillar files and organize the way they are matched based on environments or grains. An example top.sls may be as simple as the following: /srv/pillar/top.sls: base: '*': - packages Any number of matchers can be added to the base environment. For example, here is an expanded version of the Pillar top file stated above: /srv/pillar/top.sls: base: '*': - packages 'web*': - apache - vim Or an even more complicated example, using a variety of matchers in numerous environments: /srv/pillar/top.sls: base: '*': - apache dev: 'os:Debian': - match: grain - vim test: '* and not G@os: Debian': - match: compound - emacs It is clear to see through these examples how the top file provides users with power but when used incorrectly it can lead to confusing configurations. This is why it is important to understand that the top file for pillar is not used for variable definitions. Each SLS file within the /srv/pillar/ directory should correspond to the states which it matches. This would mean that the apache pillar file should contain data relevant to Apache. Struc‐ turing files in this way once again ensures modularity, and creates a consistent under‐ standing throughout our Salt environment. Users can expect that pillar variables found in an Apache state will live inside of an Apache pillar: /srv/pillar/apache.sls: apache: lookup: name: httpd config: tmpl: /etc/httpd/httpd.conf While this pillar file is simple, it shows how a pillar file explicitly relates to the state it is associated with. Variable Flexibility Salt allows users to define variables in SLS files. When creating a state variables should provide users with as much flexibility as possible. This means that variables should be clearly defined and easy to manipulate, and that sane defaults should exist in the event a variable is not properly defined. Looking at several examples shows how these different items can lead to extensive flexibility. Although it is possible to set variables locally, this is generally not preferred: /srv/salt/apache/conf.sls: {% set name = 'httpd' %} {% set tmpl = 'salt://apache/files/httpd.conf' %} include: - apache apache_conf: file.managed: - name: {{ name }} - source: {{ tmpl }} - template: jinja - user: root - watch_in: - service: apache When generating this information it can be easily transitioned to the pillar where data can be overwritten, modified, and applied to multiple states, or locations within a single state: /srv/pillar/apache.sls: apache: lookup: name: httpd config: tmpl: salt://apache/files/httpd.conf /srv/salt/apache/conf.sls: {% from "apache/map.jinja" import apache with context %} include: - apache apache_conf: file.managed: - name: {{ salt['pillar.get']('apache:lookup:name') }} - source: {{ salt['pillar.get']('apache:lookup:config:tmpl') }} - template: jinja - user: root - watch_in: - service: apache This flexibility provides users with a centralized location to modify variables, which is extremely important as an environment grows. Modularity Within States Ensuring that states are modular is one of the key concepts to understand within Salt. When creating a state a user must consider how many times the state could be re-used, and what it relies on to operate. Below are several examples which will iteratively explain how a user can go from a state which is not very modular to one that is: /srv/salt/apache/init.sls: httpd: pkg.installed: [] service.running: - enable: True /etc/httpd/httpd.conf: file.managed: - source: salt://apache/files/httpd.conf - template: jinja - watch_in: - service: httpd The example above is probably the worst-case scenario when writing a state. There is a clear lack of focus by naming both the pkg/service, and managed file directly as the state ID. This would lead to changing multiple requires within this state, as well as others that may depend upon the state. Imagine if a require was used for the httpd package in another state, and then suddenly it's a custom package. Now changes need to be made in multiple locations which increases the complexity and leads to a more error prone configuration. There is also the issue of having the configuration file located in the init, as a user would be unable to simply install the service and use the default conf file. Our second revision begins to address the referencing by using - name, as opposed to direct ID references: /srv/salt/apache/init.sls: apache: pkg.installed: - name: httpd service.running: - name: httpd - enable: True apache_conf: file.managed: - name: /etc/httpd/httpd.conf - source: salt://apache/files/httpd.conf - template: jinja - watch_in: - service: apache The above init file is better than our original, yet it has several issues which lead to a lack of modularity. The first of these problems is the usage of static values for items such as the name of the service, the name of the managed file, and the source of the man‐ aged file. When these items are hard coded they become difficult to modify and the oppor‐ tunity to make mistakes arises. It also leads to multiple edits that need to occur when changing these items (imagine if there were dozens of these occurrences throughout the state!). There is also still the concern of the configuration file data living in the same state as the service and package. In the next example steps will be taken to begin addressing these issues. Starting with the addition of a map.jinja file (as noted in the Formula documentation), and modification of static values: /srv/salt/apache/map.jinja: {% set apache = salt['grains.filter_by']({ 'Debian': { 'server': 'apache2', 'service': 'apache2', 'conf': '/etc/apache2/apache.conf', }, 'RedHat': { 'server': 'httpd', 'service': 'httpd', 'conf': '/etc/httpd/httpd.conf', }, }, merge=salt['pillar.get']('apache:lookup')) %} /srv/pillar/apache.sls: apache: lookup: config: tmpl: salt://apache/files/httpd.conf /srv/salt/apache/init.sls: {% from "apache/map.jinja" import apache with context %} apache: pkg.installed: - name: {{ apache.server }} service.running: - name: {{ apache.service }} - enable: True apache_conf: file.managed: - name: {{ apache.conf }} - source: {{ salt['pillar.get']('apache:lookup:config:tmpl') }} - template: jinja - user: root - watch_in: - service: apache The changes to this state now allow us to easily identify the location of the variables, as well as ensuring they are flexible and easy to modify. While this takes another step in the right direction, it is not yet complete. Suppose the user did not want to use the provided conf file, or even their own configuration file, but the default apache conf. With the current state setup this is not possible. To attain this level of modularity this state will need to be broken into two states. /srv/salt/apache/map.jinja: {% set apache = salt['grains.filter_by']({ 'Debian': { 'server': 'apache2', 'service': 'apache2', 'conf': '/etc/apache2/apache.conf', }, 'RedHat': { 'server': 'httpd', 'service': 'httpd', 'conf': '/etc/httpd/httpd.conf', }, }, merge=salt['pillar.get']('apache:lookup')) %} /srv/pillar/apache.sls: apache: lookup: config: tmpl: salt://apache/files/httpd.conf /srv/salt/apache/init.sls: {% from "apache/map.jinja" import apache with context %} apache: pkg.installed: - name: {{ apache.server }} service.running: - name: {{ apache.service }} - enable: True /srv/salt/apache/conf.sls: {% from "apache/map.jinja" import apache with context %} include: - apache apache_conf: file.managed: - name: {{ apache.conf }} - source: {{ salt['pillar.get']('apache:lookup:config:tmpl') }} - template: jinja - user: root - watch_in: - service: apache This new structure now allows users to choose whether they only wish to install the default Apache, or if they wish, overwrite the default package, service, configuration file location, or the configuration file itself. In addition to this the data has been broken between multiple files allowing for users to identify where they need to change the associated data. Storing Secure Data Secure data refers to any information that you would not wish to share with anyone access‐ ing a server. This could include data such as passwords, keys, or other information. As all data within a state is accessible by EVERY server that is connected it is important to store secure data within pillar. This will ensure that only those servers which require this secure data have access to it. In this example a use can go from an insecure configu‐ ration to one which is only accessible by the appropriate hosts: /srv/salt/mysql/testerdb.sls: testdb: mysql_database.present: - name: testerdb /srv/salt/mysql/user.sls: include: - mysql.testerdb testdb_user: mysql_user.present: - name: frank - password: "test3rdb" - host: localhost - require: - sls: mysql.testerdb Many users would review this state and see that the password is there in plain text, which is quite problematic. It results in several issues which may not be immediately visible. The first of these issues is clear to most users -- the password being visible in this state. This means that any minion will have a copy of this, and therefore the password which is a major security concern as minions may not be locked down as tightly as the mas‐ ter server. The other issue that can be encountered is access by users on the master. If everyone has access to the states (or their repository), then they are able to review this password. Keeping your password data accessible by only a few users is critical for both security and peace of mind. There is also the issue of portability. When a state is configured this way it results in multiple changes needing to be made. This was discussed in the sections above but it is a critical idea to drive home. If states are not portable it may result in more work later! Fixing this issue is relatively simple, the content just needs to be moved to the associ‐ ated pillar: /srv/pillar/mysql.sls: mysql: lookup: name: testerdb password: test3rdb user: frank host: localhost /srv/salt/mysql/testerdb.sls: testdb: mysql_database.present: - name: {{ salt['pillar.get']('mysql:lookup:name') }} /srv/salt/mysql/user.sls: include: - mysql.testerdb testdb_user: mysql_user.present: - name: {{ salt['pillar.get']('mysql:lookup:user') }} - password: {{ salt['pillar.get']('mysql:lookup:password') }} - host: {{ salt['pillar.get']('mysql:lookup:host') }} - require: - sls: mysql.testerdb Now that the database details have been moved to the associated pillar file, only machines which are targeted via pillar will have access to these details. Access to users who should not be able to review these details can also be prevented while ensuring that they are still able to write states which take advantage of this information.

REMOTE EXECUTION

Running pre-defined or arbitrary commands on remote hosts, also known as remote execution, is the core function of Salt. The following links explore modules and returners, which are two key elements of remote execution. Salt Execution Modules Salt execution modules are called by the remote execution system to perform a wide variety of tasks. These modules provide functionality such as installing packages, restarting a service, running a remote command, transferring files, and so on. Full list of execution modules Contains: a list of core modules that ship with Salt. Writing execution modules Contains: a guide on how to write Salt modules. Remote execution tutorial Before continuing make sure you have a working Salt installation by following the instal‐ lation and the configuration instructions. Stuck? There are many ways to get help from the Salt community including our mailing list and our IRC channel #salt. Order your minions around Now that you have a master and at least one minion communicating with each other you can perform commands on the minion via the salt command. Salt calls are comprised of three main components: salt '<target>' <function> [arguments] SEE ALSO: salt manpage target The target component allows you to filter which minions should run the following function. The default filter is a glob on the minion id. For example: salt '*' test.ping salt '*.example.org' test.ping Targets can be based on minion system information using the Grains system: salt -G 'os:Ubuntu' test.ping SEE ALSO: Grains system Targets can be filtered by regular expression: salt -E 'virtmach[0-9]' test.ping Targets can be explicitly specified in a list: salt -L 'foo,bar,baz,quo' test.ping Or Multiple target types can be combined in one command: salt -C 'G@os:Ubuntu and webser* or E@database.*' test.ping function A function is some functionality provided by a module. Salt ships with a large collection of available functions. List all available functions on your minions: salt '*' sys.doc Here are some examples: Show all currently available minions: salt '*' test.ping Run an arbitrary shell command: salt '*' cmd.run 'uname -a' SEE ALSO: the full list of modules arguments Space-delimited arguments to the function: salt '*' cmd.exec_code python 'import sys; print sys.version' Optional, keyword arguments are also supported: salt '*' pip.install salt timeout=5 upgrade=True They are always in the form of kwarg=argument. Running Commands on Salt Minions Salt can be controlled by a command line client by the root user on the Salt master. The Salt command line client uses the Salt client API to communicate with the Salt master server. The Salt client is straightforward and simple to use. Using the Salt client commands can be easily sent to the minions. Each of these commands accepts an explicit --config option to point to either the master or minion configuration file. If this option is not provided and the default configura‐ tion file does not exist then Salt falls back to use the environment variables SALT_MAS‐ TER_CONFIG and SALT_MINION_CONFIG. SEE ALSO: Configuration Using the Salt Command The Salt command needs a few components to send information to the Salt minions. The tar‐ get minions need to be defined, the function to call and any arguments the function requires. Defining the Target Minions The first argument passed to salt, defines the target minions, the target minions are accessed via their hostname. The default target type is a bash glob: salt '*foo.com' sys.doc Salt can also define the target minions with regular expressions: salt -E '.*' cmd.run 'ls -l | grep foo' Or to explicitly list hosts, salt can take a list: salt -L foo.bar.baz,quo.qux cmd.run 'ps aux | grep foo' More Powerful Targets See Targeting. Calling the Function The function to call on the specified target is placed after the target specification. New in version 0.9.8. Functions may also accept arguments, space-delimited: salt '*' cmd.exec_code python 'import sys; print sys.version' Optional, keyword arguments are also supported: salt '*' pip.install salt timeout=5 upgrade=True They are always in the form of kwarg=argument. Arguments are formatted as YAML: salt '*' cmd.run 'echo "Hello: $FIRST_NAME"' saltenv='{FIRST_NAME: "Joe"}' Note: dictionaries must have curly braces around them (like the saltenv keyword argument above). This was changed in 0.15.1: in the above example, the first argument used to be parsed as the dictionary {'echo "Hello': '$FIRST_NAME"'}. This was generally not the expected behavior. If you want to test what parameters are actually passed to a module, use the test.arg_repr command: salt '*' test.arg_repr 'echo "Hello: $FIRST_NAME"' saltenv='{FIRST_NAME: "Joe"}' Finding available minion functions The Salt functions are self documenting, all of the function documentation can be retried from the minions via the sys.doc() function: salt '*' sys.doc Compound Command Execution If a series of commands needs to be sent to a single target specification then the com‐ mands can be sent in a single publish. This can make gathering groups of information faster, and lowers the stress on the network for repeated commands. Compound command execution works by sending a list of functions and arguments instead of sending a single function and argument. The functions are executed on the minion in the order they are defined on the command line, and then the data from all of the commands are returned in a dictionary. This means that the set of commands are called in a predictable way, and the returned data can be easily interpreted. Executing compound commands if done by passing a comma delimited list of functions, fol‐ lowed by a comma delimited list of arguments: salt '*' cmd.run,test.ping,test.echo 'cat /proc/cpuinfo',,foo The trick to look out for here, is that if a function is being passed no arguments, then there needs to be a placeholder for the absent arguments. This is why in the above exam‐ ple, there are two commas right next to each other. test.ping takes no arguments, so we need to add another comma, otherwise Salt would attempt to pass "foo" to test.ping. If you need to pass arguments that include commas, then make sure you add spaces around the commas that separate arguments. For example: salt '*' cmd.run,test.ping,test.echo 'echo "1,2,3"' , , foo You may change the arguments separator using the --args-separator option: salt --args-separator=:: '*' some.fun,test.echo params with , comma :: foo CLI Completion Shell completion scripts for the Salt CLI are available in the pkg Salt source directory. Writing Execution Modules Salt execution modules are the functions called by the salt command. Modules Are Easy to Write! Writing Salt execution modules is straightforward. A Salt execution module is a Python or Cython module placed in a directory called _mod‐ ules/ at the root of the Salt fileserver. When using the default fileserver backend (i.e. roots <salt.fileserver.roots), unless environments are otherwise defined in the file_roots config option, the _modules/ directory would be located in /srv/salt/_modules on most sys‐ tems. Modules placed in _modules/ will be synced to the minions when any of the following Salt functions are called: · state.apply · saltutil.sync_modules · saltutil.sync_all Note that a module's default name is its filename (i.e. foo.py becomes module foo), but that its name can be overridden by using a __virtual__ function. If a Salt module has errors and cannot be imported, the Salt minion will continue to load without issue and the module with errors will simply be omitted. If adding a Cython module the file must be named <modulename>.pyx so that the loader knows that the module needs to be imported as a Cython module. The compilation of the Cython module is automatic and happens when the minion starts, so only the *.pyx file is required. Zip Archives as Modules Python 2.3 and higher allows developers to directly import zip archives containing Python code. By setting enable_zip_modules to True in the minion config, the Salt loader will be able to import .zip files in this fashion. This allows Salt module developers to package dependencies with their modules for ease of deployment, isolation, etc. For a user, Zip Archive modules behave just like other modules. When executing a function from a module provided as the file my_module.zip, a user would call a function within that module as my_module.<function>. Creating a Zip Archive Module A Zip Archive module is structured similarly to a simple Python package. The .zip file contains a single directory with the same name as the module. The module code tradition‐ ally in <module_name>.py goes in <module_name>/__init__.py. The dependency packages are subdirectories of <module_name>/. Here is an example directory structure for the lumberjack module, which has two library dependencies (sleep and work) to be included. modules $ ls -R lumberjack __init__.py sleep work lumberjack/sleep: __init__.py lumberjack/work: __init__.py The contents of lumberjack/__init__.py show how to import and use these included libraries. # Libraries included in lumberjack.zip from lumberjack import sleep, work def is_ok(person): ''' Checks whether a person is really a lumberjack ''' return sleep.all_night(person) and work.all_day(person) Then, create the zip: modules $ zip -r lumberjack lumberjack adding: lumberjack/ (stored 0%) adding: lumberjack/__init__.py (deflated 39%) adding: lumberjack/sleep/ (stored 0%) adding: lumberjack/sleep/__init__.py (deflated 7%) adding: lumberjack/work/ (stored 0%) adding: lumberjack/work/__init__.py (deflated 7%) modules $ unzip -l lumberjack.zip Archive: lumberjack.zip Length Date Time Name -------- ---- ---- ---- 0 08-21-15 20:08 lumberjack/ 348 08-21-15 20:08 lumberjack/__init__.py 0 08-21-15 19:53 lumberjack/sleep/ 83 08-21-15 19:53 lumberjack/sleep/__init__.py 0 08-21-15 19:53 lumberjack/work/ 81 08-21-15 19:21 lumberjack/work/__init__.py -------- ------- 512 6 files Once placed in file_roots, Salt users can distribute and use lumberjack.zip like any other module. $ sudo salt minion1 saltutil.sync_modules minion1: - modules.lumberjack $ sudo salt minion1 lumberjack.is_ok 'Michael Palin' minion1: True Cross Calling Execution Modules All of the Salt execution modules are available to each other and modules can call func‐ tions available in other execution modules. The variable __salt__ is packed into the modules after they are loaded into the Salt min‐ ion. The __salt__ variable is a Python dictionary containing all of the Salt functions. Dictio‐ nary keys are strings representing the names of the modules and the values are the func‐ tions themselves. Salt modules can be cross-called by accessing the value in the __salt__ dict: def foo(bar): return __salt__['cmd.run'](bar) This code will call the run function in the cmd module and pass the argument bar to it. Calling Execution Modules on the Salt Master New in version 2016.11.0. Execution modules can now also be called via the salt-run command using the salt runner. Preloaded Execution Module Data When interacting with execution modules often it is nice to be able to read information dynamically about the minion or to load in configuration parameters for a module. Salt allows for different types of data to be loaded into the modules by the minion. Grains Data The values detected by the Salt Grains on the minion are available in a dict named __grains__ and can be accessed from within callable objects in the Python modules. To see the contents of the grains dictionary for a given system in your deployment run the grains.items() function: salt 'hostname' grains.items --output=pprint Any value in a grains dictionary can be accessed as any other Python dictionary. For exam‐ ple, the grain representing the minion ID is stored in the id key and from an execution module, the value would be stored in __grains__['id']. Module Configuration Since parameters for configuring a module may be desired, Salt allows for configuration information from the minion configuration file to be passed to execution modules. Since the minion configuration file is a YAML document, arbitrary configuration data can be passed in the minion config that is read by the modules. It is therefore strongly rec‐ ommended that the values passed in the configuration file match the module name. A value intended for the test execution module should be named test.<value>. The test execution module contains usage of the module configuration and the default con‐ figuration file for the minion contains the information and format used to pass data to the modules. salt.modules.test, conf/minion. Strings and Unicode An execution module author should always assume that strings fed to the module have already decoded from strings into Unicode. In Python 2, these will be of type 'Unicode' and in Python 3 they will be of type str. Calling from a state to other Salt sub-systems, should pass Unicode (or bytes if passing binary data). In the rare event that a state needs to write directly to disk, Unicode should be encoded to a string immediately before writing to disk. An author may use __salt_system_encoding__ to learn what the encoding type of the system is. For example, 'my_string'.encode(__salt_system_encoding__'). Outputter Configuration Since execution module functions can return different data, and the way the data is printed can greatly change the presentation, Salt allows for a specific outputter to be set on a function-by-function basis. This is done be declaring an __outputter__ dictionary in the global scope of the module. The __outputter__ dictionary contains a mapping of function names to Salt outputters. __outputter__ = { 'run': 'txt' } This will ensure that the txt outputter is used to display output from the run function. Virtual Modules Virtual modules let you override the name of a module in order to use the same name to refer to one of several similar modules. The specific module that is loaded for a virtual name is selected based on the current platform or environment. For example, packages are managed across platforms using the pkg module. pkg is a virtual module name that is an alias for the specific package manager module that is loaded on a specific system (for example, yumpkg on RHEL/CentOS systems , and aptpkg on Ubuntu). Virtual module names are set using the __virtual__ function and the virtual name. __virtual__ Function The __virtual__ function returns either a string, True, False, or False with an error string. If a string is returned then the module is loaded using the name of the string as the virtual name. If True is returned the module is loaded using the current module name. If False is returned the module is not loaded. False lets the module perform system checks and prevent loading if dependencies are not met. Since __virtual__ is called before the module is loaded, __salt__ will be unavailable as it will not have been packed into the module at this point in time. NOTE: Modules which return a string from __virtual__ that is already used by a module that ships with Salt will _override_ the stock module. Returning Error Information from __virtual__ Optionally, Salt plugin modules, such as execution, state, returner, beacon, etc. modules may additionally return a string containing the reason that a module could not be loaded. For example, an execution module called cheese and a corresponding state module also called cheese, both depending on a utility called enzymes should have __virtual__ func‐ tions that handle the case when the dependency is unavailable. ''' Cheese execution (or returner/beacon/etc.) module ''' try: import enzymes HAS_ENZYMES = True except ImportError: HAS_ENZYMES = False def __virtual__(): ''' only load cheese if enzymes are available ''' if HAS_ENZYMES: return 'cheese' else: return False, 'The cheese execution module cannot be loaded: enzymes unavailable.' ''' Cheese state module ''' def __virtual__(): ''' only load cheese if enzymes are available ''' # predicate loading of the cheese state on the corresponding execution module if 'cheese.slice' in __salt__: return 'cheese' else: return False, 'The cheese state module cannot be loaded: enzymes unavailable.' Examples The package manager modules are among the best examples of using the __virtual__ function. A table of all the virtual pkg modules can be found here. Overriding Virtual Module Providers Salt often uses OS grains (os, osrelease, os_family, etc.) to determine which module should be loaded as the virtual module for pkg, service, etc. Sometimes this OS detection is incomplete, with new distros popping up, existing distros changing init systems, etc. The virtual modules likely to be affected by this are in the list below (click each item for more information): · pkg · service · user · shadow · group If Salt is using the wrong module for one of these, first of all, please report it on the issue tracker, so that this issue can be resolved for a future release. To make it easier to troubleshoot, please also provide the grains.items output, taking care to redact any sensitive information. Then, while waiting for the SaltStack development team to fix the issue, Salt can be made to use the correct module using the providers option in the minion config file: providers: service: systemd pkg: aptpkg The above example will force the minion to use the systemd module to provide service man‐ agement, and the aptpkg module to provide package management. Logging Restrictions As a rule, logging should not be done anywhere in a Salt module before it is loaded. This rule apples to all code that would run before the __virtual__() function, as well as the code within the __virtual__() function itself. If logging statements are made before the virtual function determines if the module should be loaded, then those logging statements will be called repeatedly. This clutters up log files unnecessarily. Exceptions may be considered for logging statements made at the trace level. However, it is better to provide the necessary information by another means. One method is to return error information in the __virtual__() function. __virtualname__ __virtualname__ is a variable that is used by the documentation build system to know the virtual name of a module without calling the __virtual__ function. Modules that return a string from the __virtual__ function must also set the __virtualname__ variable. To avoid setting the virtual name string twice, you can implement __virtual__ to return the value set for __virtualname__ using a pattern similar to the following: # Define the module's virtual name __virtualname__ = 'pkg' def __virtual__(): ''' Confine this module to Mac OS with Homebrew. ''' if salt.utils.which('brew') and __grains__['os'] == 'MacOS': return __virtualname__ return False The __virtual__() function can return a True or False boolean, a tuple, or a string. If it returns a True value, this __virtualname__ module-level attribute can be set as seen in the above example. This is the string that the module should be referred to as. When __virtual__() returns a tuple, the first item should be a boolean and the second should be a string. This is typically done when the module should not load. The first value of the tuple is False and the second is the error message to display for why the module did not load. For example: def __virtual__(): ''' Only load if git exists on the system ''' if salt.utils.which('git') is None: return (False, 'The git execution module cannot be loaded: git unavailable.') else: return True Documentation Salt execution modules are documented. The sys.doc() function will return the documenta‐ tion for all available modules: salt '*' sys.doc The sys.doc function simply prints out the docstrings found in the modules; when writing Salt execution modules, please follow the formatting conventions for docstrings as they appear in the other modules. Adding Documentation to Salt Modules It is strongly suggested that all Salt modules have documentation added. To add documentation add a Python docstring to the function. def spam(eggs): ''' A function to make some spam with eggs! CLI Example:: salt '*' test.spam eggs ''' return eggs Now when the sys.doc call is executed the docstring will be cleanly returned to the call‐ ing terminal. Documentation added to execution modules in docstrings will automatically be added to the online web-based documentation. Add Execution Module Metadata When writing a Python docstring for an execution module, add information about the module using the following field lists: :maintainer: Thomas Hatch <@saltstack.com, Seth House <@saltstack.com> :maturity: new :depends: python-mysqldb :platform: all The maintainer field is a comma-delimited list of developers who help maintain this mod‐ ule. The maturity field indicates the level of quality and testing for this module. Standard labels will be determined. The depends field is a comma-delimited list of modules that this module depends on. The platform field is a comma-delimited list of platforms that this module is known to run on. Log Output You can call the logger from custom modules to write messages to the minion logs. The fol‐ lowing code snippet demonstrates writing log messages: import logging log = logging.getLogger(__name__) log.info('Here is Some Information') log.warning('You Should Not Do That') log.error('It Is Busted') Aliasing Functions Sometimes one wishes to use a function name that would shadow a python built-in. A common example would be set(). To support this, append an underscore to the function definition, def set_():, and use the __func_alias__ feature to provide an alias to the function. __func_alias__ is a dictionary where each key is the name of a function in the module, and each value is a string representing the alias for that function. When calling an aliased function from a different execution module, state module, or from the cli, the alias name should be used. __func_alias__ = { 'set_': 'set', 'list_': 'list', } Private Functions In Salt, Python callable objects contained within an execution module are made available to the Salt minion for use. The only exception to this rule is a callable object with a name starting with an underscore _. Objects Loaded Into the Salt Minion def foo(bar): return bar Objects NOT Loaded into the Salt Minion def _foobar(baz): # Preceded with an _ return baz cheese = {} # Not a callable Python object Useful Decorators for Modules Depends Decorator When writing execution modules there are many times where some of the module will work on all hosts but some functions have an external dependency, such as a service that needs to be installed or a binary that needs to be present on the system. Instead of trying to wrap much of the code in large try/except blocks, a decorator can be used. If the dependencies passed to the decorator don't exist, then the salt minion will remove those functions from the module on that host. If a fallback_function is defined, it will replace the function instead of removing it import logging from salt.utils.decorators import depends log = logging.getLogger(__name__) try: import dependency_that_sometimes_exists except ImportError as e: log.trace('Failed to import dependency_that_sometimes_exists: {0}'.format(e)) @depends('dependency_that_sometimes_exists') def foo(): ''' Function with a dependency on the "dependency_that_sometimes_exists" module, if the "dependency_that_sometimes_exists" is missing this function will not exist ''' return True def _fallback(): ''' Fallback function for the depends decorator to replace a function with ''' return '"dependency_that_sometimes_exists" needs to be installed for this function to ↲ exist' @depends('dependency_that_sometimes_exists', fallback_function=_fallback) def foo(): ''' Function with a dependency on the "dependency_that_sometimes_exists" module. If the "dependency_that_sometimes_exists" is missing this function will be replaced with "_fallback" ''' return True In addition to global dependencies the depends decorator also supports raw booleans. from salt.utils.decorators import depends HAS_DEP = False try: import dependency_that_sometimes_exists HAS_DEP = True except ImportError: pass @depends(HAS_DEP) def foo(): return True

CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT

Salt contains a robust and flexible configuration management framework, which is built on the remote execution core. This framework executes on the minions, allowing effortless, simultaneous configuration of tens of thousands of hosts, by rendering language specific state files. The following links provide resources to learn more about state and render‐ ers. States Express the state of a host using small, easy to read, easy to understand configu‐ ration files. No programming required. Full list of states Contains: list of install packages, create users, transfer files, start ser‐ vices, and so on. Pillar System Contains: description of Salt's Pillar system. Highstate data structure Contains: a dry vocabulary and technical representation of the configuration format that states represent. Writing states Contains: a guide on how to write Salt state modules, easily extending Salt to directly manage more software. NOTE: Salt execution modules are different from state modules and cannot be called as a state in an SLS file. In other words, this will not work: moe: user.rename: - new_name: larry - onlyif: id moe You must use the module states to call execution modules directly. Here's an example: rename_moe: module.run: - m_name: moe - new_name: larry - onlyif: id moe Renderers Renderers use state configuration files written in a variety of languages, templat‐ ing engines, or files. Salt's configuration management system is, under the hood, language agnostic. Full list of renderers Contains: a list of renderers. YAML is one choice, but many systems are available, from alternative templating engines to the PyDSL language for rendering sls formulas. Renderers Contains: more information about renderers. Salt states are only concerned with the ultimate highstate data structure, not how the data structure was created. How Do I Use Salt States? Simplicity, Simplicity, Simplicity Many of the most powerful and useful engineering solutions are founded on simple princi‐ ples. Salt States strive to do just that: K.I.S.S. (Keep It Stupidly Simple) The core of the Salt State system is the SLS, or SaLt State file. The SLS is a representa‐ tion of the state in which a system should be in, and is set up to contain this data in a simple format. This is often called configuration management. NOTE: This is just the beginning of using states, make sure to read up on pillar Pillar next. It is All Just Data Before delving into the particulars, it will help to understand that the SLS file is just a data structure under the hood. While understanding that the SLS is just a data structure isn't critical for understanding and making use of Salt States, it should help bolster knowledge of where the real power is. SLS files are therefore, in reality, just dictionaries, lists, strings, and numbers. By using this approach Salt can be much more flexible. As one writes more state files, it becomes clearer exactly what is being written. The result is a system that is easy to understand, yet grows with the needs of the admin or developer. The Top File The example SLS files in the below sections can be assigned to hosts using a file called top.sls. This file is described in-depth here. Default Data - YAML By default Salt represents the SLS data in what is one of the simplest serialization for‐ mats available - YAML. A typical SLS file will often look like this in YAML: NOTE: These demos use some generic service and package names, different distributions often use different names for packages and services. For instance apache should be replaced with httpd on a Red Hat system. Salt uses the name of the init script, systemd name, upstart name etc. based on what the underlying service management for the platform. To get a list of the available service names on a platform execute the service.get_all salt function. Information on how to make states work with multiple distributions is later in the tutorial. apache: pkg.installed: [] service.running: - require: - pkg: apache This SLS data will ensure that the package named apache is installed, and that the apache service is running. The components can be explained in a simple way. The first line is the ID for a set of data, and it is called the ID Declaration. This ID sets the name of the thing that needs to be manipulated. The second and third lines contain the state module function to be run, in the format <state_module>.<function>. The pkg.installed state module function ensures that a software package is installed via the system's native package manager. The service.running state module function ensures that a given system daemon is running. Finally, on line five, is the word require. This is called a Requisite Statement, and it makes sure that the Apache service is only started after a successful installation of the apache package. Adding Configs and Users When setting up a service like an Apache web server, many more components may need to be added. The Apache configuration file will most likely be managed, and a user and group may need to be set up. apache: pkg.installed: [] service.running: - watch: - pkg: apache - file: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf - user: apache user.present: - uid: 87 - gid: 87 - home: /var/www/html - shell: /bin/nologin - require: - group: apache group.present: - gid: 87 - require: - pkg: apache /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: file.managed: - source: salt://apache/httpd.conf - user: root - group: root - mode: 644 This SLS data greatly extends the first example, and includes a config file, a user, a group and new requisite statement: watch. Adding more states is easy, since the new user and group states are under the Apache ID, the user and group will be the Apache user and group. The require statements will make sure that the user will only be made after the group, and that the group will be made only after the Apache package is installed. Next, the require statement under service was changed to watch, and is now watching 3 states instead of just one. The watch statement does the same thing as require, making sure that the other states run before running the state with a watch, but it adds an extra component. The watch statement will run the state's watcher function for any changes to the watched states. So if the package was updated, the config file changed, or the user uid modified, then the service state's watcher will be run. The service state's watcher just restarts the service, so in this case, a change in the config file will also trigger a restart of the respective service. Moving Beyond a Single SLS When setting up Salt States in a scalable manner, more than one SLS will need to be used. The above examples were in a single SLS file, but two or more SLS files can be combined to build out a State Tree. The above example also references a file with a strange source - salt://apache/httpd.conf. That file will need to be available as well. The SLS files are laid out in a directory structure on the Salt master; an SLS is just a file and files to download are just files. The Apache example would be laid out in the root of the Salt file server like this: apache/init.sls apache/httpd.conf So the httpd.conf is just a file in the apache directory, and is referenced directly. Do not use dots in SLS file names or their directories The initial implementation of top.sls and include-declaration followed the python import model where a slash is represented as a period. This means that a SLS file with a period in the name ( besides the suffix period) can not be ref‐ erenced. For example, webserver_1.0.sls is not referenceable because web‐ server_1.0 would refer to the directory/file webserver_1/0.sls The same applies for any subdirectories, this is especially 'tricky' when git repos are created. Another command that typically can't render it's output is `state.show_sls` of a file in a path that contains a dot. But when using more than one single SLS file, more components can be added to the toolkit. Consider this SSH example: ssh/init.sls: openssh-client: pkg.installed /etc/ssh/ssh_config: file.managed: - user: root - group: root - mode: 644 - source: salt://ssh/ssh_config - require: - pkg: openssh-client ssh/server.sls: include: - ssh openssh-server: pkg.installed sshd: service.running: - require: - pkg: openssh-client - pkg: openssh-server - file: /etc/ssh/banner - file: /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config: file.managed: - user: root - group: root - mode: 644 - source: salt://ssh/sshd_config - require: - pkg: openssh-server /etc/ssh/banner: file: - managed - user: root - group: root - mode: 644 - source: salt://ssh/banner - require: - pkg: openssh-server NOTE: Notice that we use two similar ways of denoting that a file is managed by Salt. In the /etc/ssh/sshd_config state section above, we use the file.managed state declaration whereas with the /etc/ssh/banner state section, we use the file state declaration and add a managed attribute to that state declaration. Both ways produce an identical result; the first way -- using file.managed -- is merely a shortcut. Now our State Tree looks like this: apache/init.sls apache/httpd.conf ssh/init.sls ssh/server.sls ssh/banner ssh/ssh_config ssh/sshd_config This example now introduces the include statement. The include statement includes another SLS file so that components found in it can be required, watched or as will soon be demon‐ strated - extended. The include statement allows for states to be cross linked. When an SLS has an include statement it is literally extended to include the contents of the included SLS files. Note that some of the SLS files are called init.sls, while others are not. More info on what this means can be found in the States Tutorial. Extending Included SLS Data Sometimes SLS data needs to be extended. Perhaps the apache service needs to watch addi‐ tional resources, or under certain circumstances a different file needs to be placed. In these examples, the first will add a custom banner to ssh and the second will add more watchers to apache to include mod_python. ssh/custom-server.sls: include: - ssh.server extend: /etc/ssh/banner: file: - source: salt://ssh/custom-banner python/mod_python.sls: include: - apache extend: apache: service: - watch: - pkg: mod_python mod_python: pkg.installed The custom-server.sls file uses the extend statement to overwrite where the banner is being downloaded from, and therefore changing what file is being used to configure the banner. In the new mod_python SLS the mod_python package is added, but more importantly the apache service was extended to also watch the mod_python package. Using extend with require or watch The extend statement works differently for require or watch. It appends to, rather than replacing the requisite component. Understanding the Render System Since SLS data is simply that (data), it does not need to be represented with YAML. Salt defaults to YAML because it is very straightforward and easy to learn and use. But the SLS files can be rendered from almost any imaginable medium, so long as a renderer module is provided. The default rendering system is the yaml_jinja renderer. The yaml_jinja renderer will first pass the template through the Jinja2 templating system, and then through the YAML parser. The benefit here is that full programming constructs are available when creating SLS files. Other renderers available are yaml_mako and yaml_wempy which each use the Mako or Wempy templating system respectively rather than the jinja templating system, and more notably, the pure Python or py, pydsl & pyobjects renderers. The py renderer allows for SLS files to be written in pure Python, allowing for the utmost level of flexibility and power when preparing SLS data; while the pydsl renderer provides a flexible, domain-specific language for authoring SLS data in Python; and the pyobjects renderer gives you a "Pythonic" inter‐ face to building state data. NOTE: The templating engines described above aren't just available in SLS files. They can also be used in file.managed states, making file management much more dynamic and flex‐ ible. Some examples for using templates in managed files can be found in the documenta‐ tion for the file state, as well as the MooseFS example below. Getting to Know the Default - yaml_jinja The default renderer - yaml_jinja, allows for use of the jinja templating system. A guide to the Jinja templating system can be found here: http://jinja.pocoo.org/docs When working with renderers a few very useful bits of data are passed in. In the case of templating engine based renderers, three critical components are available, salt, grains, and pillar. The salt object allows for any Salt function to be called from within the tem‐ plate, and grains allows for the Grains to be accessed from within the template. A few examples: apache/init.sls: apache: pkg.installed: {% if grains['os'] == 'RedHat'%} - name: httpd {% endif %} service.running: {% if grains['os'] == 'RedHat'%} - name: httpd {% endif %} - watch: - pkg: apache - file: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf - user: apache user.present: - uid: 87 - gid: 87 - home: /var/www/html - shell: /bin/nologin - require: - group: apache group.present: - gid: 87 - require: - pkg: apache /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: file.managed: - source: salt://apache/httpd.conf - user: root - group: root - mode: 644 This example is simple. If the os grain states that the operating system is Red Hat, then the name of the Apache package and service needs to be httpd. A more aggressive way to use Jinja can be found here, in a module to set up a MooseFS dis‐ tributed filesystem chunkserver: moosefs/chunk.sls: include: - moosefs {% for mnt in salt['cmd.run']('ls /dev/data/moose*').split() %} /mnt/moose{{ mnt[-1] }}: mount.mounted: - device: {{ mnt }} - fstype: xfs - mkmnt: True file.directory: - user: mfs - group: mfs - require: - user: mfs - group: mfs {% endfor %} /etc/mfshdd.cfg: file.managed: - source: salt://moosefs/mfshdd.cfg - user: root - group: root - mode: 644 - template: jinja - require: - pkg: mfs-chunkserver /etc/mfschunkserver.cfg: file.managed: - source: salt://moosefs/mfschunkserver.cfg - user: root - group: root - mode: 644 - template: jinja - require: - pkg: mfs-chunkserver mfs-chunkserver: pkg.installed: [] mfschunkserver: service.running: - require: {% for mnt in salt['cmd.run']('ls /dev/data/moose*') %} - mount: /mnt/moose{{ mnt[-1] }} - file: /mnt/moose{{ mnt[-1] }} {% endfor %} - file: /etc/mfschunkserver.cfg - file: /etc/mfshdd.cfg - file: /var/lib/mfs This example shows much more of the available power of Jinja. Multiple for loops are used to dynamically detect available hard drives and set them up to be mounted, and the salt object is used multiple times to call shell commands to gather data. Introducing the Python, PyDSL, and the Pyobjects Renderers Sometimes the chosen default renderer might not have enough logical power to accomplish the needed task. When this happens, the Python renderer can be used. Normally a YAML ren‐ derer should be used for the majority of SLS files, but an SLS file set to use another renderer can be easily added to the tree. This example shows a very basic Python SLS file: python/django.sls: #!py def run(): ''' Install the django package ''' return {'include': ['python'], 'django': {'pkg': ['installed']}} This is a very simple example; the first line has an SLS shebang that tells Salt to not use the default renderer, but to use the py renderer. Then the run function is defined, the return value from the run function must be a Salt friendly data structure, or better known as a Salt HighState data structure. Alternatively, using the pydsl renderer, the above example can be written more succinctly as: #!pydsl include('python', delayed=True) state('django').pkg.installed() The pyobjects renderer provides an "Pythonic" object based approach for building the state data. The above example could be written as: #!pyobjects include('python') Pkg.installed("django") These Python examples would look like this if they were written in YAML: include: - python django: pkg.installed This example clearly illustrates that; one, using the YAML renderer by default is a wise decision and two, unbridled power can be obtained where needed by using a pure Python SLS. Running and Debugging Salt States Once the rules in an SLS are ready, they should be tested to ensure they work properly. To invoke these rules, simply execute salt '*' state.apply on the command line. If you get back only hostnames with a : after, but no return, chances are there is a problem with one or more of the sls files. On the minion, use the salt-call command to examine the output for errors: salt-call state.apply -l debug This should help troubleshoot the issue. The minion can also be started in the foreground in debug mode by running salt-minion -l debug. Next Reading With an understanding of states, the next recommendation is to become familiar with Salt's pillar interface: Pillar Walkthrough States tutorial, part 1 - Basic Usage The purpose of this tutorial is to demonstrate how quickly you can configure a system to be managed by Salt States. For detailed information about the state system please refer to the full states reference. This tutorial will walk you through using Salt to configure a minion to run the Apache HTTP server and to ensure the server is running. Before continuing make sure you have a working Salt installation by following the instal‐ lation and the configuration instructions. Stuck? There are many ways to get help from the Salt community including our mailing list and our IRC channel #salt. Setting up the Salt State Tree States are stored in text files on the master and transferred to the minions on demand via the master's File Server. The collection of state files make up the State Tree. To start using a central state system in Salt, the Salt File Server must first be set up. Edit the master config file (file_roots) and uncomment the following lines: file_roots: base: - /srv/salt NOTE: If you are deploying on FreeBSD via ports, the file_roots path defaults to /usr/local/etc/salt/states. Restart the Salt master in order to pick up this change: pkill salt-master salt-master -d Preparing the Top File On the master, in the directory uncommented in the previous step, (/srv/salt by default), create a new file called top.sls and add the following: base: '*': - webserver The top file is separated into environments (discussed later). The default environment is base. Under the base environment a collection of minion matches is defined; for now simply specify all hosts (*). Targeting minions The expressions can use any of the targeting mechanisms used by Salt — minions can be matched by glob, PCRE regular expression, or by grains. For example: base: 'os:Fedora': - match: grain - webserver Create an sls file In the same directory as the top file, create a file named webserver.sls, containing the following: apache: # ID declaration pkg: # state declaration - installed # function declaration The first line, called the id-declaration, is an arbitrary identifier. In this case it defines the name of the package to be installed. NOTE: The package name for the Apache httpd web server may differ depending on OS or distro — for example, on Fedora it is httpd but on Debian/Ubuntu it is apache2. The second line, called the state-declaration, defines which of the Salt States we are using. In this example, we are using the pkg state to ensure that a given package is installed. The third line, called the function-declaration, defines which function in the pkg state module to call. Renderers States sls files can be written in many formats. Salt requires only a simple data structure and is not concerned with how that data structure is built. Tem‐ plating languages and DSLs are a dime-a-dozen and everyone has a favorite. Building the expected data structure is the job of Salt renderers and they are dead-simple to write. In this tutorial we will be using YAML in Jinja2 templates, which is the default format. The default can be changed by editing renderer in the master configura‐ tion file. Install the package Next, let's run the state we created. Open a terminal on the master and run: salt '*' state.apply Our master is instructing all targeted minions to run state.apply. When this function is executed without any SLS targets, a minion will download the top file and attempt to match the expressions within it. When the minion does match an expression the modules listed for it will be downloaded, compiled, and executed. NOTE: This action is referred to as a "highstate", and can be run using the state.highstate function. However, to make the usage easier to understand ("highstate" is not neces‐ sarily an intuitive name), a state.apply function was added in version 2015.5.0, which when invoked without any SLS names will trigger a highstate. state.highstate still exists and can be used, but the documentation (as can be seen above) has been updated to reference state.apply, so keep the following in mind as you read the documentation: · state.apply invoked without any SLS names will run state.highstate · state.apply invoked with SLS names will run state.sls Once completed, the minion will report back with a summary of all actions taken and all changes made. WARNING: If you have created custom grain modules, they will not be available in the top file until after the first highstate. To make custom grains available on a minion's first highstate, it is recommended to use this example to ensure that the custom grains are synced when the minion starts. SLS File Namespace Note that in the example above, the SLS file webserver.sls was referred to sim‐ ply as webserver. The namespace for SLS files when referenced in top.sls or an include-declaration follows a few simple rules: 1. The .sls is discarded (i.e. webserver.sls becomes webserver). 2. Subdirectories can be used for better organization. a. Each subdirectory is represented with a dot (following the Python import model) in Salt states and on the command line . webserver/dev.sls on the filesystem is referred to as webserver.dev in Salt b. Because slashes are represented as dots, SLS files can not contain dots in the name (other than the dot for the SLS suffix). The SLS file web‐ server_1.0.sls can not be matched, and webserver_1.0 would match the directory/file webserver_1/0.sls 3. A file called init.sls in a subdirectory is referred to by the path of the direc‐ tory. So, webserver/init.sls is referred to as webserver. 4. If both webserver.sls and webserver/init.sls happen to exist, webserver/init.sls will be ignored and webserver.sls will be the file referred to as webserver. Troubleshooting Salt If the expected output isn't seen, the following tips can help to narrow down the problem. Turn up logging Salt can be quite chatty when you change the logging setting to debug: salt-minion -l debug Run the minion in the foreground By not starting the minion in daemon mode (-d) one can view any output from the minion as it works: salt-minion Increase the default timeout value when running salt. For example, to change the default timeout to 60 seconds: salt -t 60 For best results, combine all three: salt-minion -l debug # On the minion salt '*' state.apply -t 60 # On the master Next steps This tutorial focused on getting a simple Salt States configuration working. Part 2 will build on this example to cover more advanced sls syntax and will explore more of the states that ship with Salt. States tutorial, part 2 - More Complex States, Requisites NOTE: This tutorial builds on topics covered in part 1. It is recommended that you begin there. In the last part of the Salt States tutorial we covered the basics of installing a pack‐ age. We will now modify our webserver.sls file to have requirements, and use even more Salt States. Call multiple States You can specify multiple state-declaration under an id-declaration. For example, a quick modification to our webserver.sls to also start Apache if it is not running: apache: pkg.installed: [] service.running: - require: - pkg: apache Try stopping Apache before running state.apply once again and observe the output. NOTE: For those running RedhatOS derivatives (Centos, AWS), you will want to specify the ser‐ vice name to be httpd. More on state service here, service state. With the example above, just add "- name: httpd" above the require line and with the same spacing. Require other states We now have a working installation of Apache so let's add an HTML file to customize our website. It isn't exactly useful to have a website without a webserver so we don't want Salt to install our HTML file until Apache is installed and running. Include the following at the bottom of your webserver/init.sls file: apache: pkg.installed: [] service.running: